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Full text of "Engineering journal. Revue de l'ingénierie"

}R0NTO' 
IBRARV 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/engineeringjourn02engi 



t.' 



Journal of The Engineering Institute of Canada 



Index to Volume II 

January, 1 to December 31, 1919. 



Page 

Act Respecting the Engineering Profession, Proposed 411 

Alberta, Duty of Water Investigations in— F. H. Peters, 

M.E.I.C 756 

Annual Meeting, Twenty-third 159, 216 

Assets and Liabilities as at Dec. 31st, 1918 70 

Bear River Bridge, Construction of— A. T. Macdonald. 

A.M.E.I.C 658 

Board of Examiners and Education, Report of 66 

Bloor Street Viaduct, Toronto, Ont.— Thomas Taylor, M.E.I.C. 485 

Boiler Practice, Modern— F. A. Combe, A.M.E.I.C 109 

Bomb-proofing the Wimereux Viaduct — Lieut. -Col. B. Ripley, 

M.E.I.C 583 

Boundary, Report of the International Alaska-Yukon Boundary 

Commission— J. J. McArthur, M.E.I.C 770 

Branch By-laws, Suggested 512 

Briquetting, Coal Briquetting and Conservation — P. A. N. 

Seurot, M.E.I.C 758 

Can Earth Roads be Made Satisfactory? — H. S. Carpenter, 

A.M.E.I.C 102 

Canada's Maps Catalogued 16 

Canada's Need 15 

Canadian Engineers in France, Problems of the — R. F. 

Armstrong 673 

Can the Standard Measure of Value be Improved? — J. G. 

Sullivan, M.E.I.C 720 

Civil Service Bill, The 560 

Civil Service Classification — Questions 610, 684 

Civil Service, Salaries and the 509 

Certificate, The New 606 

Classification and Compensation of Engineers 680 

Cobalt Silver Ores, Mining and Metallurgy of — Lieut. -Col. R. W. 

Leonard, M.E.I.C 86 

Coal Briquetting and Conservation — P. A. N. Seurot, M.E I.C. 758 
Compensation of Engineers — A Schedule of Engineering Salaries 

(Amer. Assoc. Engineers) 512 

Construction of the Bear River Bridge — A. T. Macdonald, 

A.M.E.I.C 658 

Correspondence 22, 123, 223, 338, 467, 521, 567, 687, 784 

Council, Report of 

Meetings 19, 59, 229, 341, 416, 470, 522, 570, 618, 688, 741, 784 

Council, Report of, for 1918 59 



Datum, Mean Sea Level as a General Datum for Canada — 
W. Bell Dawson, M.E.I.C 

Design and Construction of Reinforced Concrete Viaducts, 
North Toronto Subdivision, Canadian Pacific Railway — 
B. O. Erickson, A.M.E.I.C 




82 



93 



Page 

Design and Construction of Reinforced Concrete, ^Covers for 

Reservoirs— R. de L. French, M.E.I.C 590 

Development and Future of Aviation in Canada — ^M. R. Riddell. 200 

Domestic Fuel from Low Grade Lignite — ^the Present Status — 

R. de L. French, M.E.I.C .1 776 

Drifting Sand Water Purification Plant, Toronto — Wm. Gore, 

M.E.I.C. and Wm. Stovine, M.E.LC 701 

Duty of Water Investigation in Alberta— F. H. Peters, M.E.I.C. 756 

Earth Roads, Can they be Made Satisfactory ? — H. S. Carpenter, 

A.M.E.I.C 102 

Economy of Treating Railroad Ties— S. B. Wass, A.M.E.I.C. . . 753 

Economics of Electric Operation of Railways — W. G. Gordon 398 
Effects of the Halifax Explosion on the Telephone Plant and 

Service— F. A. Bowman, M.E.I.C 555 

Economy in Ocean Transportation — A. W. Robinson, M.E.I.C. 104 

Electric Operation of Railways, Economics of — W. G. Gordon. . '" 

Electrification, Railroad — F. H. Shepard 

Electro-Technical Committee, Report of International o 

Employment 

Bureau, 58, 135, 238, 353, 429, 478, 533, 576, 624, 696, 746, 800 

Engineering Gathering at Peterborough 779 

Engineering Problems Involved in the Use of Telephone Cables — 

F. A. Bowman, M.E.I.C 555 

Engineering Profession, An Act Concerning the, (Proposed) .... 411 

Engineering Standards Association Activity 683 

Engineering and Patents — Hanbury A. Budden, A.M.E.I.C. . . , 451 

Federal Status of Engineers 560 

Forestry in New Brunswick — G. H. Prince 637 

Finance Committee, Report of, for 1918 69 

Girderless Floors, Notes on the Test of — Peter Gillespie, 

M.E.I.C, and T. D. Myrlea, A.M.E.I.C 301 

Gas Fuel, Peat, Oil and— B. J. Forrest, M.E.I.C 439 

Good Roads, National Highways and — J. A. Duchastel de 

Montrouge. M.E.I.C 91 

Harbour Improvements for Greater Montreal, Suggested — 

E. S. M. Lovelace, M.E.I.C 318 

Heating Problems Produced by Some of the Modern Methods of 

Building Construction— W. B. MacKay, A.M.E.I.C 714 

High Potential, High Freqjency Apparatus and Experiments — 

F. P. Vaughan, A.M.E.I.C 663 

Hydro-Electric Plants, Design of, for Combatting Ice Troubles — 

R. M. Wilson, M.E.I.C •. . . . 383 

Hydro-Electric Development, Proposed Tidal of the Petitcodiac 

and Memramcook Rivers — W. Rupert Turnbull. F.R. Ae. S. 647 

Illumination, Industrial— Geo. K. McDougall, A.M.E.I.C 210' 

Industrial Possibilities of Waterproofed Paper Products — Judson 

A. DeCew, A M.E.I C 228 



y 



Page 
International Alaska- Yukon Boundary Commission, Report of— 

J. J McArthur, M.E.I.C 770 

International Electro-Chemical Committee, Report of, for 1918 . . 67 

International Joint Commission, What is the? 499 

Institute Fraternity 17 

Legislation for Professional Engineers 458 

Legislation Situation, A Summary 120 

Library and House Committee, Report of 64 

Lignite— Domestic Fuel from Low Grade Lignite— The Present 

Status— R. de L. French, M.E.I.C 776 

Lignite Utilization, a Meftwrandiim 562 

Locomotive Coaling Plants -I. A. Burnett, A.M.E.I.C 299 

Mining and Metallurgy of Cobalt Silver Ores— Lieut.-Col. R. W. 

Leonard, M.E.I.C 86 

Modern Boiler Practice— F. A. Combe, A.M.E.I.C 109 

Montreal, Suggested Harbour Improvements for Greater 

Montreal— E. S. M. Lovelace, M.E.I.C 318 

Montreal Tunnel from an Economic Point of View, The — 

H. K. Wickstead, M.E.I.C 3 

Mount Royal Tunnel, The— J. L. Busfield. A.M.E.LC 267 



91 
637 
646 



23 



National Highways and Good Roads— J. A. Duchastel de 
Montrouge, M.E.I.C 

New Brunswick, Forestry in — G. H. Prince 

New Brunswick, Water Powers of— C. O. Foss, M.E.I.C 

North Toronto, Design and Construction of Reinforced Concrete 
Viaducts, North Toronto Subdivision of Canadian Pacific 
Railway— B. O. Erickson, A.M.E.I.C 

Notes on the Test of a Girderless Floor— Peter Gillespie 

M.E.I.C, and T. D. Myrlea, A.M.E.I.C 301 

Obituaries 34, 135, 237, 353, 427, 532, 575, 617, 745, 796 

Ocean Transportation, Economy in— A. W. Robinson, M.E.I.C . 104 

Ottawa Meeting, Programme of 81 

Overhead and General Costs in Manufacturing — Thomas R. 

Deacon, M.E.I.C 505 

Operation of Railways as an Engineering Problem — V. I. Smart, 

M.E.I.C 500 

Personals 33, 134, 236, 350, 424, 476, 530, 574, 622, 694, 742, 799 

Peat, Oil and Gas Fuel— B. J. Forrest, M.E.I.C 439 

Peat Fuel, The Production of— Ernest V. Moore, A.M.E.I.C. . . 435 

Patents and Engineering — Hanbury A. Budden, A.M.E.I.C. . . . 451 

Peterborough, Engineering Gathering At 779 

Professional Meeting, Fifth Professional Meeting at St. John, 

N.B., Programme 614 

Professional Engineer, What is the ? 509 

Problems of the Canadian Engineers in France — R. F. Armstrong, 

A.M.E.I.C 673 



Programme of Ottawa Meeting ... 
Publications Committee, Report of. 



81 
66 



Quebec Bridge Transactions 607 

Railway Electrification — John Murphy, M.E.I.C 396 

Railways, The Operation of Railways as an Engineering Problem 

—V. I. Smart, M.E.I.C 539 

Railways, The Economics of Electric Operation of — W. G. 

Gordon 398 



Railroad Electrification— F. H. Shepard 402 

Report of Annual Meeting (Twenty-third) 159 

Report of Board of Examiners and Education Committee 66 

Reports of Branches for 1918 72 

Report of Council for 1918 59 

Report of Council Meetings. .15, 59, 229. 341, 416, 470. 522, 570, 618, 

688, 741, 784 

Report of Finance Committee for 1918 69 

Report of International Electro-Technical Committee for 1918. . 67 

Report of Publications Committee for 1918 64 

Report of International Alaska- Yukon Boundary Commission — 

J. J. McArthur, M.E.I.C 770 

Report of Roads and Pavements Committee for 1918 67 

Railroad Ties, The Economy of Treating — S. B. Wass, 

A.M.E.I.C 753 

Research Work in Canada 777 

Reinforced Viaducts, North Toronto, Design and Construction — 

B. O. Erickson, A.M.E.I.C 93 

Receipts and Expenditures 72 

Resources of Western Canada, The — Dr. C. R. Wallis 551 

Rural Roads, Remarks Concerning — J. N. de Stein, M.E.I.C. . 10 

Salaries and the Civil Service 509 

Salary Schedule, Toronto Branch 731 

Silver Ores, Mining and Metallurgy of Cobalt Silver Ores — 

Lieut.-Col. R. W. Leonard. M.E.I.C 86 

Sooke Lake Water Supply, Victoria, B.C.— C. H. Rust, M 
Standard Measure of Value, Can it be Improved ?- 

Sullivan, M.E.I.C 

Statement of Assets and Liabilities as at 31st December, 

Suggested Branch By-laws 1 

Telephone Cables, Engineering Problems Involved in the Use 

of— F. A. Bowman, M.E.I.C 689 

Telephone, Effects of the Halifax Explosion on Plant and Service 

— F. A. Bowman, M.E.I.C 555 

Tidal Hydro-Electric Development Proposed for Petitcodiac and 

Memramcook Rivers— W. Rupert TumbuU, F.R. Ae. S . . . . 647 

Toronto Branch Salary Schedule 731 

Toronto Drifting Sand Water Purification Plant — Wm. Gore, 

M.E.I.C 701 

Town Planning Institute of Canada 563 

Usefulness of Vegetation in Maritime Engineering — E. T. P. 

Shewen, M.E.I.C 633 

Viaduct, The Bloor Street Viaduct, Toronto, Ont.- — Thomas 

Taylor, M.E.I.C 485 

Water Powers of New Brunswick — C. O. Foss, M.E.I.C 646 

Waterproofed Paper Products, The Industrial Possibilities of — 

Judson A. deCew, A.M.E.I.C 228 

Water Resources Committee Conference 121 

Western Canada, The Resources of — Dr. R. C. WalUs 551 

What is the International Joint Commission? — Lawrence J. 

Ban^ee 499 

What is a Professional Engineer ? 509 

What the Engineering Institute Can Do 328 

Wimereux Viaduct, Bombproofing the — Lieut.-Col. B. Ripley, 

M.E.I.C 503 



THE JOURNAL OF 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 



A MONTHLY JOURNAL 

Published By 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

INCORPORATED IN 1887 AS 

THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 



Volume II 



JANUARY 1919 



Number 1 



Suggested Branch By-Laws 

At the meeting of the Council held on December 17th, Brunch By-Laws were submitted which were the result of several 

months' deliberation on the part of the Legislation Committee of the Council and a special committee of 

the Montreal Branch. These By-Laws have been submitted to the various Branches in 

the hope that they will receive consideration for adoption, unless 

there are local reasons why changes should be made. 



Object 

Section 1. The Branch shall promote the objects 
and interests of The Inntitute and shall encourage the 
preparation of papers and addresses on engineering 
subjects, or on subjects of scientific or engineering interest, 
both for presentation at meetings of the Branch and for 
publication by The Institute. 

Membership 

Section 2. (a) The members of the Branch shall 
consist of the Members of The Institute of all classes who 
reside within a distance of twenty-five miles of the head- 
quarters of the Branch, and of those residing at a greater 
distance who, desiring to join the Branch, so notify the 
Secretary-Treasurer, who in turn shall notify the Secretary 
of The Institute. 

The Branch may, at the option of the Executive 
Committee, admit persons, not members of The Institute, 
who shall be termed " Affiliates of the Branch." 

(b) Any person interested in the engineering 
profession may become an " Affiliate of the Branch." 
Affiliates shall be elected by vote of the Executive 
Committee upon nomination by two corporate members 
of the Branch. The fee shall be five dollars per year, 
including the annual subscription of two dollars for the 
Journal of The Institute, 



Affiliates may attend all meetings of the Branch but 
shall not discuss or vote upon any matter affecting the 
administration of the Branch. 

Management 

Section 3. The Branch shall be managed by an 
Executive Committee consisting of a Chairman and a 
Secretary-Treasurer, or a Secretary and a Treasurer, and 
six committee men, all of whom shall be elected by letter 
ballot of the corporate members of the Branch. A 
Vice-Chairman may be similarly elected at the option 
of the Executive Committee. The immediate Past 
Chairman of the Branch and the members of the Council 
of The Instiluie resident within the jurisdiction of the 
Branch, shall be ex-officio members of the Executive 
Committee. All members of the Executive Committee 
shall be corporate members of The Institute. Five 
members shall constitute a quorum. 

Tenure of Office 

Section 4. The Chairman, Vice-Chairman and 
Secretary-Treasurer shall hold office for one year. Other 
members of the Executive Committee shall hold office 
for two years, three being elected each year. Elections 
shall be held each year during the first two weeks of May 
and members so elected shall take office the first of June 
following. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Nominations for Executive Committee 

Section 5. On or before the fifteenth day of March 
in each year, the corporate members of the Branch shall 
be called upon by the Secretary to nominate, by letter, 
candidates for the ofïices of Chairman, Vice-Chairman, 
Secretary-Treasurer and three Committee men. Each 
nomination shall be signed by at least five corporate 
members of the Branch, and shall reach the Secretary on 
or before the first day of April. 



Letter Ballot for Executive Committee 

Section 6. The Secretary shall mail to each 
Corporate Member of the Branch, before the end of 
April, a letter ballot stating the name and class of member- 
ship of each nominee. Instructions for voting shall be 
printed on the ballot, which shall be returned to the 
Secretary by a date fixed by the Executive Committee. 
All ballots shall be enclosed within two sealed envelopes. 
The outer envelope shall bear the signature of the voter, 
but the inner envelope containing the ballot shall have no 
identification mark upon it. 

The ballot shall be counted by scrutineers appointed 
by the Executive Committee. All ballots which do not 
comply with the printed instructions shall be rejected. 

The scrutineers shall report the result of the ballot 
to the Annual Meeting, and the nominee receiving the 
highest number of votes for any office shall be declared 
elected to that office. Should a tie result between two 
or more nominees for the same office, the corporate 
members present shall elect by ballot, the officer from 
those nominees. In case a tie again results, the Chairman 
of the Meeting shall give a casting vote. 

The Chairman shall announce the names of the 
officers duly elected. 

Sections of Branches 

Section 7. At the request of ten corporate members 
of the Branch, made in writing to the Secretary and 
approved by the Executive Committee, sections of the 
Branch shall be established, corresponding to any of the 
generally recognized branches of the engineering profession, 
such as chemical, civil, electrical, mechanical, mining, 
industrial, etc. 

The Chairman of the Branch shall be ex-officio the 
Chairman of each of the sections and each section shall 
have as executive officer, a Vice-Chairman, who shall be 
appointed by the Executive Committee at its first meeting 
after the Annual Meeting of the Branch, or on the 
authorization of any section of the Branch. He shall 
hold office until the thirty-first day of May following the 
date of his election. 



Meetings of the Branch 

Section 8. Ordinary meetings shall be held on alter- 
nate Thursdays from October to April inclusive, or on 
such other days as the Executive Committee may 
determine. 

Special meetings may be called by the Secretary 
on resolution of the Executive Committee, or on the 
written request of seven corporate members, stating the 
objects of the meeting. The notice stating the object of 
the meeting shall be mailed at least five days before the 
date of the meeting. 

The Chairman may call a special meeting without 
such formalities for any purpose other than the transaction 
of business. 

Annual Meeting 

Section 9. The Annual Meeting shall be held at 
the headquarters of the Branch on or before the second 
Tuesday in May, or on such other date in May as the 
Executive Committee may determine. Notice of the 
meeting shall be mailed to each member at least seven 
days before the date of the meeting. The Executive 
Committee shall submit a report of the operations of the 
Branch, and shall determine the order of business of the 
meeting. 

Annual Report to the Institute 

Section 10. The Branch shall submit an annual report 
of its proceedings and of its finances to the Secretary 
of The Institute who shall present it to the Annual 
General Meeting of The Institute. The report shall 
cover the operations of the calendar year and shall be 
approved by the Executive Committee and signed by the 
Chairman and Secretary-Treasurer of the Branch. 

Alterations of By-Laws 

Section 11. By-Laws may be adopted, amended 
or repealed by letter ballot only. Such alterations may 
be suggested either by the Executive Committee, or, in 
writing, by any ten corporate members, and the proposed 
alterations must reach the Secretary on or before the 
first day of April. 

Alterations shall only be made at the Annual Meeting, 
and the ballot for such alterations shall be issued with the 
ballot for the elections of members of the Executive 
Committee. An affirmative vote of two-thirds of all 
valid ballots shall be necessary for the alteration of by-laws. 

The votes shall be counted by the scrutineers appoint- 
ed for the election of members of the Executive Committee. 

General 

Section 12. Where not otherwise provided for, the 
Branch shall conform in rules of order and general 
procedure to the methods and rules adopted by The 
Institute. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



The Montreal Tunnel From an Economic Point of View* 

By H. K. Wicksteed, B.A.Sc, M.E.I.C. 



In response to your very kind invitation, I have corne 
before you to-night to give >'0U something of interest in 
connection with the history of the Montreal tunnel — 
What were the considerations which led up to it, and made 
it seem a practical scheme ? As the Canadian Northern 
Passenger Department has put it in its window dressing 
"Why was the Tunnel built?" And I have given 
my dissertation the title of " The Montreal Tunnel from 
an Economic Point of View." 

With the actual construction of the Tunnel I do not 
propose to deal with to any greater extent than is necessary 
to enable you to understand the problem, — not because 
there were not a great number of intensely interesting 
points about it, and not because I was not in the Tunnel 
a great many times during its progress, — but because the 
construction side has been dealt with very ably by my 
colleague Mr. Brown, and I believe is to be dealt with 
further by one of his assistants, Mr. Busfield, and they 
are both better posted in details of it than I. Mr. Brown 
has made tunnelling a specialty, and his whole soul was 
in his work, and I may say that it is a pretty large and 
comprehensive soul. 

Economic Side of Engineering Problems 
Both by temperament and training, it is the 
" economic " side of things which has always appealed 
to me most. Railways are commercial concerns, and 
the Tunnel is an essential part of a great railway. If it 
can not be justified in a commercial sense, if it can not pay 
interest on its cost, it has no right to exist. 

This economic aspect of engineering works has 
come into great prominence of late years, and notably 
since the introduction of railways. Nearly all our great 
tunnels have been built to carry railways past or under 
obstructions of one kind or another, so that the history 
of tunnelling is almost altogether confined to the last 
70 or 80 years, and most of the great tunnels are much 
younger than that. 

Difference beliveen Englifih and American Roads 
Railroad construction started on a large scale first 
in England, where population was already dense, and 
trafific was waiting to be carried in large volume. A 
railway once built even on what we should now consider 
very crude lines, was practically sure of paying its way 
from the very start, and the cost was a minor consideration 
as soon as the potentialities of the steam railway came 
to be understood. 

It was when the building of railways extended to 
this continent of great distances and at the same time 
sparse population that it was found that not only were 
fixed charges a very heavy drain on railway earnings, 
but that capital was very hard to get in any case, and 
had to be brought in from outside, hence the difference 
in cost between the early American roads and the English 
ones, and the expedients of sharp curvature, heavy grades, 
and cheap construction, which were used to reduce the 
capital cost; and hence the fact that so much English 
capital went into American roads. 

*Read before Toronto Branch, Dicember 3rd, 1918. 



Effect of Competilion 

As time went on, and the traffic became heavier, 
and as, too, other lines were built between the same 
termini and competition became keen, there came the 
era when the balancing of cost against more perfect loca- 
tion and construction began to Idc a regular study, and 
while I think a good many of the earlier engineers, Latrobe 
for instance, had thought a good deal about these matters 
(their works shewed that they did) it was Wellington who 
first committed his ideas to paper and his writings are 
still useful as well as monumental. 

Classification of Tunnels 

The element of location which conduces more than 
any other to reduce the cost of haul is, of course, that of 
gradients, and in reducing gradients in rough country 
there is very often a strong temptation, less often an abso- 
lute necessity, to resort to tunnelling. Hence nearly 
all our tunnels are in the two great mountain ranges of 
the continent, one east and the other west of the 
Mississippi River. There are a few, however, on this 
continent, for the construction of which there are other 
or contributing causes; and a great many on the other 
side of the Atlantic — cases where property damage was 
to be avoided at almost any cost, or where navigation 
interests were paramount, and a tunnel was more practi- 
cable than a high level bridge. The Detroit-Sarnia and 
Hudson River Tunnels are instances of the latter class, 
and the Baltimore & Washington tunnels are instances 
of the former, and to this class our own Montreal Tunnel 
also properly belongs. 

Canadian Northern Location Considerations 

Towards the close of 1906, more than twelve years 
ago, I was instructed to commence surveys and location 
for the Canadian Northern Railway from Montreal west- 
ward, primarily to the Georgian Bay and eventually, as it 
turned out, to Port Arthur to connect with the western 
system which had already developed to very considerable 
proportions. My headquarters were at that time in 
Montreal, so that it was natural that a great deal of my 
spare time was devoted to what was in any case the prob- 
lem of greatest interest and best worth studying out. 
Montreal and its problems and growth were not a new 
matter to me, for I had spent three years of my earlier 
life at McGill, had geologized on Montreal Mountain 
with Sir William Dawson, and one of my closest friends 
was a prominent business man and an ex-mayor of 
Westmount. 

Acquired Roads 

The Canadian Northern two or three years before 
had purchased and completed the Chateaugay & Northern 
Railway from Hochelaga to Joliette, and about the 
same time the Great Northern Railway of Canada, 
extending from Hawkesbury to Rivière à Pierre on the 
Quebec & Lake St. John, which constituted a sort of over- 
flow system by which part of the grain brought from 
Parry Sound by the Canada Atlantic found its way to 
an elevator in Quebec. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Ocean Terminal 
The superintendent of this Eastern System was 
offered one of the farms near Longue Pointe and we com- 
bined to purchase this for the raihvay, and by this means 
secured an approach to the river front, and within a 
very short time thereafter, a connection with the Harbor 
Commissioners' tracks. 

Freight Entry 

This had already secured for the road an ocean 
terminal, and it developed later that from this farm, now 
the Longue Pointe Yard (and a very busy yard indeed), 
there extended a very marked depression clear across the 
Island to the Rivière des Prairies, and the only one of its 
kind between Lachine and Bout de l'Ile. Everywhere else 
there was a high broad-backed ridge of limestone to the 
north of the Mountain itself, and to the south a long talus 
slope of sand and glacial drift. 

The Northern Colonization, afterwards Quebec 
Montreal & Occidental, and now C. P. R., climbed over 
the top of the limestone at Mile End at an elevation of 
200 feet above the River and down again with a very 
strenuous grade of 90 feet to the mile, to Hochelaga. 
The Ontario & Quebec, the C. P. R.'s entry from the 
southwest, climbed over the talus debris and dropped 
similarly although not so viciously, to the Windsor Station. 

Our discovery gave us an ehtry somewhat circuitous, 
it is true, but with a short maximum grade of 30 feet 
to the mile. 

Development of Transcontinental Route 

This then was the obvious route for a freight line from 
the West to the harbour of Montreal, and it must be 
remembered that the C. N. R. was at that time purely a 
granger road and interested almost exclusively in the 
hauling of wheat to the seaboard. Here, therefore, was 
the starting point of the survey to Port Arthur, and we 
still hope to see this line built at a very early date. The 
surveys West shewed that an excellent line could be had 
north of the Great Lakes to Port Arthur at moderate 
cost ; in proportion to cost probably the best long distance 
line in the world. The Pacific coast extension also gave 
wonderful results, and the System promised to be easily 
the best of all the Transcontinental lines on this continent 
or any other. 

Terminal 

While, however, this arrangement was entirely satis- 
factory as regards through freight trafific to and from the 
West, it did not meet the requirements of the local traffic, 
both passenger and freight, of the City itself. Moreover, 
a transcontinental such as that described must of necessity 
have a suitable terminal in the Eastern Metropolis to make 
it complete and well-balanced, and this became the new 
study of the location staff. 

Montreal Topographically 

Montreal proper, as everyone knows and many 
have said, is wedged in between the River and the 
Mountain on a narrow strip of territory consisting first 
of a river fiat half a mile wide, and farther back a terrace 
70 feet higher, and of about the same width, extending to 
the Mountain Slope. 



Up to thirty years ago the site was an ideal one for 
a city of moderate size although even then it was re- 
markable among American cities for its density of popu- 
lation. While Toronto was building up with detached 
houses with lawns and gardens, Montreal adhered to 
long terraces of houses of gray limestone built right 
up to the street, and extending for miles almost without 
a break. Only on the slopes of the Mountain the " Seats 
of the Mighty " of the Allans, the Redpaths, the Angus, 
and other merchant princes shewed more attractive 
surroundings, even if built on a sharp slope. Westmount 
was then in its infancy and was deterred in its growth 
by the long distances from the commercial centre of the 
City. 

Growth due to C. P. It. Entry 

Thirty years ago was marked by the advent of the 
C. P. R. and the selection of Montreal as its headquarters. 
Montreal began to grow very rapidly indeed, and is 
said to be increasing in population nearly lOSx per annum, 
and has now a population of over 800,000. 

Congestion 

Montreal a few years ago had an area of 19 square 
miles, and a population of 580,000. Cleveland, with 
about the same population occupied 45 square miles, 
Boston with 670,000 — 43 square miles. Between 1900 
and 1910 Montreal added 10,000 people to each square 
mile. New York only 4,000 and Chicago only 2,500. 

Montreal, to use the words of a writer in an American 
paper was " choking to death for want of room". In 
its efforts to find this it has extended down the River 
almost to Bout de l'Ile, and upwards almost to Lachine, 
and answers much more closely even than Duluth itself 
to the Eastern Yankee's description of that City as 
being " 25 miles long, 1 mile wide, and pretty nearly 
one mile high." 

Schemes for Expansion ■ 

The long-sighted men, my business friend for one 
and Sir William Van Home for another, had repeatly 
cast wistful and prophetic eyes towards the " hinterland " 
" the Great Beyond " on the other side of the Mountain. 
The Montreal Tramways built a line around it and Sir 
William suggested a tunnel of about 1,000 feet to reduce 
the extreme summit of the Cote des Neiges Hill. Only 
at one point had any actual expansion taken place, and 
this was largely due to the C. P. R. Mile End Station 
and the Tramways' extensions to it. This was along the 
extensions of St. Lawrence Main, St. Denis and later 
of Park Avenue. 

This question of city expansion was one consideration 
which led to the conception and inception of the Montreal 
Tunnel, but it was not by any means the only, or the 
principal one. 

Topoijraphy 

To most Canadians the mention of the St. Lawrence 
suggests a river running east and west. It carries east 
and west commerce, and Sault Ste. Marie is pretty nearly 
due west of Montreal, and Port Arthur only three degrees 
further north; but the St. Lawrence proper from Lake 
Ontario to the sea flows northeast, and at Montreal 
it runs almost due north and south. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



It is the Ottawa which is the east and west river, and 
it is the Ottawa Valley which has been in the past the great 
highway of commerce, and which has resumed its place 
as the route of the two transcontinental roads. The 
result is that the direct route from the heart of Montreal 
to the West lies directly through the Mountain, and 
almost at right angles to the River and the great thorough- 
fares of St. Catherine, St. James and Notre Dame, which 
parallel it. As grade separation was an essential feature 
of any terminal scheme this was a very important 
consideration. 

Existing Rnilways 

Three railways had alreadv entered Montreal from 
the West. 

The Grand Trunk had entered it when the problem 
was a comparatively simple one. The Victoria Bridge 
was located at what was considered the best point for a 
bridge, as was the St. Anne's Bridge over the Ottawa. 
The intermediate line was built as directly as possible 
between them, and one of the pioneer roads of Canada, 
the Lachine Portage Railway, was used as an approach 
to a dead end station in the outskirts of the city at that 
time. The main line did not touch Montreal as it then 
existed. 

Thirty years later the Northern Colonization was 
built from Ottawa, and it climbed over the northern toe 
of the Mountain as already described, and entered the 
extreme northern end of the city, and after absorption 
by the C. P. R., the Place Viger Station. 

Ten years later still came the Ontario & Quebec, 
which paralleled the Grand Trunk from Vaudreuil to 
Dorval, and then rose over the terrace and followed 
along its edge to the present Windsor Street Station. 
What the governing ideas were in selecting this location 
I can only guess, having never met the designer, but a 
desire to eliminate property damages and grade crossings 
as far as possible is evident, and the solution has been 
accomplished in a very clever way. It is on the whole a 
very satisfactory entry, but the C. P. R. is under the 
disadvantage, with the double approach, of having to 
keep up two separate terminals and a great number of 
passengers have to travel across town from one to the 
other — in coming, for example, from Quebec to Toronto. 
It may almost be said that there are three terminals for 
the Mile End Station is getting to be very popular with 
short distance passengers to and from the north and west. 
The Windsor Street approach is very interesting not only 
as a very good piece of work, but as shewing the develop- 
ment of railway ideals, and the demands of the Public in 
respect of abolition of crossings and concealment and 
suppression of smoke and noise. 

Advent of C. N. R. 

Nearly thirty years after the C. P. R. comes the 
Canadian Northern. Thirty years makes a great differ- 
ence in a problem of this kind. Land values have grown 
prodigiously in the meantime due to the ever increasing 
congestion. And the education of the Public assisted 
by a Railway Commission anxious to please it has gone 
on apace. Grade separation has become absolutely 
essential and the absolute abolition of smoke and noise 
almost so. 



At the same time, and from the railway point of view, 
passenger trains have become longer and heavier and 
harder to haul, so that grades must be flattened to the 
utmost, especially in regard to starting and stopping. 
Maintenance of way and operating expenses have been 
increasing in a much faster ratio than the corresponding 
passenger rates and receipts. Only the increasing volume 
of traffic offsetted the growing discrepancy and served 
to stave off the bankruptcy of the railways. 

Local Freight 

The passenger business alone was not the only thing 
to be considered. The Grand Trunk during its 60 years 
of occupancy, and the C. P. R. during its shorter term of 
existence had surrounded and honey-combed Montreal 
with a network of industrial spurs, sidings, and yards, 
in every direction. The Canadian Northern had only 
one small yard in the extreme north end, and its connection 
on the same terms as the other lines with the Harbour 
Commissioners' tracks for overseas business. But busi- 
ness to and from the local industries, the wholesale houses, 
cold storage plants, etc., etc., has to be hauled from three to 
five miles by motor trucks to Moreau Street. The 
handicap is altogether too great. In the district bounded 
by McGill Street, the Lachine Canal, Windsor Street 
produced, and Lagauchetière St. alone there are something 
like 150 of these smaller industries and plants, and a great 
many more within a mile radius of the Haymarket Square. 

Passenger business may perhaps be described as the 
spiritual and intellectual function of the railway body 
coporate, but freight is the wholesome and nourishing 
food which enables it to do its work and carry on its func- 
tions. The passenger service is the side which appeals 
to the ordinary layman passenger just as a man's face 
and bearing does to a new acquaintance, but he can't 
keep up the prepossessing appearance unless he has his 
stomach full, and some little money in his pocket. 

Financial 

We have here a number of essentials to be provided 
for and a still greater number of desiderata, also many 
things to avoid. The most important necessity of all 
at the moment perhaps was the finding of the necessary 
capital. 

Railway terminals are expensive things at the best, 
and this was an era of extravagance in this respect. The 
Pennsylvania had spent all kinds of millions on its New 
York entry. The New York Central was following suit 
with a magnificent scheme, better balanced financially, 
but still enormously expensive. Kansas City was 
building a joint 45-mi lion terminal, and St. Paul was 
considering a scheme which involved encroachment on 
the rights of its very respectable and oldest citizen, the 
Mississippi River — almost as old and respectable as 
the Montreal Mountain itself although somewhat dirtier. 

But these were all in connection with roads of long 
standing and financial strength. They were improvements 
and consolidations rather than new schemes. 

The Canadian Northern while it had been earning 
at a great rate was also extending and building equally 
fast, and had largely discounted its future in its borrowings. 
Even in a growing North West it takes some months 
before a new piece of road can earn its own living, and 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



some of the C. N. R. construction was of a nature and 
through such country as could not be expected to yield 
any adequate income except as part of the completed 
system. 

Selectioti of Route 

The most obvious route was to parallel the two older 
roads and it was very seriously proposed, but the writer 
for one never took to the proposition. It was neither the 
inexpensive route of the older Grand Trunk, nor could 
the very neat grade separations which the C. P. effected 
thirty years ago be repeated and duplicated. 

The line of the C. P. had been badly bent in order to 
effect its entry. Everything pointed to the north instead 
of the south shore of the Ottawa as being the proper 
route of the Canadian Northern, and in this case the bend 
would become a right angle elbow. The right-of-way 
would be absolute destruction for two miles or more, and 
grade separation could be effected only by a continuous 
track elevation for the same distance. It would have 
been plagiarism of the worst and most expensive type. 

It was proposed to join the Grand Trunk but this 
would merely have mitigated some of the evils of parallel- 
ism, not removed them, and the C. N. would have lost 
its identity and its independence at a most important 
point, and neither of these propositions would have been 
any solution of the freight problem. 

Tunnel the Obvious Solution 

The Tunnel was the obvious solution of the whole 
question, and it was adopted by the writer at a very 
early stage, but how was the money to be found ? 

The Model City 

Here came in the question of expansion, of a Greater 
Montreal. The piercing of the Mountain, the inaugur- 
ation of a fast and frequent electric service through it, 
would vastly enhance the value of the inaccessible lands 
beyond. Thousands of acres sloping gently towards 
the Back River were available, if they were once brought 
within easy reach of the business and shopping district. 

As soon as the programme was announced real 
estate men would quickly absorb all the available land, 
subdivide it and sell at enormous profit. Why should 
not a syndicate be formed which would take this part 
of the business out of the hands of the real estate men, 
buy up the land and out of the prospective profits finance 
the construction of the Tunnel ? 

The idea once suggested took root, and some of the 
great financiers of the world became directly interested in 
it, and the idea of the tunnel entrance became an esta- 
blished one. 

Construction Considerations 

But this rnerely fixed the principle of the Tunnel, 
not the line of it, and there were several lines suggested 
other than that adopted. A line just south of Park 
Avenue was strongly advocated, the reason given being 
that it would be closer to the surface and much of it could 
be built by the cut-and-cover method. 

It was pointed out in rebuttal that this would dis- 
organize all the underground economy of the district, 
sewers, water pipes, and gas, and that the streets would 



be impassable and the abutting property uninhabitable 
during the whole time of construction, unless the enor- 
mously costly methods of the New York Subways were 
adopted. So far from being an extravagance, the bold 
line under the highest part of the Mountain was the 
cheapest in that it avoided all property damage except 
for a couple of thousand feet on the City end. 

Selection of Western Portal 

This argument prevailed finally and the bolder line 
was adopted, but there was still a good deal of latitude 
in the choice of line. 

At the West end a long strip of property was offered 
reaching nearly to the Back Rvier. It so happened 
that on this property was the best point at which to cross 
the C.P.R.'s Atlantic and North Western line, so this end 
was promptly and satisfactorily settled. 

Selection of Eastern Portal 

The east end was the subject of longer debate and 
some warmth of argument. Most English-speaking 
people think of Montreal as extending from the Mountain 
to Dorchester, and from Park Avenue to the confines of 
Westmount, with an addition for business purposes 
extending east and south for half a mile from the Place 
D'Armes, and of St. Catherine Street as being the main 
and only important artery. This is only a small part of 
Montreal in reality but the conviction in the Anglo-Saxon 
mind that this is Montreal, the whole of Montreal, and 
nothing but Montreal is almost as fixed and ineradicable 
as the Englishmen's idea that the whole world is centred 
about his own tight little island. 

As a result of this obsession, it was difïîcult to get 
any site off of St. Catherine Street even seriously con- 
sidered. A line near University Street was actually 
adopted and abandoned only when it was shewn that this 
was of no use except for purely passenger business, that 
there was no chance for extension eatward, and that it 
must for all time to come remain a dead end branch 6 miles 
in length, and worse in this respect than either the C. P. R. 
or the Grand Trunk. 

Connection xoith Harbor Tracks 
Finally, the present line was adopted mainly for 
the reasons that it gave a continuous line from the 
Mountain to the water front with opportunity to connect 
with the Harbor Commissioners' tracks, and through 
them with the system extending to Quebec and Chicou- 
timi; that in doing this it passed through some of the 
best freight producing district in Montreal, and that it 
did all this with a minimum of property damage and with 
an absolute avoidance of grade crossings or even distortion 
of street grades. 

There is further, an avowed intention on the part of 
the Commission to build a dam across the River to St. 
Helen's and a bridge from it to the east shore which will 
furnish a route for such roadways and railways as care 
to avail themselves of it. It is more than probable that 
the Quebec Montreal & Southern and the Intercolonial 
will avail themselves of the chance, for the Grand Trunk's 
great bridge is already congested and overcrowded, 
but this is a matter for the future. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Station Site 
The choice of a station site on this route was another 
matter of debate, which it is somewhat irrelevant to go 
into now. The choice for the present at any rate is that 
I am shewing you on Lagauchetière, within easy reach of 
Dorchester, but not so far below the surface as the latter. 

Grades Through TuiineJ 

Closely allied to the question of alignment and in 
some respects even more important is that of grades. 
I have already alluded to the increasing length and 
weight of passenger trains. The C. P. standard trans- 
continental train averages 11 coaches, and with this their 
Pacific type engines get over the 1% grades of the Lake 
Superior division with reasonable ease. An extra car is 
liable to make them lose time. On the other hand, if 
the grade is fîattened too much, on a long tunnel and 
approach such as this, trouble with drainage is apt to 
occur, expecially in winter. 

The grade through the tunnel is 6/10 of 1%, or 32 feet 
per mile, and is continuous from end to end; the West 
Portal being thus 100 feet higher than the East. 

From the West Portal the same rate of grade carries 
us down through the Model City for nearly the same 
distance. The long cutting on the west approach was 
introduced with a purpose, viz. : to allow the civic expan- 
sion to go on overhead without too much distortion of 
street grades. 

Headroom 

In consideration of the electrical operation the head- 
room required under the bridges was reduced from the 
regulation 22^2 feet to 16 ^ 2 feet, and the problem of 
grade separation rendered so much the easier of 
accomplishment . 

Near Cartierville the Park & Island Railway and a 
mainroad alongside it have been carried underneath. 

Absolute grade separation is thus secured, not only 
through the City itself and its transmontane annex, 
but for the entire length of the electric zone, nearly 9 
miles, and Cartierville, a promising suburban settlement 
on the bank of the Rivière des Prairies, is now brought 
within 18 or 20 minutes of the heart of the City. 

Description of Tunnel 

The Tunnel itself is a very interesting one and ranks 
among the great tunnels of the world, being 3.25 miles 
in length. Only the three great Alpine Tunnels, the 
Mount Cenis, the St. Gothard and the Simplon, com- 
pletely eclipse it in length, and there is only one in Can- 
ada which is longer, the Rogers Pass Tunnel of the 
Canadian Pacific. 

Difficulties 

It was predicted beforehand that the difficulties 
would be comparatively few, and so it turned out. 

Very little water was met with, and this where it 
was expected, near the West Portal at the contact between 
the limestone and the older rocks on which it rests un- 
conformably. 

The core of the Mountain was almost exclusively 
Essexite a basaltic volcanic rock, somewhat hardtodrill, 
but otherwise quite unobjectionable. 



Lining 
It was at first thought that most of it would not 
require lining, and had it been a steam operated road 
in the open country, it is still probable that very little 
lining would have been put in, but its nearness to the 
terminal and the adoption of the trolley system, which 
meant support from the roof, made even a small fall 
a very serious matter, as it would both delay and endanger 
the trafïic. Some little seaminess and disintegration 
shewed itself after exposure to the air, and in the end it 
was all lined with a thin sheeting of concrete, except for 
about 1,000 feet. This applies to the rock section. 

Use of Shield 

For something over half a mile at the City or East 
end, the roof ran into clay, although the bottom and most 
of the wall remained in limestone. This clay was known 
beforehand to exist, and it is of a very plastic and semifluid 
formation and contains numerous shells such as now exist 
in Northern seas. On account of its semi-fluid nature, and 
because this section led under streets and close to the 
foundations of buildings, it was decided to take this out 
under a shield protection, the shield being followed up 
with an arch of concrete blocks pre-cast in voussoir shape. 

Practically no leakage even of water was ever visible 
during the progress of the work, and yet considerable 
settlement of the street overhead took place. Probably 
the moisture evaporated and escaped as invisible vapour. 
A great many of the houses had been set down on this 
soft clay and had suffered from settlement before the work 
was started; the further settlement was therefore of less 
consequence than it would otherwise have been. 

Separate Tunnels 

Through this section the individual tracks are carried 
in separate tunnels with a thin wall between them. 
The same is true of a few hundred feet at the West Portal, 
but the body of the tube is a single opening. 

Heading and Speed 

The heading was a " bottom " one 8' x 12' and was 
put through with very good speed. For a time in fact 
the American record for hard rock tunnelling was broken 
by an average advance of 26 ft. per day for a whole 
month. 

As soon as a sufficient advance had been made the 
enlargement to full section was commenced, the arch being 
taken out first, and the two " benches " afterwards. 

As the east end was in the City and there was no 
means of getting rid of large quantities of material except 
by means of teaming for several miles, this work had to 
be done from the West end, and for this reason the heading 
was driven faster from this end and this meant working 
down hill. Under these circumstances the small flow 
of water was particularly fortunate as the amount of 
pumping was small. 

Shafts 

In order to expedite the work a shaft was sUnk 
250 ft. one mile from the west end. This made it possible 
to follow up with the enlargement on the westerly mile 
without interference from the heading from the shaft, 
but as a matter of fact the rapid progress of the heading 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



was to a large extent wasted because the war intervened 
and work on the enlargement was impeded by the 
difliculty in finding the necessary capital to carry it on. 

Inslrumental Work 

The shaft was, however, designed to carry an elevator 
in the future to a substation at its foot, and with this in 
view was sunk to one side of the centre Hne of the tunnel. 
This, as may be imagined, greatly increased the difficulty 
of alignment of the tunnel. To offset a line on the surface 
to two plumb lines only some 12 feet apart and 250 feet 
long, and then offset this line again at the bottom of 
the" shaft, was an operation requiring care and patience, 
but it was accomplished without appreciable error by 
H. T. Fisher and his staff. 

Other Shafts 

A second shaft was sunk some 70 feet just to the north 
of Sherbrooke Street and at the bottom of this the shield 
was put together. 

A third shaft was projected at Pine Avenue but 
considerable opposition was met with from the wealthy 
residents of the neighbourhood and it was abandoned, 
and undoubtedly to advantage for it would merely have 
expedited the driving of the heading, not of the completed 
tunnel. 

A fourth shaft was sunk on Dorchester Street and it 
was from this that a large quantity of material was 
removed because there happened to be a very large and 
almost vacant piece of property at this point on which 
material could be wasted for the time being, until the 
Tunnel became available for hauling it away. 

Reasons for Electrification 

As mentioned above, the Tunnel was planned from 
the beginning for electric traction. No effort was made 
to avoid the inevitable in this respect. It was felt that 
while very much cheaper in initial cost, a steam service 
through such a long tunnel would not be popular with 
the Public, and there would have to be installed fans and 
artificial ventilation, and that even outside the tunnel, 
on the City end, there would be a strong opposition to 
steam operation over the streets, and justly so, for 
Montreal is already more saturated with coal smoke than 
even Toronto. 

Some of you will remember the fatal disaster in the 
St, Clair Tunnel when it was operated by steam loco- 
motives, although this is not much more than one-third 
the length of the Montreal one. Some minor mishap 
necessitated a stop at the lowest point in the tunnel, 
and some of the train hands were asphyxiated by the 
waste gases from the locomotive before help could be got 
to them. Even on a passenger train, although the trip 
lasted a very few minutes, there was a certain sense of 
suffocation and a feeling of relief when the trip was over. 

This accident precipitated the inevitable change to 
electric traction and in the case of the Pennsylvania 
and Detroit tunnels, electricity was installed from the 
very first. 



Air Current in Montreal Tunnel 

In the Montreal Tunnel, in actual experience, the 
air is just as fresh as it is outside and there is quite a 
marked natural circulation through it. The air at the 
City end is nearly always warmer than that at the West 
or country end, and rises from the terminal excavation, 
causing a strong draught of cool air from west to east. 
With the West end warmed up by a westerly sun, 
while the East is in shadow, the current will very probaly 
be reversed, but the normal conditions seem to be as above. 

The electrification work is a very interesting study 
in itself, and was under the very able charge of W. A. 
Lancaster. 



St. 



POWER 

Ursule Falls 



A study was made for developing power at St. Ursule 
Falls on the Canadian Northern line some 60 miles east 
of Montreal, and transmitting to Montreal, but the 
power was not very reliable and to make it so meant 
a lot of interference with vested rights and privileges 
which threatened to raise the capital cost and resultant 
interest charges to a point which meant that it would cost 
more per H. P. than it could be obtained for from the 
Montreal Light Heat & Power, and an arrangement was 
made with them to supply the necessary power. 

Description of System 

The system is a direct current of 2,400 volts, much 
higher than we have been accustomed to up to the present. 
The locomotives take the current by means of a penta- 
graph from a trolley wire, and weigh eighty tons. 

The third rail system was considered but on account 
of the heavy snowfall about Montreal and occasional 
accumulations of ice, it was not considered desirable. 

In actual test these locomotives haul a seven or eight 
car train against the adverse 6 10^, grade through the 
Tunnel in 7 minutes, or practically thirty miles per hour. 

Electric Zone 

The electric zone extends at present only to Cartier- 
ville, which on account of its being a convenient point 
at which to establish a divisional yard with engine house 
and shops, was considered the best point at which to make 
the change. 

Extension and Route to Ottawa 

It is altogether probable that as the intermediate 
country gets settled up with suburban residences, a 
movement which has already commenced, it will be ex- 
tended to St. Eustache, a very prosperous town with 
beautiful surroundings, and we hope eventually to 
Ottawa. Only the heavy cost of installation prevented 
this being done in the first place. 

The route to Ottawa lying as it does along the banks 
of the River, and generally within sight of it and of the 
Laurentian Hills beyond, is quite the most attractive 
of the four existing ones, and within a mile of being the 
shortest. It has already made a good start in popularity, 
and \vith the additional attraction of electric traction, 
it should pretty nearly monopolize this business. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



15.000 20,000 
_l I 




Fig. 3.— Canadian Northern Railway Terminal Lines in Montreal, with Tunnel under Mount Royal to Central Passenger Station. 



10 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Remarks Regarding Rural Roads' 

B;/ J. N. deStein, M.K.I.C. 



You may have noticed that the Manitoba Motor 
League intend to petition the government of their 
province to take over the control of main highways, 
and a Manitoba weekly expresses itself in this con- 
nection as follows: 

" The present system of municipal roads is a 
howling farce. The great majority of rural 
councils know even less about building and 
maintaining roads than the daily press of 
Toronto knows about farming in Manitoba." 

I thought it unfortunate that a man likely without 
any engineering qualifications, as the editor of said 
weekly, should express an opinion, which properly should 
have originated in some engineering body. 

We are leaning back in our chairs and enlarging at 
length upon small theoretical points, perhaps how many 
inches to crown our main roads or whether to use eight or 
ten percent maximum grades, while annually tens, yes even 
hundreds of thousands of dollars of public monies are 
wasted through the present faulty system of supervision 
of our rural roads. Our duty — it seems — should be 
first to devise a proper organization in this connection. 

There are plans on foot for provincial highways, 
linking up the various cities and towns of importance in 
our province, and even a possible federal interprovincial 
highway is being contemplated — but our rural travel 
will still use mainly our market roads, as heretofore 
under the supervision of the rural councils. 

Just a few words about the present organization. 
Our municipalities comprise as a rule from nine to twelve 
townships and are governed by a reeve (elected annually) 
and six councillors (elected by a ward system), three coun- 
cillors retiring every year, keeping thereby the individual 
councillor in office for two years. The councillor has the 
immediate supervision over the roads in his ward ( 1 Vo to 
2 townships), which consists of about 80 to 110 miles of 
road. The annual portion of the taxes devoted to road 
purposes is divided amongst the councillors and forms the 
appropriation at their disposition for road construction 
and maintenance in their respective wards, usually called 
divisions. 

The trouble seems to be firstly in the continuous 
change of officials. Our aim should be to devise some 
more permanent form of rural government, after the com- 
mission form in our cities or in the form of a municipal 
manager, aided by an elected reeve and council. All 
executive work, especially in connection with road 
planning, construction and maintenance should be left 
in the commissioner's or manager's hands. 

There might be an objection raised on account of 
the increased financial outlay in salaries etc., but the 
ratepaying farmer would soon realize that their 
" investment " is not only earning a very high rate of 
interest indeed, but probably showing a considerable 
saving on Capital account. 



*Read before Saskatchewan Branch, E.I.C., December 12lh. 



The second remedy should be a change in our 
Municipal Act, whereby a more adequate remuneration 
should be allowed for municipal reeves and councillors. 
The honors are all theirs — but that is about all! — We 
find a large number of public spirited men in our rural com- 
munities, who devote their time in the best interests of 
their electors — but let us admit the fact: are not quite 
a few tempted to seek an adequate remuneration for their 
services in improving the roads in the vicinity of their 
farms, sometimes even beyond the importance of such 
road. 

Even the small rural division is again split into 
districts. One year the south end are trying to get their 
man in, another year the north end, mainly in order to 
get roads. " Roads " is the issue in the campaign! 
Every councillor looks in many instances upon his 
division as a little kingdom of its own. I could mention 
instances where some councillor in the past developed, 
in a very remote portion of the municipality, a splendid 
net-work of roads, but only a few miles in the immediate 
vicinity of his farm and entirely disconnected with any 
market road. In the future they are left without neces- 
sary upkeep, as the next councillor refuses to spend 
any more money in that corner, with the result that the 
original, often large, expenditure is wasted eventually. 

Recently our provincial government is requesting 
the rural municipalities to submit plans showing a proper 
system of main roads. Some very queer documents must 
reach our highway department in this connection. I know 
of some intances, where in one division nearly every 
road was shown as a main road, in another division a 
main road was contemplated — to suit the requirements 
of the councillor in question — every mile of which 
involved an outlay of about one thousand dollars for 
earthwork alone, besides being topographically entirely 
unsuitable for its purpose. The main road system as at 
present is a variable item, directly proportionate to the 
council, that is with every change of council the main road 
system used to change as a rule. It should therefore be 
our duty to compel the municipalities legally, not only 
to adopt a comprehensive system of main roads, but 
to adhere to it! 

What difficulties does the local councillor encounter 
in this respect ? Mainly the objection of the ignorant 
rate payer, who figures that his taxes should be expended 
on the piece of road immediately adjacent to his pro- 
perty. He seems to loose sight of the fact, that he 
travels sometimes many miles over expensively con- 
structed road, upon which the expenditure of a frontage 
tax, sometimes even on maintenance alone, would result 
in an entirely impassable roadway. He overlooks the 
fact, that the heaviest tax he has to pay, which never shows 
up in his tax notice is the " Poor Road Tax " which 
however takes its heavy toll in depreciation of implements, 
waggons, cars and more especially in loss of valuable time. 
Perhaps a main road assessment could be worked out, 
similar to drainage assessments, taxing the direct benefits. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



11 



This might overcome some of the objections. Amongst 
others a wheel tax has been suggested, which would most 
adequately distribute the expense. 

I found an instance, where a municipality intends to 
try and set aside annually a certain sum for the develop- 
ment of their market roads. But there again the divisional 
method of road supervision has its great disadvantages. 
Perhaps a contemplated market road is situated right on 
the boundary between two divisions, and one councillor 
fails to understand why he should spend some of his 
appropriation on a road used by rate payers living in 
another division. May I cite an example of this kind 
on the hand of a sketch. 




The councillor in the west division did not 
want to incur the expense necessary in order to open 
up a new road through Section 36. The main road had to 
go to the north and was coming from the south, west of 
Section 25, but had to jog a mile east, before continuing 
to the north. The west councillor suggested to jog it 
east on the south side of Section 25, thence to carry it 
north, there being no river crossing provided. He 
reckoned, this would give him llo miles of mainroad 
less to build or maintain at the expense of the councillor 
to the east of him. His suggestion would have necessi- 
tated the crossing of a large slough, the cost of which alone 



was estimated at about $1,000, while the total expense in 
connection with opening up the new road through Section 
36 was about $350 (including necessary right-of-way), 
besides giving topographically a road much superior to the 
other solution. 

The municipality in question, like several others, 
adopted the form of road committee, in-order to overcome 
the autocratic tendencies of some councillors and to con- 
sult with the individual councillor on road questions. 
That is, the reeve has the power to call upon any councillor 
to form a committee in each individual division to decide 
upon questions of policy and expenditures in connection 
with road work, the decision of which committee is binding 
upon the councillor. 

A worse case even is the boundary between two 
municipalities, where often the settlers in one munici- 
pality can hardly reach the market town, if the market 
road is situated on the boundary between the two munici- 
palities and is under the supervision of the other munici- 
pality, the ratepayers of which do not use it at all. 

I pointed out already that unfortunately sometimes 
the councillor in deciding upon his road work is governed 
by anything but altruistic motives. I can however men- 
tion one instance where it was the custom of the 
councillor to call annually a meeting of his divisional 
ratepayers and let them decide on a road program, which 
he tried to execute to his best ability with the means 
at his disposition. 

Let us turn now from mistakes in road policy in the 
present form of administration of rural roads to 
engineering errors made in this connection. H. R. 
Mackenzie very ably showed in a preceeding paper the 
necessity for engineering supervision in this connection. 
May I be permitted to add a few examples picked at ran- 
dom, even the work of a common road grading machine 
requires some knowledge and judgement, especially as 
to the necessary width of road. An instance came to my 
notice where a councillor personally operated the grader 
over several miles of mainroad, spending considerable time 
going up and down. Fortunately the road allowance is 
only 66 feet wide, so that his activity had to reach a limit. 
He made a regular boulevard without crown and in 
very poor shape, at double the expense necessary. 

Running the grader continuouslj^ through cuts and 
over-fills, as it is sometimes done, creates a grave danger 
to the surface of the fill. The cut ditch is being continued 
unto the fill, instead of being turned off at the mouth of 
the cut. This means that the water, accumulated in the 
cut, is being drained right unto the fill. Mostly however 
the cut ditch is conspicuous through its absence, creating 
as much danger as in the former case. 

Why should a councillor, who might be a very success- 
ful farmer, have to decide on engineering questions for 
which a special training is required. Naturally errors 
involving the loss of considerable money will often occur. 

I would call your attention to sketch No. 2. 
depicting a section on a creek crossing east of 
Regina. The fill on the upper side was about. ten feet, 
on the lower side about 18 feet. A 36" pipe about 
24 feet long was stuck through the fill as indicated. What 
happened last spring ? Half of the fill washed out with 



12 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



the spring freshet and when inspected by the writer the 
damage to the road bed had been repaired, but a large hole 
had been created at the foot of the lower slope. A 36" 
stream of water dropping about 8 feet has naturally some 
force. What remedy did the councillor suggest ? He 
reckoned that by placing another 36" pipe of the same 
length at the same elevation, he should be able to improve 
conditions. What would have happened ? Two 36" 
streams dropping without an apron straight down would 
have at least doubled the cavity at the lower end, besides 
still creating a considerable head of water in the spring. 
From information gathered I judged that about 45 sq. 
feet of area were required to carry the spring fîow, while 
provision would have been made for only 14 sq. feet. 
Another washout with a likely damage to the pipes 
would have occurred and the hole at the bottom would 
have gained such dimensions, that the whole crossing 
might have had to be shifted. Fortunately I persuaded 
the councillor to desist from placing the additional pipe 
and after taking out the pipe he had in at present, we 
constructed a small wooden bridge, about 10 feet wide 
and 6 feet high, leaving enough room inside of this 




structure for a permanent concrete culvert of the necessary 
water carrying capacity. 

In my sketch No. 3 I show a piece of an east-west 
road allowance which a coulee crosses twice in 
about 600 feet. What had been the solution in this 
case? Two 36" pipes had been placed at each crossing, 
necessitating an outlay of nearly 700 dollars. The whole 
piece of road allowance was low and had been filled about 
4 feet high, the material being taken from the west end. 
What should have been done ? The coulee should have 
been diverted and kept on the south side of the road 
allowance entirely. The proposed diversion would not 
have involved any additional expenditures, as the material 
from same would have made the adjacent fill. An 
objection was raised, that the water would have been shut 
off from the settler north of the road, who used his land 
for pasture. A remedy could have been easily provided 
by placing a 15" pipe at the bottom end of the stream 
(Point A) and another 15" pipe about 3 feet above the 
lower end (Point B), thereby creating a reservoir for the 
landowner and supplying him with more water, than he 
ever had before, as at the time of my inspection — about 
July — the creek was dry. The total expenditure for 
pipes in this connection should have been about 120 
dollars, as against 700 dollars actually spent. 

Time after time a councillor will insist on opening 
up a market road on the road allowance, where topography 



would only permit the construction of a fairly good pack 
trail. After spending considerable time and money on 
this impossible problem, it is eventually abandoned and 
a road diversion substituted. But on the other hand 
there are numerous instances, where the road should have 
been kept on the road allowance but a diversion made 
instead. The councillor seems to dread to have to build 
a grade through water, no matter how small a pool he 
encounters. The rate-payer's horseflesh is likely un- 
willing to tackle this moist problem. This consideration 
of having to do the work by day labor calls often for 
execution against all proper rules of earthwork con- 
struction. As already pointed out by me at out Saskatoon 
meeting: "As long as we do not abolish day-labor, as 
long we shall cause the taxpayer's money to be wasted 
without providing roads." A large number of munici- 
palities are already doing contract work, though in most 
cases the work is laid out by the contractor himself and 
measured by the councillor with results far from correct 
and satsifactory. 



pnreitf iajiou^.- 




Most sins are however committed in connection 
with bridges and culverts. It is nearly criminal how 
little consideration is paid to the required size of the 
opening. We find streams in which originally only a 12" 
pipe was placed, because it might have happened to have 
been on hand. Let the next man take care of it is often 
the rule. In the spring after that a 48" pipe was placed 
on top of it, the year after another large pipe was put in 
a couple of hundred feet away at a place over which 
the spring flow had gone, because as very often happens 
the fill at the bridge or culvert is considerably higher than 
the rest of the grade. Creek diversions or corrections are 
mostly unknown. No matter how little work is necessary 
to straighten a run so as to bring it at right angles to the 
road and save length of structure and damage to the fill, 
invariably the culvert or bridge are placed at an angle. 
Some of our roadbuilders got so used to this way of placing 
pipes or boxes, that I found several cases where pipes in 
sloughs had been placed at an angle without any reason 
whatsoever. 

For structural errors let me call your attention 
to the simplest possible instance, the small wooden 
box, which you see on my sketch No. 4. The 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



13 



top is nearly always placed at right angles to the road. 
Taking a 12" plank of 3" stuff (the dimension which 
should" be recommended lor this class of work) a maximum 
width of only 6 inches can be obtained this way. Where 
an increased width was necessary, the roadbuilder tried 
to overcome the difficulty by nailing strips across the top. 
I looked at a newly iSuilt culvert placed about two 
weeks prior to my inspection. The same was already 
half full of earth coming in naturally through the large 
holes. The most natural solution would be to lay the top 
of bottom pieces parallel to the road, enabling the use of 
a span up to about 20 inches without any bottom support, 
besides meaning a considerable saving in maintenance, 
by having to renew only the few short pieces generally 
worn in the line of the rut. 

But when it comes to larger culverts and bridges, 
it is certainly astonishing what structures a lay-mind 
will produce in this connection. Our Highwgy Depart- 
ment has prepared a set of standard plans, covering various 



»f0i*f CffusAttc^/f 



s?rA: - .■^'^ 



SieX;^ J S 












were some old Cyclopean walls, if I had not been assured 
that they were built in our generation. One type of 
structure we should recommend however, which is more 
permanent, easily built and maintained if properly 
designed and constructed, that is culverts and small 
bridges with concrete abutments and timber deck, which 
concrete abutments should only be recommended when 
there is no sign of alkali in the soil. Any carpenter 
can make the necessary forms for the abutments. In 
the last few years this type of structure is gaining 
popularity, but again the layman makes gross errors, 
mainly putting in a centre supporting pier, when his 
stringers would have carried the entire length between 
abutments, bedding his wooden stringers solid in the 
concrete, keeping his abutments straight, never thinking 
of reinforcements, not providing enough foundation 
area, etc. I saw even concrete abutments resting on 
a pile of fairly large, but loose boulders over two feet 
high above the ground. 

I could enlarge upon this subject ad libitum, but think 
it is time to summarize some of my statements. 

Firstly: The executive organization of our rural 
municipalities especially as far as the road planning, 
construction and maintenance are concerned should be 
placed on a more permanent basis. It should further be 
more centralized than the divisional work is at present. 
The rural municipality is a small enough unit! 

Secondly : Road engineering is a recognized branch 
of our great profession, requiring considerable training 
and education. Why let the ratepayer's money be 
wasted by amateur attempts at road-building. Make it 
independent of local petty politics and put it in the hands 
of an engineer Many councillors in rural municipalities 
agree with the engineer most heartily in this respect. 



openings and though — especially their plan for wooden 
bridges — is not entirely above criticism, yet, if their 
standards were adhered to, some useful structures might 
result. The necessity for mudsills, the importance of 
obstructing the watercourse as little as possible, the fact 
that wood will not stick together by mere friction, the 
building of the structure with a view for easy inspection 
and maintenance are nearly always overlooked. I could 
cite numerous examples of not only faulty construction, 
but of actual waste of monies spent for this purpose by 
building culverts and bridges entirely unfit to serve 
their purpose and which will require a very early renewal, 
besides calling for continuous maintenance expenditures. 
Even the lack of expert inspection of bridges and culverts 
built in the past by the municipalities or the government 
will necessitate early renewals where a comparatively 
small sum spent at present might prolong the life of the 
structure considerably. 

Several municipalities have experimented in the past 
with concrete structures. I found archculverts the gene- 
rous dimensions of which would have made me think they 



Thirdly : Make the position of reeve and councillor 
more attractive, especially in reimbursing them more 
adequately for the time spent on their public duties, of 
which the superintendence of the road-work, as at present, 
is the most strenuous. You will receive more cheerful 
attention and less resignations. 

Fourthly: Abolish the entirely unsatisfactory day- 
labor system by substituting contract work 

In conclusion I might state, that it was my aim in 
this paper to show the fallacy of our present system in 
letting the rural councils, with their continuous change in 
policy and composed mostly of lay men in our profession, 
handle the important problem of providing rural roads. 
I hope that our road-committee and more especially our 
representative on the road-committee of western branches 
of our Institute will work out some organization in this 
respect to be embodied in our Highway Act. 

If my modest contribution has furnished even orie 
of the small pebbles of the future foundation of this 
structure, I shall be more than satisfied with my work in 
this connection. 



14 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Doubly Reinforced Beams 

By E. G. W. Montgomery, A.M.E.I.C, Saskatchewan Branch. 



There is at present no simple method of analysis 
by which the requisite section of a doubly reinforced 
concrete laeam can be determined, and it has occurred to 
the writer that a method used by him might prove of 
use to others. 

If the position of the centre of compression in a 
concrete section, having compression reinforcement, be 
known, the analysis of such a section is simple. The 
obvious thing therefore is to know where the centre of 
compression falls. 

The figure shows the compression area of a beam 
having steel in compression. If the centre of gravity of 
the steel be placed at | kd above the neutral axis, the 
centre of compression will also lie at that height. For 
the height of the Centre of Compression above the N.A. = 
bjkdf +nSc (2_kd)^ 
3 3 



kd 



bJkd)2^ + nSc(2^kd) 
2 3 





, I 


1 




=pâc/^ 










N 


k 


3 




> 

i 


i, 

kd 






kd 

f 



^ N.A 

By thus placing the compression steel, the length of 
the couple arm is the same as for beams with single 
reinforcement, and the percentages of compression and 
tension reinforcement are easily determined for any 
given working stresses. 

Consider stresses of 600 and 15,000 with n =15. 
Ht. of section above N.A. _ rife _ 600 x 15 _ 3_ 
Depth of section below N.A. ~ ^ ~ 15,000 ~ 5 
Distance of compressio n steel from N.A. _ 2_ 
Distance of tension steel from N.A. ~ 5 

So •> c 
.•.g— = ^;Sti being the excess steel in tension required to 

balance the steel in compression. 

The percentage value of St (ordinary tension 
reinforcement) required for the given stresses = 
kfc 
2fs 
and the total tension reinforcement required viz., 

St = St + Sti 
If now any percentage value, say, .0075, be assigned toSc 
then 

Sti % = I Sc% = .003%; and St%= (.0075 + .003)% = 

.0105%. 

It is known, and will appear from a preceding result, 

3 7 

that, k = 5 and .'- j = ô ^"d as this completes all 
o o, 

the data required, 



3„ 600 _ 
8 30000 ~ 



B.M. -St X 15000 x j d = .0105 bd x 15000x ' d 

o 



d = 0.0852 \/ 



B.M. 



This determines the concrete section and the areas 
of tension and compression steel required are obtained 
from percentages above stated. 

The reader will notice that the values fork, j, and St 
are the same as for beams having tension reinforcement 
only; while the value for St varies with the choice of a 
value for Sc as does the equation to d. It is therefore, 
a matter of current practice as to what percentage value 
shall be assigned to Sc and therefore as to what the 
equation to d shall be. The writer's purpose is only to 
show how simply, percentage values and an equation to 
d (or b) can be obtained, for any assigned stresses. 

It might be urged against this method that it sets 
the compression steel too low in the section and is there- 
fore extravagant. Such an objection would be debatable, 
but it can be met by showing that the centre of compres- 
sion can be set at any point in a section and percentage 
values and an equation to d be derived therefor. 

The figure shows the compression area of a beam 
containing steel. 



v5<: =pbd^ 



I. !> ,1 



rd, 



^ 



V3~ 

V 



hi A 

If k denotes the depth of concrete in compression, and 
the modular ratio is assumed to be 15, and if rdi ^ deoth 
to centre of compression, it can be shown that k- ' ^ 



k-di 
~k-3rdi 

-^ k k'^ 



X 90 pd x (rdi-di). Then if d, = -j k and rd, 



k (1-1) 



k(l- 



-15 

16 



X 90 pd X 1^.-. k = 135 pd 
16 2 



For any given stresses k (the usual kd) is known in 
terms of d. Thus for stresses of 600 and 15000 in concrete 

and steel respectively k = 5 d .•.. g d = — g — 

.-. p (percentage value of Sc) = .0055; like value for 

Sti=^xgx.0055= .0025.-. percentage value for St = .0075 

+ .0025 = .01. 

1 



] = 



^ 3 

le^'s 



.883 and d = .0869 \/ 



B.M. 



In conclusion it might be said that doubly reinforced 
T beams can be as simply analysed as rectangular beams. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



15 



THE JOURNAL OF 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 



Board of Management 

President 

H. H. VAUGHAN 

Vice-President 

J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN 

Councillors 

ERNEST BROWN WALTER J. FRANCIS 

R. A. ROSS 
H. R. SAFFORD ARTHUR SURVEYER 

Editor and Manager 

FRASER S. KEITH 

Associate Editors 

C. M. ARNOLD Calgary 

FREDERICK B. BROWN Montreal 

J. B. CHALLIES Ottawa 

A. R. CROOKSHANK St. John 

A. G. DALZELL Vancouver 

J. N. deSTEIN Regina 

GEO. L.GUY Winnipeg 

R. J. GIBB Edmonton 

GEO. HOGARTH Toronto 

J. A. BUTEAU Quebec 

J. B. HOLDCROFT Victoria 

K. H. SMITH Halifax 

H. B. DWIGHT Hamilton 

Vol. II. January 1919 



No.l 



i^inctccn l^unbrcb anb i^inctcen opens a ncto 
pear on tt)e calcnbar, a ncto epocf) in tfjc fjiôtorp of tfjc 
tnorlb anb a nctu Jjope in tfje {jeartô of manfeinb. Sn 
ttjis ncto era totnarbs tutjicf) tuc look fortoarb toitf) 
confibence, let n& resolbc ttjat as memfaerg of a great 
profeggion, toe toill bo all in our potuer to bring tfje 
profession to its rigJjtful exalteb position. 

jfMap tfje members of tftis institute enjoj» buring 
t\)t coming pear, a periob of blessing greater tfjan anp 
in tlje past, toitfj ftealtt), Ijappiness anb prosperity in 
full measure. 



Annual General Meeting 

Remember the dates of the Annual General 
Meeting and the General Professional Meeting. On 
January 28th, the Annual Meeting will be held in 
Montreal, at which time auditors will be appointed 
and scrutineers named to count the ballots, after 
which adjournment will take place to meet at the 
Chateau Laurier, Ottawa, on February 11th. The 
General Prof essional Meeting will continue February 
12th and 13th. 

Canada's Need 

Under the above heading, Julian C. Smith, M.E.I.C., 
member of Council, whose established position places 
him in a position of authority, has written a 
symposium of the situation in Canada in relation to re- 
quirements for the future. After speaking of the heavy 
debt, he outlines what it is desirable to accomplish, as 
follows: — 

1. We desire that all the industries of this country 
as nearly as may be, shall operate successfully, and that 
all workers in Canada shall have work to do, and proper 
recompense therefor. 

2. We desire to accomplish the first item without 
increasing the burden of our own country, and passing 
along a greater debt to our successors. 

3. In order to accomplish the two conditions above, 
we desire that the taxation levied by the Dominion, 
Provincial and Municipal Governments shall be kept to 
the minimum requirements, and yet shall be sufficient so 
that proper sinking funds may be established to the end 
that within a reasonable time the debts which have 
accrued may be substantially reduced. 

4. The above points all resolve themselves into the 
problem of increasing the available wealth of this country 
as rapidly as possible. 

Following a discussion of the question of increasing 
wealth by economy, he states that the most important 
increase of wealth is by means of agriculture which 
should be increased in every way possible. Mining also 
should be developed with a view to encouraging the pro- 
duction of minerals so that the burden of mining companies 
may be kept within reasonable bounds. 

This would lead to an increase of the export and the 
sale of mineral products. The policy should be pursued 
and the encouragement of such industries as that of 
paper and pulp and the development of water power. 
In connection with this important matter Mr. Smith says: 

Canada is fortunate in possessing a large number 
of valuable waterpowers. It is unfortunate in possessing 
apparently a large number of people who are anxious 
to prevent the development of these waterpowers. 

Although in the muck-raking literature of the last 
ten years, the development of waterpowers has come in 
for an undue share of attention, few people realize that 
after all some 90 per cent of the total amount of power 
utilized on the continent of North America is developed 
from coal by means of steam plants, and that only about 
10 per cent is developed from waterpower. 



16 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



This overwhelming use of steam power, as against 
waterpower. is due altogether to the economic reason 
that it was cheaper to put in the steam plants and operate 
them, than to develop waterpowers under the conditions 
surrounding the development of these waterpowers. 

Waterpowers have important uses. The principal 
economic use of waterpowers to-day is to serve these in- 
dustrial purposes where the load is practically continuous. 
Such loads include the grinding of wood pulp, the operation 
of large industrial plants which operate continuously, and 
principally the operation of electric furnaces where, com- 
bined with the continuous use of power, is to be had a 
further advantage in the high temperature of the electric 
arc. 

Canada is similar to some other northern countries, 
such as Norway, in having waterpowers. The coal which 
Canada possesses is limited and located in the extreme 
East and West of the country, so that the expense of 
getting the coal is now, and probably will be higher than in 
countries like England and the United States. It is there- 
fore essential that the waterpowers be utilized to the 
maximum extent possible, so as to decrease the amount 
of coal which is purchased from abroad. By using one 
of our own resources instead of buying the material 
outside the country, a distinct economic gain accrues, 
always provided that the expenditure for the waterpower 
itself, the method of development etc., are undertaken and 
carried through in such a fashion that there really be a 
saving by its operation. 

The total amount of energy used for lighting purposes, 
and for the small user, that is the home user or the minor 
factory, does not exceed 25 per cent of the total energy 
developed for electric power purposes. The other 75 per 
cent is used for industrial purposes by a relatively small 
number of consumers, namely : — the capitalists who have 
been held in such scorn. 

The Dominion of Canada, and particularly the 
Province of Quebec, has a great opportunity in the next 
few years of establishing a vast series of waterpower 
developments. Such developments will lead to the 
investment of large amounts of money, the employment 
of many men during the construction period, and the esta- 
blishment of huge industries to use the electric power 
when developed. 

With the creation of these industries will come the 
ability to export from this country the products made with 
electric power; and we will thus be turning into money 
natural resources which are now being wasted, and 
bringing that money back into this country to add to our 
wealth. 

From this brief summary of the conditions which are 
going to face us, it seems obvious that those natural 
resources which exist in this country should not be kept 
for our distant successors. We will find the natural 
conditions such, that however great may be our haste, 
the development of our resources must take much time, 
so that we need not worry over their too rapid exhaustions. 

We have in Canada the best sources of wealth in 
the shipping of our agricultural products, our mining 
products, and the possibility of obtaining products from 
our waterpowers. We are rich in potential things, and 
we must convert these potentialities into actualities. 



A policy of expansion and development of such resources 
must be carried out, and it must be recognized that in 
order to carry out such a policy, the promoters of the 
desired enterprises must be granted proper compensation 
for their efforts. The cry for conservation of our 
resources which one has heard so much for the last few 
years, should be toned down, until it means for the 
greatest benefit of Canada, an immediate development of 
all of our available resources so that we can become more 
powerful, more wealthy and pay the debts we have 
incurred. 

Canada's Maps Catalogued 

Engineers will learn with interest that a catalogue 
of maps has been published by the Geographic Board 
of Canada by which it is possible to tell at a glance 
whether a certain area of the Dominion has been mapped, 
what the maps of this area are and by whom published. 

A map is the representation of surveys; usually, it 
originates in a survey department. The survey may be 
an elaborate topographical survey or a more or less 
superficial one; hence there are maps of many different 
kinds. 

In Great Britain, a detailed topographical survey of 
the whole country has been executed by one organization, 
the Ordnance Survey. The results are published in a 
few series of maps, each series on a suitable scale. It is 
a simple matter to select any sheets of a series that may 
be required for any particular purpose; these sheets give 
all the information that can be looked for in a topogra- 
phical map, and so there is no need to search elsewhere 
for anything better. The same work is carried out in 
France by the Service Géographique de l'Armée, an 
organization corresponding to the Ordnance Survey of 
Great Britain. Italy, Austria, Germany and other 
European countries have similar organizations and publish 
regular series of topographical maps. 

A small beginning has been made in Canada but only 
a few topographical sheets have been issued and they 
include but a very small portion of the Dominion. With 
this exception, the maps available, where there are any, 
are more or less rudimentary. For the outlying regions, 
rough exploratory maps are the only ones in existence. 

Many government organizations are engaged in 
mapping. The federal services who are executing surveys 
for that purpose are the (Geological Survey, the Topogra- 
phical Surveys (Surveyor General's), the Hydrographie 
Survey and the Military Survey. The Geological Survey 
has the greatest number of maps to its credit ; our know- 
ledge of the geography of the outlying portions of the 
Dominion is almost entirely due to its explorers. The 
Surveyor General comes next; the sectional maps issued 
by his office cover the western provinces with the exception 
of British Columbia, and his publications include many 
topographical and other maps. Charts of the sea coasts 
and inland navigable waters are issued by the Hydro- 
grapher. The Military Survey is a topographical survey; 
some sheets in Ontario and Quebec have been completed. 

The lands and mines departments of the several 
provinces are also making surveys and issuing maps The 
British Admiralty, the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
the U.S. Hydrographie Office, the U.S. Lake Survey, the 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



17 



French Service Hydrographique, are pubhshing charts 
which include parts of Canada. Other maps of Canada 
are found in the bulletins or journals of geographical 
societies and in books of travel and exploration. 

After their publication by the survey organizations, 
the maps are frequently copied, re-arranged, compiled, 
or put in a different shape, by other services, or editors 
of geographical publications. Some of these compilations 
may be the work of persons unskilled in surveying and 
may actually be misleading. 

Among such a multiplicity of maps and variety of 
origin, it was somewhat difficult for anyone but an expert 
to ascertain what maps of any particular region or locality 
had been published, and where they could be obtained. 
This difficulty is removed by the " Catalogue of the 
Maps in the Collection of the Geographic Board." 

The nature of the work of the Geographic Board 
requires as large and comprehensive a collection of maps 
of Canada as can be obtained. The collection, which 
on the 1st January, 1918, consisted of 1258 maps, may be 
considered as fairly complete. With few exceptions, it 
includes all the important maps issued during the last 
fifty years and many earlier ones. Generally, plans on 
a scale greater than one mile to the inch have been left 
out but a few were included for special reasons. 

A graphical index of eleven sheets accompanies the 
list of maps. The outlines of each map are shown in 
blue on the index sheet, the catalogue number of -the 
map being inserted in the upper right hand corner. 

The catalogue is divided into five parts, the first 
one, " Dominion," containing all maps of more than 
400 miles in length or breadth; these are shown on sheet 
No. 1 of the index. The other parts are Maritime 
Provinces, — Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, 
Alberta and the Northwest Territories, — British Columbia 
and Yukon. Any map less than 400 miles in extent is 
outlined on the index sheet, or one of the index sheets of 
the province in which the greater part of the map lies; 
generally it is not shown on the sheet of the adjoining 
province. 

Copies of the Catalogue can be obtained from the 
Secretary of the Geographic Board of Canada, Royal 
Bank Building, Ottawa. 



New Certificates 

Many corporate members who have been elected 
within the past nine months have been wondering why 
they have not received their certificates of membership. 
The delay has been due to the fact that a new certificate 
has been under consideration and was given final approval 
at the meeting of Council on December 17th. It is 
intended that the certificates will be prepared as soon as 
possible and forwarded to those who have been elected 
since the change of the name has been effected. 

A number of inquiries have been received regarding 
changing the old certificate, and this question will rest 
entirely with the members. All who desire, may receive 
one of the new certificates by paying the regular rate. 



Institute Fraternity 

On December 4th, a letter was forwarded by the 
Council of The Institute to the Council of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, which is reproduced below 
and a similar letter to the Councils of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, American Institute of 
Mining Engineers and the Institution of Civil Engineers 
of Great Britain. As the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers was holding its Annual Meeting at that time, 
a telegram of good will was forwarded which was read 
at one of the sessions and received with enthusiasm. The 
letters in question were as follows: 

Gentlemen: — 

Taking advantage of the occasion offered by the signing of the 
armistice terms imposed by the Allies and the United States, we desire 
to extend to the Council and Members of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers, our cordial greetings of felicitation and good will. 

It is with unusual satisfaction that we find ourselves banded 
together in having helped to achieve a common purpose. Members of 
our respective organizations have played no small part in the world 
events, which, we believe, should lead to a greater recognition of the 
part the engineer plays in the world's development. 

Assuring you of our highest regard and cordial good will and 
expressing the hope that in our common aim to work for the elevation 
of the engineering profession we may be drawn closer together in our 
mutual endeavours. 

On behalf of the Council of 

The Engineering Institute of Canada, 
Yours faithfully. 

Fraser S. Keith, 

Secretary. 

Replies to this letter show how cordial is the feeling 
which exists between ourselves and our sister engineering 
societies in the United States. Quite recently the question 
has come up of closer co-operation between the two 
branches of the American societies, which have been 
established in Canada and ourselves, leading to affiliation 
or amalgamation, which has been discussed but as there 
is nothing in our By-Laws which will enable us to admit 
corporate members, except inasmuch as the individual 
is qualified, it is not possible to adopt such a procedure. 
In the new By-Laws the Branches have power to establish 
sections representing the main divisions of engineering 
and through these sections a member interested in any 
particular line may receive the greatest benefit. The 
suggestion has been received that members of other 
engineering societies in good standing be admitted with 
a lower entrance fee. 

The Presidents and Secretaries of all our sister 
societies have been invited to attend our Annual General 
Meeting and it is expected that several will accept the 
invitation. Already the President of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, Comfort A. Adams, 
has intimated that he will be in attendance, and also 
Alfred D. Flinn, Secretary of the Engineering Council. 
The attendance of men prominent in other societies will 
give an opportunity of discussing matters of mutual 
interest. 

The following letter has been received from the Sec- 
retary of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers: 

Dear Sir: — 

Your communication of December 4th was presented to the 
Board of Directors of this Institute at a meeting held in Philadelphia, 
December 13th. 



18 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



The Board directed me to convey to you its sincere appreciation 
of the sentiments expressed in your letter, which are heartily recip- 
rocated, and to advise you that this Institute is in full accord with 
your orcanization in the belief that the coming economic, social, and 
technical developments impose obliRations upon and afford opportu- 
nities to the engineering profession which demand the close co-operation 
of all engineering societies. 

This Institute will be glad at all times to work with your organiza- 
tion of our brother engineers in Canada in the interests of the entire 
profession. 

Very truly yours, 

F. L. Hutchinson, Secretary. 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers. 

Branches Memorialize Government 

On December 18th a deputation representing the 
Ottawa, Hamilton and Toronto Branches, in all fifteen 
members of The Institute, presented a memorial to the 
Honourable the Provincial Secretary of Ontario, which 
included the recommendations made by the Committee 
on Sewage Disposal of the Toronto Branch consisting 
of Professor Peter Gillespie, Fred A. Dallyn, William R. 
Worthington, Irving H. Nevitt and Willis Chipman. 
The report forwarded by the chairman of the Committee, 
Willis Chipman, to Geo. Hogarth, Secretary of the Toronto 
Branch, and which constituted the memorial to the 
Provincial Secretary, is as follows: 

Dear Sir:— 

The committee appointed by the Toronto Branch re Sewage 
Disposal has held five meetings since September last, at which many 
questions connected with Sewage Disposal were discussed and 
considered, and at a final meeting held on the 14th instant, it was 
decided to submit the following recommendations to the Branch for 
submission to the Parent Institute: — 

1. That the Provincial Public Health Acts of the different 
provinces should provide that two or more members of each Provincial 
Board of Health shall be engineers and corporate members of The 
Enffineering Imtitiile of Canada. 

2. That the Provincial Public Health Acts should provide that 
all reports, plans, etc., respecting schemes for sanitation and sewage 
disposal required to be filed Ijy Provincial authorities, shall be prepared, 
signed and submitted by an engineer, a corporate member of The 
Engineering InsliUilc of Canada. 

3. That Dominion Legislation sliould be enacted respecting the 
pollution of International and Inter-Provincial Waters, and that 
Provincial Legislation in the different Provinces respecting stream 
pollution be made uniform as far as practicable. 

4. That the Public Health Acts of each Province should give to 
the Provincial Boards of Health some measure of control over the 
operation of municipal water purification plants and sewage disposal 
works. 

5. That all Proxdncial Public Health Acts should stipulate that 
no municipality can submit to the votes of the electors any by-law 
pro\ading for the raising of money for the construction, alteration or 
extension of any water works system or water purification works, or 
of any sewage system or sewage disposal works, without having had 
the approval of the Provincial Board of Health, based on plans, reports 
and designs submitted by engineers. 

6. That the keeping of accurate and up-to-date records of all 
extensions and services added to sewer and waterworks systems, should 
be required of municipalities by the Provincial Board of Health. 
Where municipaUties have no system of their own for keeping such 
records the adoption of a method endorsed by the Provincial Board 
might be insisted upon. 

7. That where Provincial Boards of Health maintain laboratories 
for the investigation of problems in public sanitation, such laboratories 
might, under reasonable conditions, and with much advantage to the 
country, the engineering profession and the Boards themselves, be 
placed at the disposal of this Institute and through it, of its rnembers who 
have problems in municipal sanitation for which they desire solutions 

The Provincial Secretary promised full consideration 
by his colleagues of the memorial as presented by the 



Ontario Branches. The action of the Branches in this 
connection is worthy of the highest praise as it is by such 
public spirited action that a better appreciation of the 
profession is to be obtained. 

Salaries of Engineers 

Correspondence on this subject, published in this 
and previous issues of The Jourmil, shows how acute is 
the feeling respecting remuneration being received by 
engineers, particularly those employed in the Government 
service. In many cases salaries received by men doing 
responsible engineering work have been distressingly 
low, so much so in some cases, as to be an affront to the 
profession. 

For manv years members of our profession, of whom 
C. E. W. Dodwell, M.E.I.C, of Halifax, is noteworthy, 
have made earnest efforts to the end that engineers in 
the Government service should receive recognition as 
such, and not as clerks, the accomplishment of which 
would not only give a standing to the engineer in his 
technical capacity, but would also increase his monetary 
reward. A number of years ago a bill was submitted to 
the then Prime Minister, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, by a 
committee of this organization, and the promises made at 
that time led members of The Institute to believe that 
an Act would be passed placing engineers in the 
Government employment on a proper basis. Shortly 
after, the Government experienced difficulties and went 
out of power. In 1917 the question was revived and a 
strong committee of men in the civil service was appointed 
to go into the subject thoroughly and make recommenda- 
tions which would raise the standard of the engineer in 
the civil service. At that time the hearty co-operation of 
Council was promised and given. However a change 
made by the Government in appointing a Civil Service 
Commission, designed to remove all appointments from the 
realm of politics, has presented a further opportunity 
for the engineer to receive recognition. A strong 
committee of the Council has been appointed, consisting 
of W. F. Tye, chairman, President H. H. Vaughan and 
President-elect, Lieut. -Col. R. W. Leonard, to represent 
The In-^tifnte in securing more adequate recognition and 
remuneration from the Government for engineers. This 
committee has made an appointment with the Civil 
Service Commission, at which time its members will, no 
doubt, prove to the Commission that the standard of 
reward for the technical men in the Government service 
should be raised by a very considerable amount. In meeting 
the representatives of The Institute the Commission has 
shown a willingness to be educated in this connection, 
and the education they will receive from the committee 
will work to the advantage of every engineer employed 
in the Government. 

In the reclassification that will take place shortly 
it is expected that a very substantial increase will be 
accorded to engineers in the Civil Service. 

Legislation Situation 

Nearly every branch of The Institute has had this 
important subject under discussion during the past two 
months. A résumé of the situation throughout Canada 
from ihe viewpoints of the various branches will be 
published in the Februajy issue of The Journal. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



19 



Programme of Meetings 

At the time of going to press a complete programme 
of the Annual Meeting and the General Professional 
Meeting is not available. Below is published a tentative pro- 
gramme for Tuesdav, Wednesday, and Thursday, February 
nth, 12th and 13th, forwarded by the Secretary of the 
Professional Meeting Committee, G. Blanchard Dodge, 
M.E.I.C. 

Tuesday 



Morning, 10 a.m. 

Luncheon and 
Addresses 



Afternoon, 

4 p.m. 
Evening 



Morning 



Luncheon and 
Address 

Afternoon 



Evening 



Morning 



4.30 p.m. 



Motion Pictures, 
A.M.E.I.C. 



by B. E. Norrish, 



Luncheon and 
short address 



President Vaughan, presiding. 

Business session. 

His Excellency, the Duke of Devon- 
shire, Hon. M.E.I.C. 

C. A. Adams, President, A. LE.E. 

A. D. Flinn, Secretary, United En- 
gineering Council on International 
Engineering Afïiliation. 

Business session. 

President's Address (invitations) 

Informal dinner and smoker. 

Wednesday 

Unfinished business of annual meeting 

(if any). 
" Standards in Engineering," by Capt. 

R. J. Durley, M.E.I.C. 
' 'Soldiers Re-establishment," by Major 

Anthes. 
"The Development and Future of 

Aviation in Canada," by M. R. 

Riddell, Chief Engineer, Canadian 

Aeroplanes Ltd. 
Dr. Ira N. Hollis, representing 

American Society of Mechanical 

Engineers. 
National Highways and Good 

Roads, by J. Duchastel, M.E.I.C. 

Hon. President, Canadian Good 

Roads Association. 
Frazil, by R. N. Wilson, M.E.I.C. 

Chief Engineer, Montreal Light, 

Heat & Power Company, Ltd. 
Standard Datum Planes in 

Canada, by W. Bell Dawson, 

M.E.I.C, Supt. of Tidal Survey, 

Department of Naval Service. 
Formal gathering. 
Reception by President: Ladies, 

Music, Refreshments, Dancing. 
Thursday 

(1) Topical discussion on the Econ- 
omics of Railway Electrification, 
opened by John Murphy, M.E.I.C. 
Dept. of Railways and Canals, and 
Railway Commission. 

(2) Mining and Metallurgy of Cobalt 
Silver Ore, by Lt.-Col. R. W. 
Leonard, M.E.I.C. President, 
Coniagas Mines. 

by Hon. F. B. Carvell, Minister of 
Public Works, to be followed by a 
visit to the. New Parliament Build- 
ings, Ladies. 



Luncheon— Tuesday 11.00 - 1.00 p.m., at Chateau Laurier- 
Complimentary tickets to visiting members. 

Informal Dinner and Smoker — 

Tickets $2.50, to be obtained on registering. 
Luncheon — Wednesday and Thursday, Feb. 12th and 

13th, 1.00 p.m., at Chateau Laurier. Tickets $1.00 

to be obtained on registering. 
In connection with the arrangements for hotel 
accommodation which may constitute somewhat of a 
problem, visiting members are earnestly requested to 
make their own arrangements, concerning which mention 
was made in the December Journal. If when arranging 
for reservations a copy of the letter is also forwarded to 
G. Blanchard Dodge, M.E.I.C, Topographical Surveys, 
Department of the Interior, Ottawa, the Reception 
Committee will assist in securing reservations. 



REPORT OF COUNCIL MEETINGS 



Special Meeting 

A special meeting of the Council was held at head- 
quarters on Tuesday evening, December 3rd, at 8.15 P.M., 
at the call of the President, to discuss an urgent request 
received from the Saskatchewan Branch, that approval 
be given for the submission of an Act to the Saskatchewan 
Legislature, immediately. 

The Secretary presented a draft just received from 
the Saskatchewan Branch which was presumed to be 
similar to the one submitted by Council to the Branch. 
It was found, however, to contain radical points of 
difference. 

The minutes of the meeting of a special committee 
of The Institute and the Canadian Mining Institute were 
read, in which it was pointed out that as far as the draft 
Act regarding legislation published in the November 
issue of The Journal was concerned, it did not contain 
any points that could be classed as objectionable by the 
Mining Institute, from the viewpoint of working to the 
disadvantage of its members. This meeting further 
recommended that legislation should have the careful 
consideration and approval of the majority of the 
Canadian engineers before being enacted. The members 
of the Mining Institute would recommend to their Council 
that legislation be opposed until it had more mature 
consideration but that the Mining Institute would co- 
operate with The Engineering Institute towards securing 
legislation. 

After general discussion it was decided that Council 
had no power to authorize the Saskatchewan Branch to 
proceed to secure legislation, as such an important matter 
should be laid before the entire membership. The 
Secretary was instructed to send a nightlettergram to the 
Saskatchewan Branch as follows: — 

" At a special meeting of Council held at. your 
request I was instructed to advise the Saskatchewan 
Branch that it does not lie within the power of the 
Council to approve an act for submission to a 
legislature without the mandate of the membership 
at large. My communication of October second 
was intended to convey to your Branch that Council 



20 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



is sympathetic towards the endeavours of your 
Branch to draft suitable legislation and would assist 
in framing and submitting a suitable Act for the 
consideration of the membership. The action of 
other Branches in submitting to the Council drafts 
of proposed Acts and discussion of the general 
question subsequent to the submission of your 
first draft, strengthen the feeling of Council that 
action should be deferred until all the Branches have 
had an opportunity of expressing their views." 

Regular Monthly Meeting 

The regular monthly meeting of the Council was held 
at headquarters on Tuesday, December 17th, at 8.15 P.M. 

When the minutes of the previous meeting had been 
approved the report of the Executive Committee was 
presented and their recommendations approved as follows : 

Co-operation for National Reconstruction: It was 
decided, in view of the letters received from the Toronto 
arid Ottawa Branches, that meetings be held by all the 
Branches to obtain expression of opinions and suggestions 
from Branch members in regard to the co-operation of 
The Institute for national reconstruction. 

Legif'lation: Correspondence from various Branches, 
giving their opinions regarding legislation was noted, it 
being intended, when the view points of all the Branches 
are received to publish same in The Journal. 

Co-operation with the Canadian Branches of the A.I.E.E. 
aiid the A.S.M.E.: A letter was received from Professor 
Peter Gillespie of Toronto, suggesting co-operation with 
the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers. A lengthy 
discussion took place and it was decided that there was 
no way in which the Toronto Branch of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers or the Ontario Branch 
of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers could 
be affiliated. A committee, consisting of Walter J. 
Francis, Julian C. Smith, President H. H. Vaughan and 
the Secretary was appointed to meet Mr. Alfred D. Flinn, 
when in Ottawa in attendance at the Annual General 
Meeting, to discuss the question of The Institute joining 
the Engineering Council, at which time the question of 
branches in Canada of the United States societies could 
be discussed. The Secretary^ was instructed to commu- 
nicate with Mr. Flinn in this connection. 

Annual General Meeting: The following replies to 
invitations to attend the Annual General Meeting were 
presented; C. A. Adams, President, American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers, F. L. Hutchinson, Secretary, 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Bradley 
Stoughton, Secretary, American Institute of Mining 
Engineers, A. D. Gresham, for President, American 
Institute of Mining Engineers, D. B. Dowling, President, 
Canadian Mining Institute, H. Mortimer-Lamb, Secretary, 
Canadian Mining Institute, C. T. Main, President, 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

Annual Meeting, A.S.M.E.: Note was made of 
the telegram sent to the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers on the occasion of their Annual Meeting as 
follows: " The President and Council of The Engineering 



Institute of Canada extend to the Council and members 
of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers cordial 
good wishes for the success of your Annual Meeting and 
express the hope that with the close of the world war we 
may be drawn in closer co-operation in our mutual 
endeavours for the welfare of the profession " and of 
the cordial reply received from Secretary Rice. 

Joint Committee of Technical Organizations: The 
consideration of Council was asked in connection with a 
suggestion received, that the Joint Committee of Technical 
Organizations was not worthy of further support or 
recognition. It was resolved that the principle of 
scattering the energies of the members of the branches 
was detrimental to their strength, and, consequently, 
further recognition or support of the Joint Committee ol 
Technical Organizations was withdrawn. The Secretary 
was instructed to so advise the branches. 

Professional Meeting, Ottawa: The minutes of a 
meeting of the Special Professional Meeting Committee 
of the Ottawa Branch were received and noted. 

Resolution of the Quebec Branch: A resolution 
received from the Quebec Branch regarding representation 
of the engineering profession on commissions was received 
and a copy passed on to Mr. Tye, chairman of a special 
committee appointed to look into and recommend regard- 
ing the Civil Service Commission. 

New Certificates: Approval was given to the revised 
certificate which had been previously submitted tc 
Council and in which Council desired a slight alteration. 
It was further confirmed that the title of the certificate 
be the form used on the official stationery of The Institute, 
and the Secretary was instructed to publish a cut of the 
certificate in The Journal and have new certificates 
prepared, the Committee to choose the paper upon which 
they shall be printed. As to new certificates, it was 
decided that they should be issued to any members who 
desired them. 

Journal Postal Privileges: It was decided, in view 
of a report made by the Secretary in regard to his inter- 
view with the Post Office authorities, including Dr. R. M. 
Coulter, Deputy Post Master General, that a letter be 
sent to the members ' of The Institute requesting 
subscriptions to The Journal. The President and the 
Secretary were appointed a Committee to draft the letter. 

Branch By-Latos: The By-Laws drawn up by the 
Special Committee of the Council and a Committee ol 
the Montreal Branch, were submitted and the Secretary 
was instructed to send a copy to each Branch for discussion 
and approval. 

Co-operation re Civic Development: A letter from 
Frederick Wright, Editor of the Canadian Municipal 
Journal, asking the co-operation of The Institute in a 
movement for civic development, was submitted. Full 
approval was given to the proposal and the Secretary 
was instructed to advise Mr. Wright that the Council 
would be pleased to appoint delegates to attend the 
suggested meeting. 

Classifications: Classifications were made for a 
ballot returnable January 21st, 1919. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



21 



A ballot was canvassed and the following elections 
and transfers effected: — 

Members 

Angus Daniel Campbell, B.A.Sc, M.E. of Cobalt, 
Ont. Since 1911 mining engineer of the O'Brien Mine. 
George James Jeffrey, of Vancouver, B. C. (Since 
deceased). William Frederick McLaren, M.E., of 
Hamilton, Ont. With the Westinghouse Company since 
1901 and since 1905 chief draftsman with the Canadian 
Westinghouse Company. Mr. McLaren has seen active 
service at the front, being a Captain in the 164th Batt. 
C.E.F., during 1916 and 1917. Walter Taylor Moodie, 
of Winnipeg, Man. With the Canadian Northern 
Railway since 1908. At the present time district 
engineer. Harold Allison Russell, of Dartnx)uth, N.S. 
Member of the contracting firm Russell & McAulay. 
James Alfred Stairs, of Wayne, Mich. General 
superintendent, ordnance department, Harroun Motors 
Corporation, Wayne, Mich. 

Associate Members 

Kenneth Carling Berney, B.Sc, of Hamilton, Ont. 
Electrical engineer for Canadian Westinghouse Company 
since 1909. Joseph George Cameron, B.Sc, of Finch, Ont. 
Since 1917 County roads superintendent and engineer for 
the Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry. 
Walter Francis John Cosser, of Schumacher, Ont. At 
the present time mechanical superintendent in charge of 
plant for the Mclntvre Porcupine Mines. James Simpson 
Galletly, B.A.Sc, of Oshawa, Ont. Since 1912 in charge 
of parties on Dominion Land Surveys. Harvey Wilfred 
Harris, B.Sc. of Winnipeg, Man. Engineer for Thomas 
Kelly & Sons, general contractors, of Winnipeg, since 
1916. Frederick Innes Ker, B.Sc, of Montreal. Since 
1912 chief engineer and general superintendent. Cook 
Construction Company. Albert Ernest Kerr, B.A.Sc, 
of Hamilton, Ont. Electrical draftsman, Steel Company 
of Canada, in complete charge of electrical drafting. 
Albert Levvy, of Winnipeg, Man. Managing Director 
of the Levvy Electrical Company, Limited, Winnipeg. 
Donald Lewis, of New Glasgow, N.S. Since 1915 with 
the Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Company. Since 1917 has 
occupied the position of chief draftsman. Edwin 
Markham, B.C.E., of Regina, Sask. Assistant to 
Stewart Young, district surveyor, Highways Department, 
Saskatchewan. Emerson Hibbert Morse, of Norwood, 
Winnipeg, Man. Draftsman with the G.T.P.Ry., 
Winnipeg. Christopher Anthony Newton, of Magnolia, 
Maryland. At the present time progress and resident 
engineer on construction of water works for the United 
States Government chlorine plant, Edgewood Arsenal, 
Maryland. Roland Foster Palmer, of Winnipeg, Man. 
Member of the firm of Palmer & Hobson. Francis 
William Bertram Scholefield, of Winnipeg, Man. With 
the J. McDiarmid Company Limited, general contractors, 
as chief engineer. William James Stuart, of Vancouver, 
B.C. At the present time on active service as lieutenant 
with the Third Field Company, Royal Engineers. 
Before enlisting he was resident engineer on construction 
of permanent pavements and roadways, Vancouver. 



Isaac Joseph Tait, of Montreal. Associated with J. T. 
Farmer since 1917. Previous to this he was chief engineer 
in charge of mechanical equipment for the C.P.R. 

Associates 

William McNeill, of Vancouver, B. C. Since 1908 
assistant general manager of the Western Canada Power 
Company. Gerald Steele Roxburgh, B.A.Sc, of 
Winnipeg, Man. Since 1905 with Fetherstonhaugh & 
Company as Western manager, headquarters, Winnipeg. 

Juniors 

Henry Donald Holland, B.Sc, of Montreal, superin- 
tendent of construction for M. J. Stack, contractor. 
Thomas Earl Gordon Sissons, of Montreal. Engineer on 
construction for the Abitibi Power & Paper Company, 
Iroquois Falls, Ont. Hercules Smart, of Ottawa, Ont. 
American Gauge Production representative, Imperial 
Ministry of Munitions. Albert William Swan, B..'\.Sc., 
of Sherbrooke, Que. Has been in the production 
department of Canadian Ingersoll - Rand Limited, 
Sherbrooke, on time-study and kindred work from May 
1917 till March 1918, since then he has been in charge 
of preparation of all technical publicity for the company. 

Transferred from the Class of Associate Member to Member 

William Harvey Carson, C.E., of Ottawa, Ont. Since 
1913 district engineer for the Province of Ontario, 
Department of Marine, Ottawa. Claude Vernon Johnson, 
of Quebec, Que. Since 1914 engineer in charge of 
construction and engineering for Joseph Gosselin Limited, 
General Contractors & Engineers. George Douglas 
Mackie, of Moose Jaw, Sask. (Chairman of the 
Saskatchewan Branch, and Member of Council). City 
Commissioner, Moose Jaw. 

Transferred from the Class of Junior to Associate Member 

Seth Wilson Crowell, B.A., of Yarmouth, N.S. Town 
Engineer, Yarmouth. Harry Wendell Mahon, B.Sc, of 
Great Village, N.S. Since 1917 with the C.C.H.A. 
Headquarters, B.E.F., France. Before going overseas 
was assistant engineer. Water Power Branch, Department 
of the Interior, Halifax. Major Alan Bretell McEwen, 
B.Sc, M.C., of Montreal. At the present time principal 
assistant to R. S. & W. S. Lea, Montreal. Major McEwen 
served with the C.E.F., from 1914 to 1918. Peter Scott, 
of Glasgow, Scotland. Since the outbreak of the War, 
senior assistant inspector of the munitions areas, Glasgow. 
Previously, with the C.P.R., Eastern Lines. Briton Oliver 
Smith, B.Sc, of London, Eng., formerly of Montreal. At 
the present time mechanical engineer with Vickers 
Limited, England. 

Transferred from Class of Student to Junior 

Captain John Frederick Harkom, M.C., of Melbourne, 
Que. Has been overseas since 1914, with the Royal 
Field Artillery, B.E.F., France, in command of the 57th 
Medium Trench Mortar Batteries. Joseph Ovila Rolland, 
CE., Ch.E., of Montreal. At the present time chief 
analyst, Canadian Explosives Limited, Belœil, Que. 



22 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



BRANCH NEWS 



Victoria Branch 

J. B. Holdcwfl, A.M. E. I.e., Seaj.-Treas. 

The November meeting of the Victoria Branch was 
held on the 25th inst. with a representative attendance 
of members, and nominations were received for officers to 
guide the destinies of the Branch during the coming 
year. Every position brought forward enough apphcants 
to necessitate a ballot, except that of Sceretary, to which 
J. B. Holdcroft, A.M.E.I.C., will be elected by acclama- 
tion. 

A resolution was passed that the Branch volunteer 
to co-operate with the local Government representatives 
and authorities, in the work of returning demobilized 
soldiers to civilian life and fitting disabled men for 
employment. The committee appointed to report on 
this matter promptly proceeded to interview Major 
Livingstone, vocational officer, with most satisfactory 
results, which will be presented to the Branch at next 
meeting. 

It was suggested that the Council at Montreal take 
similar action by offering the support of our Ith-itilute, as 
a national body, in this most important problem, to the 
Cabinet at Ottawa; also that each Branch take similar 
steps with the local authorities in charge of this work. 
Further, the question of public works to provide employ- 
ment and develope the country should he taken up by 
our Institute without delay, and on sound scientific lines. 

The annual meeting of the Victoria Branch, of The 
Engineering Institute of Canada, was held on the 11th 
inst., the principal business of the evening being the 
election of officers for the ensuing year. 

The following were elected: — Chairman, W. Young; 
Vice Chairman, R. A. Bainbridge; Treasurer, E. Davis; 
Secretary, J. B. Holdcroft; Executive, W. Everall and 
N. A. Yarrow. These, with Messrs. D. O. Lewis and 
R. W. Maclntyre, past chairmen, form the executive 
committee. Auditors, F. Knewstubb and W. Stokes. 

Following the taking of the chair by Mr. Young a 
hearty vote of thanks was tendered the retiring chairman, 
Mr. R. W. Macintyre, and general appreciation was 
expressed for his untiring efforts towards the furtherance 
of the interests of the profession as a whole, and of the 
Victoria branch in particular. 

Among other new business which will engage the 
attention of the branch during the coming year is the 
problem of the returning soldiers and the provision of 
sufficient and suitable employment and training. A 
discussion was opened on this subject, and it is hoped that 
the branch, by suggestion and influence, may be able to 
take a useful part in the work of re-establishing our 
soldiers in civilian life. 

Toronto Branch 

W. S. Harvey, A.M.E.I.C., Secy.-Treas. 

On Tuesday, December 3rd, a well attended meeting 

of the Branch was held in the Chemistry and Mining 

Building of the University of Toronto, when H. K. 

Wicksteed, M.E.I.C, gave an interesting illustrated 



address on the Montreal Tunnel from an Economic Point 
of View. This paper is published in another part of The 
Journal. 

On Tuesday, December 10th, C. H. Rust, M.E.I.C, 
gave a paper on the Water Supply of the City of Victoria, 
B.C., which was illustrated and which was enjoyed by 
the members present. This paper will be published in 
a future issue of The Joumrd. 

Minutes of an open meeting of the Branch held at 
the Institute's Rooms, Engineers Club, at 8 p. m., Tuesday, 
December 17th, 1918. 

The meeting was called to canvass the ballot for the 
election of members for the 1919 Executive. 

The meeting was called to order at 8.15 p. m., with 
G. A. McCarthy in the Chair. 

The scrutineers appointed by the meeting to canvass 
the ballot were Geo. Clark, R. E. W. Hagarty and 
A. F. Stewart. 

While the scrutineers were preparing their report a 
discussion was entered into by the members present 
regarding a copy of a communication issued by the Civil 
Service Commission of Canada and dated November 21st, 
1918, regarding an opening for a position as assistant 
engineer on the staff of the British Columbia Hydro- 
metric Survey at a salary of $1,500.00 per annum. The 
discussion was very lively and Messrs. Proctor, Hewson, 
Cross, Goedike, Phelps and Hogarth took part in it. 

The scrutineers reported that the following members 
were elected to office for 1919 by the ballot just received: — 
Chairman, A. H. Harkness; Secretan,', W. S. Harvey; 
Committee men, H. G. Acres, Willis Chipman and W. A. 
Bucke. 

The members of the Committee elected in 1918 for 
a two-year term, and therefore, members of the 1919 
Executive are Professor H. E. T. Haultain, J. R. W. Ambrose 
and R. O. Wynne-Roberts. 

The retiring Chairman, Professor Gillespie, is also a 
member of the Executive. Members of Council at 
Montreal are also members of the Executive of the 
Toronto Branch. 

The report of the scrutineers was received and con- 
firmed. 

Mr. Chipman addressed the meeting and urged on 
the members that they should attend the meetings of 
the Branch and thus encourage the Executive, who are 
endeavouring to create a greater interest in the affairs 
of The Institute. Mr. Wynne-Roberts spoke on the 
subject of the members becoming acquainted with 
manufacturing industries in the city, and urged that the 
Branch should make inspection trips to various plants of 
interest. The meeting adjourned at 10 p. m. 

Calgary Branch 

C. AI. Ar7wJd, A. M.E.I.C, Secy.-Treas. 
Christmas Happiness and New Year Prosperity. 
The Calgary Branch extends a Hearty Greeting to 
all members of The Institute, wishing them 

A Happy Christmas and Prosperous New Year. 
G. W. CRAIG, C. M. ARNOLD, 

Chairman. Sec.-Treas. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



23 



At the Annual Meetint; of the Calgary Branch, held 
in the Board of Trade rooms on the afternoon of Saturday, 
December 7th. the following officers were elected for the 
coming year: Chairman, S. W. Craig, Secretary- 
Treasurer, C. M. Arnold, lixecutive, Wm. Pearce, A. S. 
Dawson, F. H. Peters, B. L. Thorne, A. S. Chapman, 
Executive Alberta Division, F. H. Peters, S. G. Porter, 
Auditors, J. S. Tempest, R. C. Gillespie. 

Mr. Craig was given a hearty reception upon assum- 
ing his new duties and made a short address, dealing with 
the desirability of publicity on engineering matters. 
The full report of this meeting will be published in the 
February issue. 

At the general meeting of the Branch held on 
November 30th, with F. H. Peters in the chair, there were 
present fifteen members and Messrs. L. B. Elliott and 
R. G. Gibb of the Edmonton Branch were the guests of 
the Branch. 

The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the draft 
of the proposed act governing the practice of professional 
engineering in Alberta. Edmonton representatives who 
had attended especially for this purpose were introduced 
by the Chairman. Mr. Peters drew attention to the 
fact that the preliminary advertisement dealing with the 
proposed legislation had already appeared in the Alberta 
Gazette. The executives of both branches had decided 
to proceed in the matter, as no time was to be lost if the 
Bill was to be presented this coming season. The Branch 
would be asked to confirm the action of the Executive 
in this matter. If would be necessary for the draft to 
be approved by both branches and the Alberta Division 
and it was proposed to send a delegation to Edmonton to 
interview the Premier, if this could be arranged, to 
obtain his views. 

The Secretary was then called upon to read the 
minutes of all previous meetings since the last annual 
meeting and on the motion of Mr. Craig seconded by 
Mr. Houston these were approved and the minutes of 
the last meeting held were signed by the Chairman. 
Mr. Peters then asked Mr. Gibb to read the draft bill on 
legislation. Mr. Gibb stated that the draft had been 
prepared largely by the late Professor Muir Edwards and 
had been gone over by the executives of eachbranch and 
was now considered to be in shape to go before Parliament. 
Mr. Côté, a prominent engineer of Edmonton who was 
also in the Provincial Cabinet, had promised to do all in 
his power to forward the passage of the Bill, provided it 
received the approval of the Premier. He had therefore 
suggested that a delegation wait on the Premier to learn 
his views on the matter. Mr. Gibb then read the draft 
Bill, which was discussed at length clause by clause, and 
all points that were at all debatable were fully explained 
to the satisfaction of the meeting by the Chairman and 
Mr. Gibb. Mr. Peters stated that the Bill had been 
framed on broad lines and details had been avoided as 
far as possible. Any imperfections found to exist after 
the Bill had been enacted could be dealt with in the future 
by amendments. The delegation would consist of two 
members from each Branch and two non-resident mem- 
bers of these could be obtained. Mr. Craig moved 



that the draft Bill as submitted be approved by this 
meeting — seconded by G. N. Houston. Carried. 
Mr. Houston moved that delegates be appointed to wait on 
the Premier, to learn his disposition towards the proposed 
legislation, and that a report be submitted to the branch — 
seconded by C. M. Arnold. Carried. 

It was decided to provide the Councillors of the 
Alberta Division and Executive of each branch with 
copies of the draft bill and also that a copy should be 
forwarded to the Saskatchewan Branch. 

Mr. Peters moved a vote of thanks to the Edmonton 
members present for the work they had done in connection 
with the preparation of the draft bill and steps taken to 
present it to the proper authorities. Carried. 

Mr. Craig, seconded by Mr. Peters, moved that 
a message of condolence be sent to Mrs. Sidenius, widow 
of the late Mr. H. G. Sidenius. The Secretary was 
requested to do this by vote of all present. 

The meeting adjourned at 10.40 p.m. 



Sault Ste. Marie Branch — Proposed 

In keeping with the increased interest in Institute 
affairs, and as a result of a desire on the part of members 
of the profession resident at Sault Ste. Marie it is expected 
that a strong branch of The Institute will be in existence 
there at an early date. On Thursday, December 19th, 
a meeting of the local members of The InMitute was held 
at the Y.M.C.A. at which time it was decided to apply 
for permission to form a Sault Ste. Marie branch. 

An application was consequently prepared and 
submitted to the Council as follows: — 

" We the undersigned hereby beg to apply for permis- 
sion to form a local branch, to be known as the Sault 
Ste. Marie branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada. 

R. S. McCormick 

B. E. Barnhill 
N. L. Somers 
William S. Wilson 
F. F. Griffin 

A. G. Tweedie 
L. R. Brown 

C. H. E. Rownthwaite 
J. W. LeB. Ross 

W. J. Fuller. 

At this meeting a temporary executive committee 
was formed consisting of: 

J. W. LeB. Ross, Chairman, B. E. Barnhill, C. H. 
E. Rownthwaite, J. H. Ryckman, N. L. Somers, L. R. 
Brown, Secretary. 

A second meeting has been called for January 9th, 
at which time the Secretary of The Institute is expected 
to be present to give all the assistance he can to the 
members at Sault Ste. Marie in the establishment of a 
strong enthusiastic branch. 



24 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Ottawa Branch 

J. B. Challies, M.E.I.C, Secy.-Treas. 
Good Roads 

The widespread demand for constructive considera- 
tion by the Dominion Government of a practicable good 
roads policy has resulted in definite action that portends 
much for the future. The rapid advance in recent years, 
especially during the war, of motor transportation, both 
passenger and freight, and the important factor the 
automobile bears to rural development has proven, even 
to the most skeptical, the absolute necessity for good 
roads. The following item from the editorial columns 
of the Ottawa Journal will be welcome information to the 
engineering profession, and an assurance that at last the 
question of good roads will be given adequate attention 
by the Federal authorities: — 

" The good roads movement, which must be one of 
the leading factors in the reconstruction and development 
of the country, is given a great lift forward through the 
Dominion Government's having availed itself of the 
experience and ability of Archie W. Campbell, M.E.I.C., 
in connection with it. Mr. Campbell has been appointed 
to advise the Government as to what its position should 
be in the matter of roadway improvement and construc- 
tion, and it is probable, as it should be — that he will be 
retained permanently to supervise the carrying out of 
all plans. 

No better choice could have been made. Mr. 
Campbell was an outstanding champion of good roads a 
quarter of a century ago, and as the result of work he did 
then, in co-operation T^ith the late Andrew PatuUo, of the 
Woodstock Sentinel Review, he was appointed Ontario 
Good Roads Commissioner, subsequently becoming 
Provincial Deputy Minister of Public Works. It was a 
serious loss to the better highways programme when he 
was taken from that position and made Deputy Minister 
of Railways and Canals at Ottawa. Better highways 
are for him almost a religion, and in the field to which 
he has returned he can serve the country better than 
anyone else we can think of. It is well that Mr. 
Campbell's exceptional experience and interest in the 
subject are to be turned to the advantage of the country 
as a whole. The good roads development must be 
carried out on an orderly and progressive programme, 
and Mr. Campbell's appointment will insure this. 

Mr. Campbell is now preparing for submission to 
the Government, a report on the subject of highway 
construction in the Dominion. In it he will advise as to 
the best methods of obtaining the required co-operation 
between the Federal and Provincial authorities, and will 
recommend the adoption of legislation necessary to secure 
greater uniformity. 

Nailacrete — An Important Discovery 

Engineers generally, will be interested to learn of 
the important discoverj^ made by one of the Affiliâtes 
of the Ottawa Branch, E. Viens, Director of the Public 
Works Laboratory for Testing Materials. A well- 
deserved tribute from the editorial page of the Ottawa 
Citizen to Mr. Viens' discovery, under the caption, 
" A Civil Servant's Good Work," follows:— 



" Faithful work in the Civil Service has been so 
seldom noticed outside, many people have little apprecia- 
tion of it. When the new parliament buildings were 
being inspected by a party of visiting engineers last 
Saturday, many were surprised to learn for the first time 
of the flooring material, called " Nailacrete," a discovery 
made by Mr. E. Viens, director of the Public Works 
Laboratory for Testing Materials. 

"Nailacrete has a strength greatly exceeding wood, 
with a durability of concrete. It has the resilience of 
wood, a nail may be driven into it, and it will hold with 
greater firmness than in wood. Carpets can be tacked on 
Nailacrete, and desks or other furniture screwed down 
to it. But Nailacrete does not need a carpet covering. 
It can be given a surface finish as smooth as hardwood, 
glossy and more durable. It is fireproof, waterproof, 
and sanitary. It is lighter than concrete, can be laid 
without forms on a sloping surface — such as for roofing. 
It is an insulator. 

" The Chief Architect of the new parliament 
buildings, John A. Pearson, has proven the reliability of 
Nailacrete by severe tests before adopting it for the 
floors in the main building. Credit is due to the Chief 
Architect for being sufficiently without prejudice to 
adopt Mr. Viens' discover^'. The public should know, 
however, when a public servant by patient research, 
carrying out experiments in the first instances after 
work hours, at his own expense in the purchase of 
experimental materials, has contributed something 
apparently so valuable to the community as Mr. E. Viens' 
discovery of Nailacrete." 

Branch Visits New House of Commons 

Tangible evidence of the splendid progress made in 
the construction of the new home of the Canadian Par- 
liament, according to the Evening Journal, was displayed 
on Saturday, December 7th, to the members of the Ottawa 
Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada who, after 
doing full justice to the first luncheon served in what 
will be the House of Commons dining-room, were given an 
opportunity to inspect the buildings under the guidance 
of the staff in charge of the reconstruction, G. Gordon 
Gale, chairman of the Ottawa Branch, presided at the 
luncheon, and about 135 members and their friends were 
present. 

The trip through the buildings proved of unusual 
interest. On everj^ side could be seen evidence of the 
amount of work already done, and an attempt to visualize 
the buildings as they will be when completed framed 
so compellingly a mental appraisal of the work still to do 
that the assurance of the architect that the buildings 
will probably be ready for occupancy by January, 1920, 
was almost doubted. 

The cornerstone of the new buildings was laid on 
September 1st, 1916, but for practically nine months 
thereafter little or no work was done and the buildings 
as they now stand represent about 17 months of actual 
labor, conducted for at least part of that time under a 
serious handicap due to difficulty in securing workmen. 

In external appearance the buildings convey a much 
stronger inpression of soliditv, massiveness and dignity 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



25 



than did those they replace. While the frontage is the 
same as formerly the new structure contains much more 
accommodation due to the fact that a solid block has 
been built in at the rear or north side. The general plan 
is of one great structure, in part divided by three light 
courts or wells into five smaller buildings. The Commons 
chamber is situated in the western end, then alternate 
light courts and offices, with reading and smoking rooms, 
to the Senate chamber on the eastern end. Ample main 
corridors, broad and stately, run east and west through 
the entire building with cross corridors, but little narrower, 
connecting the various units. In all there are more 
than two miles of corridors in the building — ample 
opportunity for corpulent statesmen to exercise while 
pondering questions of national import. 

Possibly the feature of the entire structure that, 
when completed, will attract most attention and 
Dominion-wide interest, is the splendid hall or " Court of 
Honor." As planned, this leads directly from the main 
entry through the width of the building to the Library, 
and will be in every way worthy of its name. Even on 
Saturday, while complete comprehension of its majestic 
spaciousness was prevented by the spidery scaffolding 
which fills most of the space, it was evident that when 
finished it will stand alone in Canada as an example of 
the dignity and beauty that can be attained in interior 
architecture of the Gothic school. As it is, it is reminis- 
cent of the sublimity of a vaulted cathedral, and when the 
windows, and statuary, silently eloquent testimonials 
of the men who made Canada, are in their positions the 
effect will be imposing in its majesty. 

The Commons chamber is spacious and lofty, 
gallery accommodation will be in excess of that contained 
in the former House, while a new feature will be the 
provision of private boxes for visitors to whom it may 
be desired to extend signal honor. As might be expected, 
ample arrangement has been made for the press gallery 
and the rooms in which the newspaper workers record 
the achievements or errors of Canada's statesmen will be 
more commodious and convenient than heretofore. The 
Senate chamber in general lines, follows that set aside 
for the members of the elected branch of Parliament. 

The office accommodation for ministers and the 
various grades of private members will be much superior 
to similar arrangements in the former building. The 
individual offices will be larger and better appointed. 
Nothing will be spared that will make for the comfort 
and convenience of those who devote a large portion of 
each year to the business of the country. 

But it is the wonderful wealth of detail, already 
commencing to show, that will make the new Parliament 
buildings one of the show-places of Canada. Carvings, 
typifying events in Canadian history, broad sweeping 
effects representing Canadian life and industry, delightful 
miniature bits characterizing and, in some cases — 
caricaturing — men prominent in Canadian public life, 
present or past, will afford days of pleasant occupation to 
students of art as revealing character. The entire 
building will be alive and vibrant with such delights; 
few of them are as yet in position, but numbers are to be 
seen, completed, waiting only to be placed in their 
respective niches. 



From the artistic and sublime to4;he practical brings 
one to consideration of the arrangements made for 
heating the building — a most necessary feature in this 
latitude. The heating plant is situated in the power 
house at the foot of Cliff street, several hundreds of 
yards from the buildings themselves. Forced circulation 
of hot water will provide sufficient heat to serve the new 
buildings, the Supreme Court building and the Langevin 
block, and the plant is so constituted that it can be made 
to heat additional buildings in that vicinity which it 
'may be necessary to construct. 

Dealing more particularly with the progress made 
on the building within the last year it may be said that 
in the summer of 1917 it was but rising from its four 
foundations. Now the walls and roof are completed, 
many of the inner walls run, basic floors laid and in some 
portions work has started on the floor tiling. Practically 
the body of the entire structure has been completed, the 
interior fitting is yet to be done. This, it is expected, will 
consume another year. 

Of the architect in charge, John A. Pearson, who 
already has a national reputation as one of Canada's 
master builders, it need only be said that nothing he has 
ever done will surpass his work in the provision of a 
beautiful and fitting home for Canada's Parliament. A 
man might well study and labor for a life-time to produce 
but one such monument to his genius. 

Address on Ceramics 

One of the most interesting evenings held by the 
Ottawa Branch for the year 1918, was an address on 
" Clay and Clay Products in Canada," by Joseph Keele, 
chief engineer of the Ceramic Division of the Depart- 
ment of Mines. Mr. Keele is the recognized authority 
on this subject in Canada, and succeeded in conveying 
a great deal of exceedingly valuable information respecting 
one of the most important and little appreciated industries 
in the Dominion. So important is this industry to 
Canada generally, and of such immediate interest to all 
branches of the engineering profession, that it is hoped 
Mr. Keele may be able, in the near future, to prepare a 
similar paper for presentation to The Institute, in order 
that all of its members may enjoy the advantage of those 
who attended the meeting in Ottawa. 

Transferred to Dept. of Trade of Commerce 

The Electrical Standards Laboratory, Ottawa, 
O. Higman, M.E.I.C., Chief Engineer, has sent out 
notice that the administration of the following Acts of the 
Federal Parliament has been transferred from the 
Inland Revenue Department to the Department of 
Trade and Commerce; the Electrical Units Act; the 
Electrical Inspection Act; the Electricity and Fluid 
Exportation Act; and the Gas Inspection Act. 

Dominion Power Board 

The Government has added to the personnel of the 
Power Board, W. A. Bowden, M.E.I.C., Chief Engineer 
of the Department of Railways and Canals; and Arthur 
Amos, M.E.I.C., Chief Engineer of the Hydraulic Service 
of Quebec and a member of the Quebec Streams Commis- 
sion. 



26 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



The Government has consented, at the request of 
the Dominion Power Board, to have A. B. Lambe, 
A.M.E.I.C, Asst. Chief Engineer of Gas and Electricity 
of the Department of Inland Revenue; and A. J. Matheson, 
M.E.I.C.. Chief Engineer of the Montreal Water Levels 
Commission, attached to the Board for special work. 

Hamilton Branch 

//. B. Dwight, A.M.E.I.C, Secy.-Treas. 

It was with considerable regret to the members of 
the Hamilton Branch that Geo. F. Porter's lecture on 
the Quebec Bridge had to be cancelled because the 
prohibition of all meetings was suddently renewed by the 
Board of Health. The Health Ofïicer had intimated several 
times that matters were not serious and that the meeting 
could be held as scheduled. However, outside pressure 
was brought to bear, as matters really were more serious 
than most people supposed, and the ruling was made on 
a few hours' notice. The unfortunate part was that 
there was no time to telegraph Mr. Porter. The members 
of the Branch had a very enjoyable visit with him, how- 
ever, and he was most agréable about the misfortune. 

Montreal Branch 

F. B. Broicn, M.E.I.C., Secy.-Treas. 

A discussion of the subject of legislation has occupied 
two meetings of the Montreal Branch held on November 
28th, and December 19th, where it was given consideration 
in an exhaustive manner. At the meeting of the Branch 
held on December 19th, Lieut. -Col. Dubuc was present 
and in addition to being welcomed by the chairman, 
Walter J. Francis, one of his classmates, Arthur Surveyer, 
voiced the sentiments of those present in well-chosen 
words of appreciation. Lieut. -Col. Dubuc was given a 
reception in keeping with his distinguished services and 
made a happy speech in reply to the reception accorded 
him. 

The following resolutions passed by the Montreal 
Branch embody the result of the two meetings on the 
subject of legislation. It was moved by W. F. Tye, 
seconded by G. H. Duggan and carried: — 

WHERE A S it seems advisable that legislation should 
be sought defining the statuts of engineers throughout 
Canada, AND 

WHEREAS the widespread activities of the 
engineering profession, the great difference in the interests 
and occupations of the individuals, the necessity of 
getting satisfactory legislation in the different provinces, 
the unsatisfactory result of such legislation as has already 
been obtained and the dangers and difficulties certain to 
be encountered by The Imtitute as a whole during the 
time period of passing of Canadian engineering from an 
open to a closed or a partially closed profession, make it 
inadvisable and inexpedient to ask for any further 
legislation in any province until the whole question has 
been thoroughly studied, reported upon and submitted in 
concrete form to the full corporate membership of The 
Institute. 



BE IT RESOLVED: 

THAT the Executive of the Montreal Branch be 
instructed to ask the Council to arrange for the appoint- 
ment of a Committee representing all provinces and all 
branches of the profession to inquire into, study, and 
report upon the whole question of legislation, including 
a report upon the best method of getting such legislation 
as will ensure a satisfactory and uniform status of engineers 
throughout Canada, also to draw up such sample legisla- 
tion as it may deem necessary and advisable in order that 
the member of The Institute in the different provinces 
may seek legislation on some uniform basis. 

That before the final adoption of any proposed Act 
it shall be the duty of the Committee to co-operate as 
far as possible with similar incorporated technical bodies 
with a view to harmonizing clauses which might contain 
points of contention. 

That the Secretary of the Montreal Branch be 
instructed to forward a copy of this resolution to the 
Secretary of The InMitute and to the Secretaries of 
the Provincial Divisions and the Branches, and to 
request the Executive of the Provincial Divisions and 
the Branches to assist the Council in securing the 
appointment of a strong and representative committee." 

It was further moved by Arthur Surveyer, seconded 
by F. B. Brown and carried: — 

" THAT the Executive of the Montreal Branch take 
immediate steps to obtain, in co-operation with the 
Quebec Branch and by letter ballot, the views of the 
members of The Institute, residing in the Province of 
Quebec, on the question of licensing engineers, AND 

THAT the following questions for this letter ballot 
be suggested to the Executives of the Montreal and 
Quebec Branches for their consideration: 

Question 1. Are you in favour of a closed corpora- 
tion for engineers having responsible charge of engineering 
works ? 

Question 2. If so, do you favour legislation 
embracing all engineering works, or only public works ? 

Question 3. In the event of the majority of the 
members of The Institute residing in Quebec, declaring 
in favoui' of a close corporation, what are your opinions 
on the following questions: 

(a) Do you consider that the only method of 
entrance into the engineering profession should be 
through the engineering colleges ? 

(b) If no, do you think that candidates who do not 
follow college engineering courses should be obliged to 
pass an examination for admission to study somewhat 
along the lines of the matriculation examination required 
for university entrance ? 

(c) Do you think that candidates should be required 
to pass an examination for admission to practice, similar 
to the examinations required by the Bar and Medical 
Associations ? 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



27 



(d) Should candidates be obliged to serve a period 
of apprenticeship or employment under an engineer, 
before being allowed to take the final examinations for 
admission to practice? (The word practice is under- 
stood to mean taking responsible charge of engineering 
works). 

(e) If in favour of examination, do you consider 
that these should be held by the corporation only or by a 
joint board of the members of the corporation and 
representatives of the McGill and Laval faculties of 
applied science ? 

(f) Do you consider that graduates of engineering 
schools should be exempted from any or all the examina- 
tions ? 

(g) If so, from what examinations should they be 
exempted ? 

(h) Do you think that graduates of engineering 
schools should be required to prove that they have had 
experience under some engineer before being admitted 
to take charge of engineering work ? 

AND THAT the results of this letter ballot be passed 
on to the committee appointed under Mr. Tye's motion 
for their information irrespective of any action that the 
members of The Institute in Quebec may wish to take." 

Gallant Officer Returns 

Lieut.-Col. Dubuc, C.M.G., Croix de Guerre, Cross 
of the Legion of Honor, D.S.O., M.E.I.C., commander of 
the famous 22nd Battalion of Montreal, which has added 
so much to the lustre of Canadian arms, arrived at his 
home in Montreal recently where he was accorded a 
reception in keeping with the distinguished services he has 
rendered. This gallant ofificer, who has seen so much of 
actual fighting, has been three times wounded, including 
the loss of an eye from machine gun bullet, the last time 
so dangerously that his life was dispaired of. Going to 
the front as a Captain after three years on the fields of 
many battles he returns to us a Lieutenant-Colonel, 
commander of his old battalion and bearing decorations 
which prove him a warrior of great courage. 

Of the engagement in which he was wounded the last 
time, he said that out of 23 olificers and 625 other ranks, 
there were 23 officers casualties (every one was killed or 
wounded) and 505 of the other ranks either laid down 
their lives or will hereafter wear the scars of battle. This 
all happened in 24 hours. It was on August 27th, in 
front of Cherisy, in the attack on Cambrai and the start 
of the great Arras battle, that was the beginning of the 
end, that Lieut.-Col. Dubuc was hit, by a machine gun- 
bullet, and was given up for dead. The command of the 
22nd automatically passed to Major Vanier at 2.30 that 
day, and he carried on until he lost his leg. 

At a meeting of the Montreal Branch, held on 
December 19th, Lieut-Col. Dubuc was accorded a rousing 
reception and he gave a brief address to the members 
present, which, coming from one who occupied such a 
proud position in the great engagements of the war, was 
highly enjoyed. Every member of The Institute will 
feel a personal sense of pride in the distinguished part 
which Lieut.-Col. Dubuc has taken in the mighty conflict. 



CORRESPONDENCE 



Legislation for the Engineer (A Western View Point) 

Editor Journal: — ■ 

" These engineers were priests of a sort, albeit they 
did not j)reach or pray. It was a new world. Has it ever 
struck you that with every victory over Natiire won by the 
human spirit a fragment of their omnipotence is wrested 
from the hands of the gods ? I always feel as if we were 
using fire and steel, mechanical energy and human thought, 
as weapons of revolt against the Heavenly tyranny." Bojer'. 

In consideration of the present essential effort upon 
the part of engineers to obtain legislative support and 
recognition as a class, with a long delayed but necessary 
acknowledgement by the public of their services and merits 
let us make clear to each other that this " object " is 
what we aim at and that a successful issue is of much 
greater importance than the " method " by which this 
result may be attained. As a Westerner from Alberta 
I view the position so, and feel that whilst pleas for unani- 
mity and possible similarity of action are insistent from 
many sources, it does not appear at all possible to achieve 
this, or even desirable to attempt uniformity for the 
following amongst other good reasons, especially affecting 
the West. 

We have four Legislatures, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, 
British Columbia and Alberta, each with a differing 
outlook and history, a varying practice and local condi- 
tions and an independent legislative personnel distinctly 
enamoured of their own principles and practice, so much 
so that the chance of common action is of very remote 
possibility and to spend time and effort upon a futile aim 
such as uniformity of practice, must be under the circum- 
stances of urgency, misplaced energy much to be regretted. 

The objects to be attained are in each Province 
exactly similar, what does it matter about the plan of the 
road by which the goal is to be reached, its grade or the 
make and variety of its bridges, these may vary as does 
the topography of these Provinces but if the same success- 
ful result be reached why worry? Manitoba has had a 
plan since 1896, why this has not been travelled is not 
self evident and having had all these years of experience 
of the " lions in the way " one would assume they should 
be best prepared and armed to take action immediately, 
so that their claim for delay to secure uniformity does 
not seem to rest upon sufficiently definite grounds as to 
warrant suspension of effort on the part of other Western 
Provinces. Saskatchewan has a plan which doubtless 
meets its members' requirements and it is to be hoped 
also those of its legislators and whilst some of its features 
would not pass through the Alberta House, we are not 
so placed that we dare ask them to await general agree- 
ment upon forms and procedure, their duty is to secure 
from their legislature the best terms and conditions for 
effective legislation protecting engineers and the method 
by which this is gained is to them a domestic problem 
containing factors of which outsiders cannot judge. 



28 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



B. C. we have no doubt with last years experience 
to guide, are now well aware of the lines of least resist- 
ance and likely success and formulating a plan for sub- 
mission to their Legislature, we wish them well. Montreal 
can but express a parental solicitude that its children 
whilst struggling with varying conditions and doing the 
best they can for themselves shall do their utmost to 
maintain the family credit and its highest traditions. 
We in Alberta are in a measure the most happily situate 
of all in that a well travelled road has been cleared for 
us by other professions with lines of uniformity laid down 
by the Legislature, satisfactory to them and to us, 
achitecture, law, médecine, dentistry, chemistry, survey- 
ing and other public services have a common, accepted and 
satisfactory system of public control to which we must 
conform in any legislative proposals we may submit. 

In technical matters the Legislature of Alberta has 
always taken the stand that public control of such services 
had best be exercised by the first body of educational 
standing in the Province, i.e. the Senate of the University 
of Alberta, a doctrine of economy of efïort on the part 
of the Legislature and of success from the viewpoint 
of such technical services already so associated and of 
satisfaction from the public point of view, as being a 
simple, effective and desirable curb upon any close 
corporation practices likely to injure the freedom of its 
best interests. Having but one university and that in 
the nature of a state institution we are most favorably 
situated and we hope it will shortly be possible to submit 
the draft act proposed to be submitted to the next session 
of the Legislature, this follows most carefully along the 
lines of preceding acts governing technical and professional 
services and will we hope secure the approval of our legis- 
lators as well as that of our fellow engineers in this and 
other Provinces. 

May attention be called to one danger, that of over- 
loading an act with matter more properly belonging to 
by-laws as items of internal government and the relations 
of Institute members with each other do not require to 
appear in the Act, this should be explicitly confined to 
the delimitation of relations between the public and the 
service in question. 

This is not a plea for delay but a call for action, 
engineers are usually associated with realities and dealing 
with matters of material or force and facing the reality 
of an unrecognized profession of legally indefinite status 
without protection, and the presently heavy barrage of 
the H. C. L., action definite, direct and decided cannot 
occur any too soon. 

By independent action but free co-operation to the 
desired end we shall secure for some, or more happily 
we hope, for all, the legal status and recognition which 
the talents and services of our members deserve and to 
this end it is essentially necessary that all without excep- 
tion shall sink their differences and with enthusiasm 
enter into all measures or methods devised to secure this 
long delayed but no less patiently earned reward, giving 
full support and countenance to all who in any measure 
or position endeavour to solve the attendant difficulties. 



Lo: a cloud's about to vanish 

From the day 
And a brazen wrong to crumble 

Into clay. 
Lo: the Right's about to conquer; 

Clear the way. 
With the Right shall many more 
Enter smiling at the door; 
With the giant Wrong shall fall 
Many others, great and small. 
That for ages long have held us 

For their prey. 
Men of thought and men of action. 

Clear the way. 

Mackay. 



-DONENZ. 



Move for a Raise 



Editor Journal: — 

I have to congratulate you and the other executive 
officers on the success of The Journal which along with the 
other matters contains an emplo>Tnent bureau. The 
salary paid to civil engineers to-day is ridiculously small 
and one remedy which occurs to me is for the profession 
to take every advantage of any new position offering a 
larger salary. This shuffling would force many raises 
in salary in order to hold men who to-day may not be 
in touch with other positions which are available and 
pay more money. This move for a raise policy would I 
think improve the situation as there are too many of our 
men to-day holding down positions at practically the same 
salary which they received five, yes and ten years ago, 
thus making the engineering profession the greatest 
rut in existence. 

I would respectfully suggest that you give more 
attention to the employment bureau and endeavour to 
give the readers of The Journal the benefit of all positions 
which are open in Canada and as many as practical of 
those in foreign countries as well, I have noticed that 
heretofore you have not even included all the appoint- 
ments which the Civil Service of Canada have to make. 



I am. 



Yours faithfully. 

District Engineer. 



Error re Diving Bell 

Editor Journal: — 

With reference to my letter of October 24 to you. 
Mr. MacDonald has called my attention to an error 
in my letter on page 2. 

In my letter, I have, by an error of dictation, mis- 
placed the relative positions of the metre centre and 
centre of gravity of the device under discussion, and 
I did not notice the error until my attention was called to 
it. The mistake is an obvious one, otherwise the outfit 
would not have been stable when afloat. I will be obliged 
if you will correct this error in my letter. 

Yours very truly, 

John Taylor, A.M.E.I.C. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



29 



Education Through Journal 

Dear Editor: — 

I am in receipt of a copy of your letter of November 
29th to the Secretary of the Civil Service Commission, 
which should cause their officers to reflect upon the 
salaries being paid engineers as compared with those 
made for other work. 

I think the whole trouble is with the engineers them- 
selves. If they are in a position to demand better pay 
for one another, they don't do it. If engineers will 
accept positions at $1,500 per year, the Civil Service 
Commission will feel that it is quite justified to continue 
offering that salary. I think a campaign of education 
carried out through the columns of The. Journal would be 
the best method of crusading at the present time for 
better salaries for Government engineers. 
Yours faithfully, 

Government, M.E.I.C. 



Grand River Conservation 

Editor Journal: — 

The water shed of the Grand River (Urse River on 
map of 1763, later " Ouse or Grand " River) the central 
part of the peninsula of South Western Ontario, comprises 
about 2,600 square miles, parts of the Counties of Grey, 
Dufîerin, Perth, Oxford, Wentworth and Haldimand and 
practically the whole of Wellington. Waterloo and Brant. 
The highest part of the peninsula may be called an 
irregular plateau, 1,400 to over 1,700 ft. in elevation 
above sea level, and having an area of about 1,100 square 
miles, the northerly edge closely approaching Georgian 
Bay. Apparently one half or more of this area was ori- 
ginally dense swamp, the headwater source of m^ost of 
the considerable rivers of the peninsula. 

A marked topographical feature is the Niagara 
escarpment extending from Queenston on the Niagara 
River, and there marking the difference in water level 
between Lakes Erie and Ontario, more or less definitely 
across the peninsula to Georgian Bay. For a considerable 
part of its length this abrupt break in the surface forms 
practically the easterly limit of the Grand River 
water shed. 

The Grand River rises on the highest part of the 
plateau, in Melancthon Township, within 25 miles of 
Georgian Bay, has a length along its windings of about 
160 miles, flows in a general southerly direction, has a 
total fall of over 1,100 ft. and empties into Lake Erie at 
Port Maitland. Principal tributaries in their order from 
up stream are the Conestogo River from the west, rising 
near the source of the main river, the Speed from the east 
and the Nith from the west. 

The water shed is wide in the headwater area, becomes 
narrower further down, and more so in the flat country 
toward Lake Erie, where smaller streams flow directly to 
the lake. Declivity of the stream bed is greatest after it 
leaves the plateau, is considerable further along and small 
toward the outlet. What may appropriately be called 
the upper river extends to about the 1,150 ft. contour, 
and the lower river from there on. 



The importance of the Grand River water shed, 
particularly of the lower river, is well known. In fertility 
of soil, in density of population, in agriculture and in 
manufactures, it is one of the best sections in the Dominion 
of Canada. Numerous cities and towns, manufacturing 
cent es noted throughout the Dominion and beyond, 
Brantford, Gait, Kitchener, Paris, Guelph, Preston, 
Hespeler, New Hamburg, etc., are directly on the river 
banks. 

The spring floods are a constantly increasing menace, 
both in the cities and towns and generally along the valley, 
and summer flow of the river has become very small. 

Original conditions, forestation, and particularly 
the large swamp areas on the head watershed, which 
efïected natural regulation, restraining floods and main- 
taining dry weather flow, by retarding snow melting, 
by better holding back of water on the surface and by 
greater volume of ground water, are impossible 
of restoration. 

There are various methods of flood alleviation, such 
as: confining the channel by means of walls or dykes, 
as has been done in Brantford on the Grand River, and 
to some extent in Gait; deepening and correction of 
the river channel; elevation or filling in of ground subject 
to overflow; detention or retardation reservoirs, as now 
under construction in the Miami Conservancy District, 
Ohio. Preferable to any of these methods, and con- 
stituting true conservation, are storage reservoirs, where 
practicable. A storage reservoir of ideal capacity and 
performance retains the surplus flood flow and releases 
the stored water for equalization of flow during periods of 
small yield from the watershed. 

Conservation by storage has been found to be to 
large extent practicable on the Grand River. The Hydro 
Electric Power Commission of Ontario by surveys made 
mainly in 1912 and 1913 established the fact that suffi- 
cient storage can be obtained to give good control. In the 
township of Pilkington on the main river, about at the 
foot of the upper river, storage capacity of about 2^4 
billion cubic feet in one basin has been found to be avail- 
able. Further storage, on the Conestogo tributary, 
would give a total of nearly 4 billion cubic feet of capcaity 
with watershed area above the basins of about 600 square 
miles, constituting on the whole fairly unique and very 
favorable conditions for true conservation. There re- 
mains to be done, as to investigation, definite exploration 
of sites for dams and ascertaining of their practicability 
and estimates of cost. No estimates or investigation 
as to cost of reservoir sites, land condemnation, highway 
changes etc., has as yet been made either. 

The benefit of such conservation would in the first 
place be elimination of flood danger. The sustained 
summer flow, which on the above storage could be over 
four hundred cubic feet per second in addition to the 
present flow, eight to ten times the present flow for a good 
part of the river affected, would be a great benefit in sani- 
tation and water supply. Evaporation from the surface 
of the storage reservoirs an area of six square miles or 
over, is a feature to be considered. During the hot 
summer months, June, July, and August this may be 
assumed to total from 15 to 20 inches, or possibly a little 
more. Rainfall during this season is extremely variable. 



30 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Local observation (Waterloo County) shows a total for 
the three months ranging, in a short period of four years, 
from 22.11 to 4.99 inches. Evaporation is greatest during 
drouth, but considering even a net evaporation, after 
deducting direct rainfall, of 15 inches or more, it is negli- 
gible against the yield from the contributary watershed, 
of which every accretion would be held in the storage 
reservoirs. Existing developed water powers on the 
river would also gain greatly. The heights of fall of 
such water powers are: at Gait, 8H ft.; at Paris, 14 ft.; 
at Brantford, Upper Dam, 16 ft., Lower Dam, 33 ft.; 
at Caledonia, 7 ft.; at Dunnville, 6}i ft. 

A promising use of the conserved water has been 
recently proposed, (by N. Cauchon, A.M.E.LC.) This 
is to make a diversion canal, probably from below Gait — 
where, along the old Great Western Railway branch, 
there is a lateral depression toward the east — to the 
escarpment, drop the water over this, with fall of 500 
ft. or more, enabling development of large power, and 
make further use of the water for irrigation throughout 
the lake shore district. Irrigation, once the flood danger 
is removed, will also find extended and valuable applica- 
tion in the immediate valley floor of the river. 

W. H. Breithaupt, M.E.LC 



Government Salaries 

Editor Journal: — 

I have been following with a certain amount of 
interest and a much greater amount of disappointment 
the semi dignified movement on behalf of the engineers 
of The InMitutr regarding a fair wage for the profession. 

Some even go so far as to give the remuneration 
received for our work the high sounding name of a salan,' 
— which it is not — in fact the average wage of the 
Canadian engineer is hardly more than the wage paid 
the most ordinary and uneducated class of mechanic 
or make-believe tradesman in practically all parts of 
the countr5^ Why, most men are paying their chauffeurs 
from $100.00 to $125.00 per month; we even in this 
small town have several instances of workmen being paid 
better than so called professional men; one in particular — 
a man who files saws draws $7.50 per day, and a foreman 
in charge of a small construction job $10.00 per day. 
When employing a foreman over a dozen men this summer 
I was asked to pay within 75c. per day of my own wage. 

It is all very well to be dignified when one has some- 
thing to be so over, or when one can be dignified at all 
times; when, however, the baker and butcher, etc. have 
to be treated with something else besides dignity, and the 
life of an intelligent man has to be ordered so that his 
main thoughts, after the execution of his work, are taken 
up with the problems of how to make last years suit do 
again or the roast from yesterdays dinner do the rest of 
the week, etc., it is quite time that he got his thinking 
cap on again after hours for his own benefit. 

If our profession is worth anything it is worth at least 
a good fight to make it appreciated, and if it is necessary 
to have a fight to gain recognition let us get at it and have 
a real one and have it over with, and if we cannot succeed 
let us get out like men. 



We have the weapons and they are not of German 
manufacture either. Hadn't we better get busy and use 
them? 

I do not see why a committee of hustlers should 
not be appointed by The InMUvIr to get after this 
end at once, and arrange a campaign that will bring 
results. 

Yours sincerely, 

A POOR Government Engineer. 



Protest Against Engineers' Salaries 

Editor Journal: — 

I wish to call the attention of the Council, through 
you, to the great difference in salaries offered clerical 
help, such as stenographers, clerks, etc., and that of 
engineers. 

One has only to take up the Civil Service Bill, which 
passed through the Federal House last spring and glance 
at the salaries which are paid to first, second and third 
class clerks (we are not even allowed the title of engineers) 
to see my point of view. This state of affairs reflects 
very unfavorably on the future welfare of The Institute. 
This matter will receive very serious attention at our 
next Branch meeting, and I trust this will be the case in 
every Province throughout Canada. 

Yours truly, 

A Manitoba Associate Member. 



Editor Journal: — 

Herewith are announcements of the Civil Service 
Commissioners' Bulletin applications for positions, which 
should be noted by the engineering profession, as to me 
they appear to be more or less an affront to the pro- 
fession: — 

1. A Secretarial Clerk for the permanent staff of 
the President of the Council, Grade D. of the First 
Division, at an initial salary of $1,8(X).00 per annum. 
Candidates must have secretarial ability, capacity in 
office management and special shorthand reporting 
ability. 

2. A Female Clerk in the Employment Division of 
the Department of Labour at a salary of S 1,600.00 per 
annum. Candidates must be university graduates with 
training in economics and some practical experience in 
social work. Some experience in office management is 
desirable with particular reference to statistical work. 
A good working knowledge of French is required. 

3. An Axiiistant Engineer on the staff of the British 
Columbia Hydrometric Survey at a salary of 81,500.00 
per annum. Candidates should not be more than forty- 
five years of age, and should be graduates in engineering 
of a recognized university. They should have at least 
two years field and office experience in engineering. 

Yours very truly, 

An Associate Member. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



31 



Diving Bell, Halifax, N. S. 

Editor Journal: — 

The writer has just received by mail a copy of the 
" Canadian Engineer " of 31st October, 1918, in which 
are pubhshed extracts from a letter to you from John 
Tavlor. of HamiUon, Ont., regarding a paper read by 
J. J. Macdonald on the Floating Caisson or Diving Bell 
used in preparing foundations for quay walls at 
Halifax, N.S. 

The writer has not yet seen Mr. Macdonald's paper 
or his statements, but Mr. Taylor's letter and especially 
his concluding statement that " he feels it is only just 
that the facts should be made known to the engineers of 
Canada as a whole and he fully expects this to be done " 
causes him (the writer) to write to you in this matter, as 
he is probably the one best personally acquainted with 
all the facts. 

The Halifax Ocean Terminals quay walls were 
designed for the Canadian Government Railways by 
F.W. Cowie, M.E.I.C., of Montreal, as consulting engineer, 
and the writer, as superintending engineer, in 1912-1913. 
Many designs and schemes were studied before the type (of 
original design) finally adopted was decided upon early 
in 1913, and needless to say, much detailed consideration 
was given to the foundation work and to the new types 
of plant and appliances that would be required for the 
proposed works, including rock drilling, dredging and 
concreting plants, helmet and bell diving outfits, block 
setting cranes and lifting tongs, etc. 

The writer had in 1911-1912, with Foley, Welch 
& Stewart as contractors, successfully used as diving 
bells, the large pneumatic foundation caissons designed 
by him for the river piers of the Skeena River bridge on 
the G.T.P. Railway in B.C., for removing large boulders 
and obstructions in fast flowing deep water on the sites 
of the piers, by working in the working chambers with 
the caissons grounded or afloat and made moveable as 
desired by displacing or pumping out water. Other 
people, he believes, have done the same with other 
caissons. The writer discussed this with Mr. Cowie, and 
together they developed and sketched out the Floating 
Caisson or large mobile Diving Bell idea for their founda- 
tion work. The doubtful elements of the scheme were 
cost and rate of progress. It was therefore decided 
that in letting the docks contract the choice of methods 
should be left to the contractors, subject to stipulated 
rates of progress and qualities of finished work. 

In November, 1913, the contract for the first unit 
of the Halifax docks was let to Foley, Welch, Stewart 
& Fauquier, who brought to Halifax as their superin- 
tendent James Taber, a well known Canadian expert 
with wide experience in deep foundation and compressed 
air work. The floating caisson or diving bell method 
was then again taken up, and was thoroughly examined 
by Messrs. R. B. Porter and Fauquier of the contracting 
company, Mr. Taber, Mr. Cowie, and the writer, further 
detailed sketches of the bell and estimates of cost of 
construction being made. It was felt by all these parties 
that better work could be done, with better inspection 
and more certainty, with the large diving bell than by 
other methods, though not at less cost. 



The contractors, with a spirit and enterprise for 
which they deserve great credit, decided to adopt the 
Diving Bell method, and in view of the advantages to 
the work, the writer, with the approval of Mr. Gutelius, 
general manager, Canadian Government Railways, 
prepared the working drawings for the bell in his office 
at Halifax. Mr. Macdonald was then the writer's 
assistant and office engineer there, and he, along with the 
late Lieut. C. S. DeGruchy, M.C., and other assistants, 
did excellent work on the completion of the design and 
of the working drawings. 

The tender scow with its air compressors, etc., and 
the air locks, etc., of the Bell were designed and con- 
structed, or supplied and fitted by the contractors, 
mostly under Mr. Taber's direction and supervision. 

The general plan and details of the Halifax Bell 
were certainly original in that they were designed for 
a definite purpose on scientific first principles and from 
practical personal experiences, and were not copied from 
any other plans or plant. The designers, were, however, 
aware of, and were naturally supported in their decisions 
by the knowledge and precedents of the large Bells or 
floating Caissons that had been successfully used in 
dock works in years past at Marseilles, Antwerp, 
Rotterdam, Bilbao, etc. 

In the winter of 1913-1914, when the Halifax Bell 
was designed in its present form, none of those responsible 
had, so far as the writer knows, any knowledge of Mr. 
Taylor's scheme, plans, or plant. Unlike Mr. Taylor's 
apparatus, the new Halifax Bell of new design and working 
under new conditions in fairly open tidal waters, for the 
first few days, as was to be expected, was the cause of 
some little anxiety and revealed some minor defects. 
The skill and energy, however, of J. P. Porter, who had 
then taken charge for the contractors, rapidly overcame 
these troubles, and the writer may safely say that the Bell 
for two years without mishap did excellent work under 
his personal supervision and made steady progress and 
good time. 

Writing from the Field in France, the writer is at 
the disadvantage of having no notes or means of 
reference at hand, but the principles and applications of 
compressed air in working chambers of Caissons, Diving 
Bells, etc., for subaqueous work must be familiar to many 
members of The Institute, and he thinks that they will 
agree that Mr. Taylor unduly flatters himself if he claims 
to be the sole anticipator, originator or inventor of large 
Diving Bells of the Halifax type. 

The writer regrets he has never had the privilege 
of seeing Mr. Taylor's plant, but he has a hazy recollection 
of having heard, probably in 1914, about an outfit, which 
he thinks may have been Mr. Taylor's, for cutting off 
and capping piles on the lakes a foot or two below water 
level in still water, subject to no rise or fall or range of 
tide; that is, for application to work and conditions quite 
different to those at Halifax. 

James McGregor, Major. 

CE. 3rd Bn. Can. Rly. Troop;?. 
In the Field, B.E.F., France, 
3rd December, 1918. 



32 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Thoughtful Suggestions 

Editor Journal : — 

I think an occasional letter from individual members, 
in appreciation of what you are doing in our behalf, may 
serve to encourage you in your future efforts. The 
work of getting out a monthly "Journal " is in itself no 
mean task, and the numbers I have received are a credit 
to The Instilutc. The influenza epidemic has retarded 
progress in our local branch as public meetings were out 
of the question. There are important matters to be 
discussed, particularly that of legislation affecting the 
engineering profession. I think the draft act submitted 
by the Saskatchewan Branch illustrates one of the great 
dangers to be avoided by The InMitute in Canada. 

The idea that competition among members of the. 
profession is the cause of the unsatisfactory conditions 
of employment and remuneration is entirely erroneous. 
Engineering work is not a fixed quantity in any com- 
munity, nor can it be reckoned as a percentage based 
on population. There is room for unlimited growth and 
expansion, one successful enterprise making way for 
another. It is a case of " work makes work " and the 
benefit is not limited to any one line. The lack of 
definite knowledge that a certain undertaking can be 
carried through successfully often exerts a retarding 
influence on other lines of development. Likewise 
research work, exploration and the collecting and tabulat- 
ing of data have a marked influence in increasing demand 
for engineering services. To-day an engineer must 
specialize, consequently he must be able to move in the 
widest possible field to keep steady employment. This 
prohibits local protection. There is no surer way of 
producing stagnation in the profession than by forming 
closed corporations. It is true that congestion is bound 
to occur in certain centres from time to time which 
re-acts most unfavorably on those who are permanently 
located there. Better organization and more mutual 
consideration among members would do much to obviate 
this difficulty. 

One good feature embodied in the Saskatchewan 
draft was that of registration, but such a measure should 
require merely a nominal fee. This would enable the 
local branches to keep tab on irresponsible individuals 
who were practising engineering to the detriment of the 
profession. I am not here referring to competition, but 
to the injurious effect of incompetent work. The failure 
of an undertaking, excessive cost, reports which are 
unreliable, all make for a decreased demand for engineering 
services. 

With the seasons's best wishes. 
Sincerely yours, 
G. B. McCoLL, A.M.E.I.C. 

Some Salary Offers 

Editor Journal : — 

Owing to my position here as district engineer, \ 
am in receipt each week of a Government publication 
called the " Canadian Official Record." In reading over 
this paper I have come across some items which I believe 
should be brought to the notice of Council for action. 



On page 4 of the issue of November 5th, 1918, there 
is a notice of positions vacant in the Civil Service, I quote 
therefrom as follows: — 

"2. A Clerk in the Statistical and Research 
Branch of the Department of Labor at a salary of 
S1,S00.00 per annum. Candidates should be 
graduates of a recognized university with training 
in economics and research work and some knowledge 
of office routine. 

3. A Photographer for the Exhibits and 
Publicity Bureau of the Department of Trade and 
Commerce at an initial salary of 81,600.00 per 
annum. Candidates must have a complete know- 
ledge of photography, etc. 

5. An Assistant Engineer in the office of the 
Water Power Branch at Winnipeg, Department of 
the Interior, at a salary of 81,500.00 per annum. 
Applicants should he British subjects, not more than 
35 years of age. They should be graduates in 
engineering of some recognized university and should 
have at least two years field and office experience in 
engineering." 

Here is another, in the issue of December 3rd, as 
follows: — 

"1. A secretarial clerk for the permanent 
staff of the President of the Council, Grade D. of 
the First Division, at an initial salary of $1,800.00 
per annum. Candidates should know shorthand 
and have office ability. 

2. A female clerk in the Employment Division 
of the Department of Labour at a salary of 81,600.00 
per annum. Qualifications as in paragraph 2 above.'' 

3. An assistant engineer on the staff of the 
British Columbia Hydrometric Survey at a salary 
of 81,500 per annum." Qualifications as for the 
other engineering position vacant." 

Is The Institute interested in its members? Is it 
taking any notice of the fact that the Civil Service 
Commission is at present working on the reorganization 
of the outside service and the question of the remuneration 
for a great many members of The Institute. 

It would look as though it were better to be a 
" female clerk " than an engineer. 

Yours sincerely. 

One Affected, A.M.E.I.C. 



UNCLASSIFIED 

Eye, Sensibility. The Sensibility of the Eye to Light of Ditferent Colors. Sci 
Am. Supp.. vol. 86, no. 2236, Nov. 9, 1918, p. 301, 1 fig. Results of measure- 
ments carried out at Bureau of Standards. 

RoiLiMa Mills. Diagonals for Designing Rolls for Billet Mills, A. R. Mitchell 
Iron Age, vol. 102, no. 20, Nov. 14, 1918, facing page 1198. Tables fol 
determining dimensions of passes when width and corner radii of billets are 
given. 

Spark Ptcas. Note on the Effect of Temperature on the Resistances of Spark Plug 
Insulations, J. D. Morgan. Engineering, vol. 106, no. 2758, Nov. 8, 1918, 
pp. 513-514, 3 figs. Description of an investigation. 



I 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



33 



PERSONALS 



Gunner W. G. Mawhinney, B.C.E. (Man.) S.E.I.C, 
returned to Canada, December 20th, on the SS. 
" Regina," and is spending a furlough at his home in 
Tuelon, Manitoba. 

Among the many members of The InMilide who have 
been rewarded for their bravery during the War, will be 
noted with great satisfaction the name of Lieut. 
Frederick Alport, A.M.E.I.C., who was recently decorated 
with the Military Cross. 

E. L. Cousins, A.M.E.LC, chief engineer and 
general manager, Toronto Harbour Commissioners, who 
has been for the past six months acting as assistant fuel 
controller for Ontario, has recently accepted the position 
of industrial commissioner for the city of Toronto, in 
which capacity his services will be gratuitously given. 

Lieut. W. D. Stavely, is still another member of The 
Indiiide to receive recognition for conspicuous bravery 
while on active service, having recently been awarded 
the Military Cross. Lieut. Stavely is a graduate of 
McGill University and became an associate member of 
The Institute in 1913. Before going overseas he was 
with Thomas Kirk, A.M.E.LC, Q.L.S. 

MajorA. Douglas Fisken,M.C., J. E.LC, of Toronto, 
was welcomed home recently after many months of 
active service at the front. Major Fisken who is an 
R.M.C. man, was in the thick of the fighting with the 
Canadians, was gassed and severely wounded. He plans 
to go to Victoria at an early date, pending his discharge 
from the army, and anticipates residing at the Coast. 

Boris A. Bakhmeteff, M.E.LC, Russian Ambassador 
to the United States, is now in Paris with other Russian 
diplomats seeking to preserve a United Russia. In an 
announcement to the Associated Press Mr. Bakhmeteff 
stated that Russia has been granted a respectful hearing 
by the Allies in her request for representation at the 
Peace Conference. 

V. L Smart, M.E.LC. formerly Professor of Railway 
Engineering and Transportation, McGill University, and 
J. A. Burnett, A.M.E.LC, formerly Electrical Engineer, 
Grand Trunk Railway System, are now associated as 
Consulting Engineers, located at, 821 New Briks 
Building, Montreal. The lines handled will be civil, 
electrical and mechanical engineering. 

H. T. Eaton, who is a student member of The Institute, 
has received his commission as a lieutenant in the 
Canadian Engineers. Lieut. Eaton has been with the 
Canadian Expeditionary Force since 1914 when he 
went overseas with the 1st Field Troop. He is a graduate 
of Queen's University and was practicing as a civil 
engineer in Controller Tyrrell's office, Toronto, before 
enlistment. 



Howard G. Kelley, M.E.LC, President of the Grand 
Trunk Railway System, in his New Year's Greetings to 
the officers and employees said in part : — 

" At the close of this eventful year, in which peace 
has been restored to the world, I desire personally to 
thank all officers and employees for the part they enabled 
the Grand Trunk to play in winning the war by their 
loval and efficient service." 



The Dominion Government has appointed A. W. 
Campbell, M.E.LC, to report on the action which should 
be taken by the Government in connection with the 
construction and improvement of roads, for which it is 
being asked to give its aid. Mr. Campbell was greatly 
interested in the subject while Deputy Minister of Public 
Works for Ontario about eight years ago before becoming 
Deputy Minister of Railways and Canals, which position 
he has lately resigned. 



G. J. Lamb, Jr., J.E.I.C, has resigned his position 
as acting engineer of the city of Port Arthur and accepted 
an engineering appointment with the Kipawa Fibre Co., 
Temiskaming who are constructing a new town site in 
connection with their plant, with housing accommodation 
for about 7,000 people. R.S. & W.S. Lea and H. S. 
Ferguson, members of The Institute, are the consulting 
engineers for this v/ork, the contract for which is held by 
The Fuller Construction Co. 



Brigardier-General Charles J. Armstrong, C.M.G., 
M.E.LC, is receiving the congratulations of his many 
friends on the honor bestowed on him by the King at the 
New Year in being created a Companion of the Bath. 
At the outbreak of the war he was one of the first to 
volunteer and went over with the First Contingent as 
Colonel in Command of the Engineers. He became 
Brigadier-General and after receiving severe injuries 
in a railway accident which kept him in hospital nineteen 
months, he was attached to the Imperial forces. He 
is now Chief Engineer of the Seventh Army Corps, and 
in charge of the repair and reconstruction of canals in 
Belgium and France. He also saw service in South 
Africa. 



Captain Geo. H. Ferguson, M.C, B.A.Sc, 
A.M.E.I.C., of Toronto, has recently retired from the 
army and expects to resume his former occupation at 
an early date. Enlisting in the early days of the war 
Captain Ferguson was in the thick of the fighting in the 
forward area during the Somme, Vimy and Paschaendael 
engagements and was continuously under fire during the 
German advance in the spring of 1918 and remained 
unhurt until the end of June, when his leg was broken. 
Due to continuous exposure he suffered from complications, 
which necessitated his returning home for a rest, where 
he was convalescing when the armistice was signed. 
Captain Ferguson's many friends in the profession wish 
him a speedy recovery to enable him to continue his 
successful engineering career. 



34 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 




Major F. L. C. BOND, A.M.E.I.C. 



Major F. L. C. BOND. A.M.E.I.C. 

Chief Engineer, (hand Trunk Railwai/ 

Major F. L. C. Bond, A.M.E.I.C, has been appointed 
by the Executive of the Grand Trunin Railway as chief 
engineer of the System to succeed H. R. Safford, 
M.E.I.C., who resigned recently to become regional 
director of the Central Western District, United States 
Railroad Administration. Major Bond has just returned 
from overseas after two years' service with the 10th 
Battalion Canadian Railway Troops. He was born in 
Montreal in 1877, was educated at Montreal High 
School, the Collegiate Institute and McGill University. 
Upon graduating from McGill in 1898 he entered the 
service of the Grand Trunk as Assistant Resident Engineer 
of the Eastern Division, and in 1901 was appointed 
engineer in charge of double track construction. In 1902 
he was night superintendent on the construction of the 
Park Avenue tunnel, of the New York subway, but 
returned to the Grand Trunk as Resident Engineer, 
Eastern Division, a position which he held until 1913. 
From 1913 to 1916, when he went overseas, Major Bond 
was Division Engineer, . Eastern Lines, Grand Trunk 
Railway System. He holds a high reputation in railway 
and engineering circles, and his work with the Canadian 
Expeditionary Force won the highest commendation. 



♦ 



OBITUARIES 



Hetiry M arty n Peck, S.E.I.C. 

News of the death but no particulars have been 
received concerning Henry Martyn Peck, Student member 
of The Institude, who died of wounds in France. 
September 28th, 1918. The late Mr. Peck was twenty-six 
years of age and was educated at Moncton College, 
England and Toronto University. His home was at 
324 Glen Road, Toronto. 



Leonard Oswald Clarke, A.M.E.I.C. 

On November 22nd, Leonard Oswald Clarke, 
A.M.E.I.C, O.L.S., succumbed to an attack of influenza- 
pneumonia at the age of thirty-seven years. He entered 
The Instiiule as a Student member in 1903, and became 
an Associate Member in 1906, at which time he was 
town engineer of North Bay, Ont. During this time 
the present water and sewer systems, including large 
storage reservoirs, were designed and constructed. 
Previous to this he was connected with F. W. Farncomb, 
of London, Ont., and afterwards with the late Jos. Cozens, 
at Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. For a number of years the late 
Mr. Clarke engaged in private practice in North Bay, 
following which he was engaged in contracting, mainly on 
the Lake Superior Division of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway. 

Mr. Clarke was well know in the north country, 
having laid out many of the town sites along the T. & N. O. 



Railway, including Cobalt, Ont. He was a prominent 
Mason, being Past District Grand Prior for Algoma 
District. For the past three years Mr. Clarke has made 
his home in Toronto, where he was buried on November 
23rd, at Mount Pleasant Cemetery. His family will 
make their home in Aurora, Ont. 



Walter Kendall Greenwood, B.A.Sc., A.M.E.I.C. 

After a brief illness from pneumonia, Walter Kendall 
Greenwood, A.M.E.I.C, engineer of the Orillia Water, 
Light and Power Commission, died at his home in Orillia 
at the age of thirty-seven years. Born in Toronto on 
June 1st, 1881, he entered the Upper Canada College in 
1894 and later attended the University of Toronto, 
graduating with honours in 1905. During his summer 
holidays he occupied positions as draftsman with Canadian 
General Electric Company, draftsman and engineer with 
Hamilton Gas Light Company, assistant to superintendent 
Toronto Niagara Power Transmission Line. For a year 
he was manager and superinendent of the Bowmanville 
Electric Light Company and later occupied a position 
with the Producer Gas Company of Toronto. In 1907 
he was resident engineer of the Simcoe Water Works 
construction and in 1908 occupied a similar position at 
Thorold, Ont., later securing the position which he 
occupied at the time of his death. 

The late Mr. Greenwood was elected an Associate 
Member of The Instiiule in 1908 and took an active 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



35 



interest in its affairs. At the time of the Professional 
Meeting held in Toronto last spring, he took an active 
part in the discussion of several of the papers. He was 
a son of Russell Greenwood, of Toronto, and was held in 
the highest esteem by all who knew him. 

* * * 

William John Galbraith, B.Sc, A.M.E.I.C. 

An illness of only two weeks from influenza which 
developed into pneumonia, caused the death of William 
John Galbraith, B.Sc, A.M.E.I.C., af his home, 4145 
Dorchester Street, Westmount, on Saturday, December 
the 21st, at the age of 32 years. The late Mr. Galbraith 
was a Montreal boy, having attended high school in this 
city, graduating from McGill University in 1909. In 
the statement of his engineering career, he mentioned 
that he was engaged as a draftsman with the Dominion 
Bridge Company, in 1902, previous to his entering McGill. 
On his graduation he was with the Geological Survey in 
British Columbia ; about two years later, he was assistant 
engineer on caisson work on the sub-structure of the 
Quebec Bridge. As a contractor on his own account he 
undertook a number of important works, including the 
Government dock at Berthier, Que. ; dam and power house 
at Ingles Falls, Ont.; two railway bridges at St. Hyacin- 
the; reinforced concrete rib arch bridge over the Speed 
River at Guelph, the wireless station at Newcastle, N.B., 
and the dam and power house over the Severn River, 
for the Hydro-Electric Power Commission, Ontario. 

In 1916 the late Mr. Galbraith joined the Foundation 
Company as superintendent of construction, and devoted 
his attention to the erection of shipbuilding plants at 
Victoria, Seattle, Tacoma and Savannah, and at the 
time of his death was engaged in construction of a ship 
canal and shipyards at New Orleans. He had been 
called to Montreal in connection with the valuation of 
a shipyard for the Dominion Government. 

An energetic, capable, construction engineer and 
typically Canadian, at an early age engaged on some of 
the largest construction works on the Continent, he had 
already achieved success and his career promised to be 
one far beyond the average. 

He is survived by Mrs. Galbraith and one daughter. 

* + * 

Laurence Anablc Darey, M.E.I.C. 

Laurence A. Darey died suddenly at his home in 
Sherbrooke, on November 29th, and was buried at the 
Mount Royal Cemetery, Montreal, on December 2nd. 
He was widely known in Canada in connection with 
railway engineering. 

In later years he had been mainly connected with the 
building of the Transcontinental Railway, though in 
the western construction camps of the Canadian 
Northern and on various lines in the western United 
States, " Larry " Darey was equally well known and 
widely popular. 

He was born in Montreal on May 8th, 1865, the 
second son of the late P. J. Darey, Professor of French at 
McGill University. He was educated at McGill University 
and Union College Schenectady. He early entered the 
profession of railway engineering some years in Georgia, 



a year in Chili four years in the Panama and a period in 
the western States were among his early railroad 
experiences. In 1902 he married Ardella E. Murphy of 
Decorah, Iowa. He was later with the Canadian Northern 
in Saskatchewan and afterward with the G.T.P. at 
Winnipeg. P'"or a few years he was chief engineer for the 
St. Maurice Construction Company at Three Rivers 
and for nine years prior to the outbreak of war he was 
divisional engineer on the Transcontinental Railway 
above La Tuque, Que. 

For the past four years the . late Mr. Darey had 
resided in Sherbrooke where he held the post of chief 
engineer for the Good Roads movement. Ill health had 
prevented him from engaging in active work for the last 
two years but his death cam.e unexpectedly. Disappointed 
at the fact that his health prevented him from joining a 
construction unit for overseas service, he went last 
spring to the Rockies and spent two months at the 
Yellowhead Pass in connection with the taking up of 
steel for shipment to France. 

He is survived by Mrs. Darey, who is at present 
residing in Sherbrooke. 

Albert James Hill, M.E.I.C. 

One of the original members of The Institute passed 
away on November 26th, at his home in New Westminster, 
B.C., in the person of Albert James Hill, at the ripe age 
of eighty-two years. He is survived by Mrs. Hill, one 
daughter and two sons, F. T. Hill, of New Westminster 
and E. B. Hill, M.E.I.C, of Vancouver. 

The late Mr. Hill was born at Sydney, Cape Breton, 
on April 7th, 1836, his parents being John Lewis and 
Margaret Hill, the latter a daughter of Dr. Joseph Whyte, 
R.N., of Banff, Scotland. His early education was acquired 
at home and he spent several years associated with his 
brothers in the building and launching of two schooners. 
In 1860 he entered Horton Collegiate Academy,. where he 
completed his education, and in 1866 married Agnes 
Lawrence, the youngest daughter of Alexander Lawrence 
of St. John, New Brunswick. After spending two years 
as a member of the faculty of Horton Academy, Mr. Hill 
accepted an appointment on the European & North 
American Railroad, assisting in locating the line to Winn 
on the Penobscot River. During the next six years he 
was connected with different railroad companies in their 
exploration, survey and construction departments. After 
that he turned from railway building to the development 
of the coal resources of the country. He carried on a 
geological survey of the eastern Cape Breton coalfields, 
afterward embodied with the plans of the Dominion 
geological survey and published by order of the govern- 
ment. On January 1st, 1880, Mr. Hill was ordered to 
British Columbia on the construction on the Canadian 
Pacific Railroad, on the contract from Yale to Savona. 

He continued in that work until October, 1882, when 
he was removed to Port Moody, closing his connection 
with the government service in December, 1884. He 
then engaged in the private practice of his profession in 
New Westminster. He was at one time engineer for the 
Municipality of Surrey. He has rendered efficient 
service both in public and private capacities to geological 



36 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



research in his native province and in British Columbia. 
His hfe work has been a valuable contribution to those 
labors which figure as factors in civilization and general 
improvement and he had a wide acquaintance among 
those who are prominent in scientific and professional 
circles throughout the country. 

* * * 

Professor William Muir Edwards, M.Sc, M.E.I.C. 

The Edmonton Branch, and, in fact, the entire 
Institute, suffered a severe loss in the death, on Thursday, 
November 14th, of F*rofessor William Muir Edwards, of 
pneumonia following influenza. His death will cause the 
deepest regret among a very wide circle of friends and 
admirers, not only in the city of Edmonton, where he 
was professor in civil and municipal engineering in the 
University of Alberta, but throughout Canada. Few 




Late Professor W. M. Edwards 

men have the combined ability and devotion to public 
service that were his. Following a brillant career at 
McGill University, where he graduated with the degrees 
of B.Sc. in mining engineering, and M.Sc, he was for 
two years in charge of municipal engineering and mathe- 
matics, also hydraulic engineering, at McGill University. 
When the University of Alberta was organized in 1907 
he was appointed to the professorial chair which he 
occupied at the time of his death. 

In university circles he was a leading member of 
the Faculty, having held the Presidency of the Faculty 
Club for five years. His interests in student welfare 
were of the most varied character and always sustained 
with unflagging energy. He took an active part in 
athletics and trained the Varsity team in 1914 which 
carried off the senior Provincial championship. He was 
President of the Soldiers' Comfort Club and editor of the 
"News Letter" which was sent every week to every student 



of the University on active service. His public spirit 
and citizenship was shown in his being the prime mover 
in establishing the south side branch of the Young Men's 
Christian Association and for two years he served as 
officer commanding the 101st regiment. 

He was also actively connected with Knox Presby- 
terian Church of which he was an elder as well as a 
member of the board of managers. 

The following tribute to the late Professor Edwards 
appeared in an editorial of the Edmonton Journal on 
November 15th. 

" Many devoted Edmonton men and women have 
literally sacrified their lives in fighting the scourge which 
has played such havoc here in the past few weeks and in 
seeking to alleviate the suffering of those already stricken 
down. Professor W. Muir Edward, of the University 
of Alberta, belonged to that heroic band. The volunteer 
work which has been done in this city during this period 
of great affliction has been of the kind that gives one a 
new faith in humanity. Whether, like him, they have 
given the last full measure of devotion or whether they 
have come safely through the dangers of their self- 
imposed tasks, we cannot begin to render to them the 
tribute that is their due. 

Apart from this, the loss of Professor Edwards to the 
city and the province is a most serious one. One of the 
original members of the University staff, he did most 
excellent work in his department both in the days of 
small things for the institution and after it had attained 
a large development. His engineering advice was often 
sought and highly valued in connection with civic and 
other undertakings. 

Few men have a wider range of interests. He was 
as active in church and Y.M.C.A. work as in the promotion 
of athletics. Nothing which went to the building up of 
clean, virile young manliood failed to attract his interest 
and his energies. He had nothing whatever in common 
with the ordinary notion of a university professor, living 
in a world of abstractions apart from the world of men. 
It is because the provincial seat of higher learning has, 
in all that it has done, kept so close to the everyday life 
about it that it has made such a place of usefulness for 
itself and has made such a growth in its comparatively 
short time of existence. 

In the great j^ears ahead of us, men like Professor 
Edwards will be needed as never before and his death, 
with all its attendant circumstances, is a most poignant 
tragedy." 

In the engineering profession in which he occupied 
a high place his interest was constant. When the 
Edmonton Engineering Society was in existence he 
took an active interest in the organization and when 
elected President arranged a re-organization as the 
Edmonton Branch of the Canadian Society of Civil 
Engineers, which gave Edmonton engineers belter status. 
Shorty before his death he helped the Edmonton Branch 
to take a prominent part in provincial legislation and 
the draft .-Vet which the Branch has submitted is largely 
his work. 

The late Professor Edwards was born in Montreal, 
November 14th, 1879 and is survived by Mrs. Edwards 
and a small familv. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



37 



Preliminary Notice of Application for Admission 
and for Transfer 

The By-Laws now provide that the Council of the Society shall 
approve, classify and elect candidates to membership and transfer 
from one grade of membership to a higher. 

It is also provided that there shall be issued to all corporate members 
a list of the new applicants for admission and for transfer, containing 
a concise statement of the record of each applicant and the names of his 
references. 

In order that the Council may determine justly the eligibility of 
eacli candidate, every member is asked to read carefully the list 
submitted herewith and to report promptly to Secretary any facts 
which may affect the classification and election of any of the candidates, 
In cases where the professional career of an applicant is known to any 
member, such member is specially invited to make a definite recom- 
mendation as to the proper classification of the candidate.* 

If to your knowledge facts e.xist which are derogatory to the personal 
reputation of any applicant, should be promptly communicated. 

Communications relating to applicants are considered by 
the Council as strictly confidential. 



The Council will consider the applications herein described in 
January, 101!). 

Fbaser S. Keith, Secretary. 



•The professional requirements are aa follows: — 

Every candidate for election ag MEMBER must be at least thirty years of age, 
and must have been engaged in some branch of engineering for at least twelve years, 
which period may include apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office 
or a term of instruction in some school of engineering recognized by the Council. The 
term of twelve years may. at the discretion of the Council, be reduced to ten years 
in the case of a candidate who has graduated in an engineering course. In every case 
the candidate must have had responsible charge of work for at lejist five years, and this 
not merely as a skilled workman, but as an engineer qualified to design and direct 
engineering works. 

Every candidate for election as an ASSOCIATE MEMBER must be at least 
twenty-five years of age, and must have been engaged in some branch of engineering 
for at least six years, which period may include apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified 
engineers' office, or a term of instruction in some school of engineering recognized by 
the Council. In every case the candidate must have held a position of professional 
responsibility, in charge of work as principal or assistant, for at least two years. 

Every candidate who is not a graduate of some school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, shall be required to pass an examination before a Board of Examiners 
appointed by the Council, on the theory and practice of engineering, and especially 
inone of thefoUowingbranches at hisoption Railway, Municipal, Hydraulic, Mechanical, 
Mining, or Electrical Engineering. 

This examination may be waived at the discretion of the Council if the candidate 
has held a position of professional responsibility for five years or more years. 

Every candidate for election as JUNIOR shall be at least twenty-one years of 
age, and must have been engaged in some branch of engineering for at least four years. 
This period may be reduced to one year, at the discretion of the Council, if the candidate 
is a graduate of some school of engineering recognized by the Council. He shall not 
remain in the class of Junior after he has attained the age of thirty-five years. 

Every candidate who is not a graduate of some school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, or has not passed the examinations of the first year in such a course, 
shall be required to pass an examination in the following subjects Geography, History 
(that of Canada in particular). Arithmetic, Geometry Euclid (Books I.-IV. and VI.), 
■Trigonometry, Algebra up to and including quadratic equations. 

Every candidate for election as ASSOCIATE shall be one who by his pursuits, 
scientific acquirements, or practical experience is qualified to co-operate with engineers 
in the advancement of professional knowledge. 



The fact that candidates give the names 
of certain members as references does not 
necessarily mean that their applications 
are endorsed by such members. 



FOR ADMISSION 

BALFOUR— HARRY E., of Quebec, Que. Born at Emerson, Man., Jan. 22nd, 
1884. _ Educ._ Vancoviver high school, I. C. S., graphic statics and proportioning 
materials, reinforced concrete construction. International Library of Tech. With 
National Transcontinental Ry., as follows: 1906-07, draughtsman, Ottawa; Jan. 1907 
to June 1907, draughtsman and topographer on location: 1907-09, asst. engr. on constr. 
Reey. 21B (2 mos. acting res. engr.); 1909-10, draughtsman dist. office. North Bay; 
Mar. to Nov. 1910, res. engr. Resy. 2.3, D; 1911-12. draughtsman in Winnipeg Car 
.Shops (3 mos. asst. engr. constr.); 1912-1.3, draughtsman on design, Quebec Loco. 
Shops; 1913-10, asst. engr. of constr., Quebec shop plant; 1916 to date, asst. engr. 
Jos. Gosselin Ltd. 

References: C. V. Johnson, A. C. Fellows, J. H. HolIid.ay, W. N. Cann, D. A. Evans 
D. MaePherson. 



BALLS— MATTHEW, of Vancouver, B.C. Born at Hyton-on-Tyne, Eng. 
Oct. 8th, 1887. Education, 2 yr. science course, Westoe higher grade school. South 
Shields, Eng. 190li (7 mos.), with the S.P. & S. Ily., as rodman, leveller, etc.; 
J ij 'i. u" """"' -*'''"■"'<'''" Pacific Hy.; 1907-08, rodman and instrumentman, 
h.P. & S.Ry.; U mos. on railway work in Alaska; with the N.P.Ry., from 1909 to 1915, 
as rodman, topograplier, etc., .and res. engr,; 191.5 to date, .isst. engr., Dom. Govt 
Hydrometnc Surve.v. 

.. ..I^eferences: T. H. White, S. H. Sykes, E. R. Millidge, R. G. Swan, J. B. Challics. 
1'. W. Knew.stubb. 

BELLOWS— WARREN SYLVANUS. of Fort William, Ont. Born at Kansas 
City, Mo., Aug. 15th, 1889. Education, B.Sc. (CE.), Univ. of Kansas, 1911. 1908, on 
ry. constrn.. Union Pacific Ry.; 1909, ry. survey, Los .\ngeles aqueduct; 1910, bldg. 
foreman. Wilson & Co.; 1911-13, dftsman, designer, etc., bridge dent., Kaasas City 
rermuml Ry.; 1913-l.'j, stipt. bldg. constrn., for Marsh, Hutton, Powers Co, Fort 
»•! !""" »■"' I'ort -'Vrtliur; 1915-18, member of Fcgles-Bcllows Engr. Co. Ltd., Fort 
William, Ont., designing and constrn. of bklgs. 

References: W. A. Duff, B. S. McKenzie, H. B. R. Craig, L. M. Jones, W E 
Joyce, J. F. Greene. 

BOESE— GEORGE PHILIP FREDERICK, of Calgary, Alta. Born at 
lorton, England, March 3rd. 1880. Educ, science courses at Worcester and Notting- 
ham, England. With C.P.R. as follows: 1907-1910, transitman and asst. to engr in 
chg., Montreal and Ottawa; 1910-11, engr. in chg. of constj. of steel diversion and 
tunnel and locating and estimating for water gravity systems. Lake .Superior dist.; 
1911-12, asst. engr. in chg. of constr. new line; 1912-14, res. engr. in chg. of constr 
between Montreal and Toronto and at Trenton; 1913-17, work on mech. designs and 
drawings for private concerns; 1917 to date, asst. engr. C.P.R. , dcpt of natural resources 
engr. branch at Lethbridge and Calgary. 

References: 
.Sherwood. 



.\. S. Dawson, A. McCullocIi, J. E. Beatty, C. W. P. Ramsey, H. L. 



BROWN— LOREN LEWIS, of Vancouver, B.C. Born at Portland, Ore., Jan. 
22nd, 1887. Educ, B.Sc. Civil Engineering, Univ. of Idaho, 1911. Instrumentman, 
with the Spokane & Inland Ry; 1911-12, in chg. of concrete constr., Canadian Mineral 
Rubber Co., Victoria, B.C. (paving); 1912-13, in chg. of frame and reinforced concrete 
building constr. for the Westholme Lumber Constr. Co., Victoria; 1913-14, in chg. of 
reinforced concrete building constr. for the B. C. Constr. Co., Victoria; 1914-15, testing 
machine operator and computing engr.. Forest Products Laboratories of Canada, 
.McGill Univ.; 1915 to July 1918, Lieut, l.st Camadian Tunnelling Co. At present time 
superintendent. Forest Products Laboratories of Canada, Univ. of B.C., Vancouver, 
B.C. 



References: 
Matheson. 



A. Lighthall, C. E. Webb, R. G. Swan, W. J. Johnston, E. G. 



BUCHANAN— COLIN ARCHIBALD, of Levis, Que. Born at Levis, Que , 
Sent. 14th, 1889. Educ, 3 yrs. applied science, McGill Univ. With T. C. Ry., as 
follows: 1907-10, draftsman; 1910-13. instrumentman, dist. B.; 1914 (3 mos.), instru- 
mentman, (3 mos.) res. engr.; May 1916 to Sept. 1916, with .Messrs. W. P. & J. T. 
Davis, contractors, as asst. engr.; Lauzon Dry Dock, Sept. 191l)-0ct. 1917. and summer 
of 1918, instrumentman with Quebec & .Saguenay Ry. At present 4th yr. student 
Civil Engineering, McGill University. 

References: H. M. MacKay, E. Brown, A. Ferguson, A. Dick, W. N. Cann, 
A. Babin. 

CAMPBELL— NEIL, of Ottawa, Ont. Born at Perth, Scotland, Nov. 2ôtli, 
1887. Educ. Crielï, Acad. Perthshire, Sharps Inst., Perth, and school of engineering, 
Dundee, Scotland. 1905-09, pupilage in dist. engr's office, (îaledouian Ry. Co. 
Perth; 1909-10, res. engr. on constr. work for C. Ry. Co.; 1911-14, draughtsman, 
instrumentman and acting res. engr. on location and constr., C.P.R.; 1915, engr. with 
Imperial Munitions Board on shell production work; 1916-17, field engr., Dom. Bridge 
Co., on munitions plant, constr. and maintenance; 191S, to date, production engr. in 
shipbuilding dept-. Imperial Munitions Board, Ottawa. 

References: C. W. P. Ramsey, F. Mao.irthur, L. W. Klinger, W. H. McGaan, 
L. J. M. Howard. 

CHILDERHOSE— ER WIN ALFRED, of Winn peg, Man. Born at St. Thomas 
N. Dak., U.S.A., April 14th, 1894. B. E. E., i Manitoba, 1917. In.strument- 
man on roads and drainage; draughtsman in elec. engr's office: elec. eng. on power 
house and substation constr. and installing of machinery; at present asst. to ch. 
engr., city of Winnipeg, Light and Power dept.; in chg. of installing apparatus iii 
generating station and constr. of substations and equipment, elec. wiring and installation 
of plants in public buildings. 

References: E. V. Caton, VV. M. Scott, E. E. Brydone-Jack, G. C. Dunn, F. H. 
Farmer, J. M. Leamy, T. Roberts. 

COLHOUN— GEORGE ANDREW, of Hamilton, Ont. Born at Sparta, Ont 
Dec. 23rd, 1881. Educ S.P.S., Toronto, 1908. 1903 (9 mos.), in machine shops and 
foundry of Thom's Imp. Works, Watford, Ont.; 1901 (3 mos.), in office of Stanley 
Code, C.E., Alvinston; with the Hamilton Bridge Works Co., as follows: 1906-09 
detailer of structural steel drawings; 1909-14, checker of structural steel drawings for 
buildings, bridges, etc.; 1914, and at present time, with Hamilton Bridge Works in 
designing and estimating dept., making and checking designs and estimates of all 
kinds of structural steel. 

References: J. A. McFarlane, E. H. Darling, E. H. Pacy, J. G. Jack, A. S. Code. 

CROLY— JOHN BULL, of Vancouver, B.C. Born at Cork, Ireland, Jan. 8th, 
1867. Educ Queen's Coll., Galway, Ireland, certificate for military engr. 1900-06, 
temporary surveyor on civil staff of R. E.; 1903-11, on engr. staff, C.P.R., aa inspector 
of steel bridges, elevators, freight sheds, etc; 1911-12, municipal engr. Chilliwack 
B.C., in chg. of constr. work; 1913, with prov. Govt as inspector of steel on the new 
Parliament BIdgs., Victoria, B.C.; 1 yr. with Messrs. Waddell & Harrington, bridge 
designers, Kansas. U.S..\.: in chg. of erection of bridges at Vancouver, B.C.; at presenl 
with Robert Hunt & Co., consulting engrs., Vancouver, B.C., as inspecting engr 

References: F. F. Busteed, H. Rindal, C. E. Cartwright, A. D. Créer. C. B. 
Freeman. 



38 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



DANKS— FRANK A., of Toronto, Ont Rorn at Pdroica, Ont.. March 20th, 1888. 
Educ. C. È. Univ. of Tor.. 1908. lOUS with Allen Hnzon. N.Y.. na clftsmttn on (loaisn 
of Tor liltrfttion À ft-wt . on ronstr. "N'onkors filtration. 191(0- H) aRst. works dcpt. Toronto 
onconstr. Tor. fillrntion. 19in-i:i. F. H. Lntiiner, IVnticton. B.C., on Hyiiro-olpc. 
.Hurvoy V* in.«liilhition, irrigation A suhdivi.sions. lOlS liridc*' ilp..*iEnor, Kottln Valley Ry., 
Ponlicton, li mos. transitmnn on roa(lway.4, Toronto. l!li:i-lS a.s,st water supply section, 
Toronto, in-stullation of steel conduits & Toronto Driftine Sand I'^iltration plant. 1!)1S 
ronstr. supt. J. B. Nicholson Ltd., Haniilton and at present constr. cngr. Biiti.sh 
Forgings, .\shliridgc3 Bay, Toronto, under F. R. Miller. 

References: F. H. Latimer, J. B. Nicholson, .1. Milne, C. G. Powell, R. B. Evans. 

Fn.I.I'.R— HAROLD P.\l"L, of .St. James. Man Born at Bury. Que., Nov. 4th, 
I8S7 Kdur high school & I. C. H. course in C. E. Summer in07 rodman with G.T.R . 
.■\ug-Dco VMtS leveller on location (J. C. R., .Apr -.\ng 19()9 asst. to field engr, 
.1. G. White A Co.. sttrvcy pow.;r development at .St. Timothy. Que. Aug. -Dec. I9()9 
inspector of cofwtr. under engr. of constr. Montreal & Southern Counties Ry., 1910-1-1 
instrumentman on constr., location A maintenance G. T. K,, I!I1.")-1G instrumentman 
C. N. R., 1918 to date asst. engr. C. N. R. 

References: A. T. Fraser, T. Turnbull, \V. Wnlkdcn, T. \V. White, W. Burns, 
J. N, dcStcin, J. T. .Morkill, .T. A. Burnett. 

GMNES — EDWARD C, of Montreal, Que. Born at Slater. Missouri, Feh. 
1st, 1878. Educ. B.S. inE.E.,rmv. of Missouri, IflOO. WOO-Ol, Supt. Elee. Light 
À .Motor Plant. Hohlcn, Âfo., 1901-02. crane inspector and foreman of maintenance 
ami operation elee. dept.. Hamstead Steel Works of Carnegie Steel Co.. Pittsburgh. 
I>a : with Heyl cS Patterson, of Pittsburgh. Pa., as follows: 1902-00. draftsman: 
li't(n'i-ll. a.sst. div. engr.; 1911-10. div. and elee. engr. in chg. of design of eoal and ore 
handling machinery, etc.; 1916-18. designing niech. engr., Dominion Bridge Co., Mon- 
treal; at present engr., crane and conveyor dept.. Dominion Bridge Co., in chg. of dept. 

References: II. H. Vaughan, G. H. Duggan, W. F. .\ngus. E. S. Maltiee. F. P. 
Shcarwood. A. M. Johnson. 

IIOBSON — ROBERT, of Hamilton, Ont. Born at Kitchener. Ont.. Aug. l.'ith. 
ISfil. Educ. public schools. Guelph and Hamilton. 17 yrs. with chief engr. of 
G. W. & G.T.Ry. (his father): in the iron and steel business since 1896; at the present 
time president Steel Co. of Canada. 

References: J. M. R. Fairbairn, H. H. Va\ighan, G. H. Dugg.an, H. U. Safford. 
W. J. Francis, W. F. Tye. 



MACDONALD— Wlf-LIAM COLE, of Woodmnns Point. N.B. Born at Shelburne. 
N.B.. May 9th. 1881. Education. E. E. course. Dnlhouse Coll. 1907-1.!. dftsman. 
instrumentman and res. engr.. N.T.Ry.: 1913-M. res. engr.. G.P.R.. Sutlbury: 19I4-l(i' 
engr.. Cook C^onslrn. C'o.. on Montreal afpieduct: lOUl. to present time. engr. and 
accountant, Kennedy & MacDonald, St. John & Que. Ry., Woodmatis Point. 

References: C. 0. Foss, 11. Txjngley, W. J. DeWolfe, R. H. Gushing. 

McCALI^-JA MES FERGUSON, of Calgary. Alta. Born at Dumfries. Scotland, 
Oct. 12tli. 1868. Educ. public school. Mach. shop practice on constr. and repairing 
and erection of steam machy. For 2.'> yrs. in responsible chg. of steam boilers, engines, 
ttirbines, clec. generators, etc. At present chief engr. of tlic city of Calgary, Power 
tlept. 

References: G. W. Craig, .\. .S. Chapman, W. J. Gale, C. .M. .\rnold. 

MILL.S — GEORGE ARTHUR, of Winnipeg, Man. Born near Independence, 
Iowa. July .')th, 188.5. Education, B.S. (E.E.), Iowa State Coll.. 1909; one yr. post 
grad. in E.E.. Univ. of Penn. 1909-10. apprentice with Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co.; 
1911-17. clef. engr.. Waterloo. Cedar Falls & Northern Ry.; Dec. 1917. to date. 
Winnipeg Kler. Rv. Co., and since April, elee. engr. in charge of power and transmission, 
etc. 

References: E. V. Caton, G. L. Guv, E. C. Hanson, T. L. Roberts, A. W. Lamont, 

S . Wilkins. 



MILNE -WINFORD Gf.ADSTONE, of Hamilton, Ont. Born at Malvern. 
Ont., June 10th. 1877. Educ. 2li yrs. .S. P. S. Tor., mech. and elee. engr; 1 yr. 
Lindsay Light, Heat & Power Co.; 1 yr. W. .\. Johnston Elee. Co.t Toronto, in chg. of 
installation contracts, including generating e(iuipment: (i yrs. superintending and 
developing process for m.anufacturc of peat fuel and machinery for harvesting the 
dry peat: 9 yr.-:,. and at present time, plant engr.. Hamilton Bridge Co., Ltd.. n-sponsible 
for go's eriuipment and design and constr. of new cciuinment for shop an<l Held, and 
recently the de.sign and constr. of what is believed to oe the largest st:indard gauge 
bridge erection derrick can in existence. \t present occupied with special features 
of ship constr. of much new equipment. 



Jack. 



References: R. L. Latham. E. H. Pacy, E. IT. Darling, J. A. McFarlane, J. G. 



HOWARTH — CH.\RLES. of Calgary. Alta. Born at Newport, England, 
July 2l3t, 1885. Educ. tech. courses. Board of Educ, London; in maths, and nicchs , 
and general engr.. City & Guilds School of Tech.. London; apprenticed as mech. 
engr. with Emiyn Engr. Wks.. Newport. England; 1906-08. student dftsman. Uskside 
Engr. Co.: and 1908-11. foreman dftsman at same place. 1911-13, supt. of constr., 
Albert Engr. Co., Calgary; 1913, dft.sman Northwest Steel Co., Vane; 1914. dftsman 
under C. M. Arnold, bridge engr., Calgary; 1915, to date, ch. engr.. United Grain 
Growers Ltd., in chg. of .all engr. work required by the company. 



References: C. M. .\rnoId. F. W. Alexander. G. 
Gale, A. S. Chapman. H. S. Johnston. 



W. Craig, C. H. dcKam, W J. 



HUETHER— ALVIN DAVID, of Niagara Falls, Out. Born at Ncwstead, Ont., 
July 24th, l.S,S7. Education, B..\.Sc., Univ. of Toronto. 1909. 1909-1911, in city 
hall as rodman, instrumentman and dftsman, Toronto; 1910, trstman, D.L.S., .Mta.; 
1911, asst. to city engr., Owen Sound; 1912- Hi, in city hall, Toronto, as dftsman and 
res. engr. in sewer dept.; 1916-1918, not in eng. work; at present time instrumentman 
for Hydro Elee. Power Comm'n. 

References: T. H. Hogg, W. Jackson, G. F. Hanning, R. McDowall. W. R. 
Worthington, E. G. Hcwson. 

JONES— THOMAS M.\RSDEN, of Toronto, Ont. Born at Cardigan, South 
Wales. Feb. 25tli. 1886. Educ. Tech. Inst., Newport, Mon. Courses in steam 
applied mechs., machine constr., practical math.. South Kensington. London. 1901-07, 
apprenticed with the Newport, South Wales Docks & Ry. Co., England. 4 yrs. machine 
shop, 1 yr. pattern shop and foundry, aud 1 yr. drawing office; 1907-08. marine engr.. 
trading to the Mediterranean and Black Sea. in chg. of watch on main engines; 
1908-10, engr. with Jordans Ltd., Newport, Mon., Pipe Foundries & Engrs., in chg. of 
constr. of installation of Herberts' Patent Hydraulic Pipe Moulding Machines, and of 
modern gas drying systems for pipe moulds, etc.; 1910-11. Caledonian Iron Works, 
iliaughtsman on Worthington Turbine Pumps; 1911-13. ch. engr., Canada Iron Cor- 
poration, in ch. of all new equipment and constr. in Canadian plants; 1913-16, Can. 
Allis-Chalmers Ltd., Toronto, ch. designer of Mather & Piatt Turbine and Centrifugal 
Pirnips; ÎDlti, to date, ch. engr. and manager of the Bawden Pump Co. Ltd., Toronto. 

References: J. Milne, C. L. Fellows, P. Gillespie, R. 0. Wynne-Roberts, E. A. 
James. 

LARSON— CARL HERMAN, of Cabri, Sask. Born at Skofde, Sweden, July 
26th. 1872. Educ. B.S., Nebr.a-ska, 1902. 1902-03, with Chicago Great Western 
Ry.. concrete inspector and instrumentman: 1904-00. with C.R.Ry. as concrete 
inspector and instrumentman; lOOG-OO. with C.R.Ry.. res. engr. in chg. of grading, 
anti Saskatoon bridge and terminal constr.; 1910-14. with C.P.Ry.. in chg. of railway 
and constr. work; at present time municipal engr., R. M. Riverside, in Sask. 



References: 
McCuUough. 



W. A. James, J. G. Sullivan, J. Callaghan, J. R. C. Macredie, A. 



MACDONALD— AUSTIN PERCY, of Minto, N.B. Born at Moncton, N.B., 
March .30th. 1892. B.Sc. Univ. of N.B., 1917. Summers of 1916 and 1917, with 
N. B. Crown Land Survey; 1918, and at present, engr. Rothwell Coal Co., Ltd., Minto, 
N.B., in chg. of stripping operations. 

References: J. A. Stiles, A. K. Grimmer, S. B. Wass. 



MUNRO — ST. JOHN, of Vancouver. B.C. Born at Walkden. England, June 
24th. 1888. Educ. private school in England; 2nd yr. engr. School of Tech., Man- 
chester, and recent tuition by E. G. Matheson in structural engr. 1906, with D. 
P. W., Manitoba, and C. C." Chataway, surveyor. Winnipeg, as rodman. etc; with 
C. N. R.. .OS follows: 1907-12. transitman on location; 1913. res. engr.. 
Prairies. 1914-15. res. engr.. Yellowhead; 1916, res. engr., maintenance of way; 
1917-18, on leave of absence from C. N.R., supervising engr. for Pratt & Ross. Winnipeg, 
with fidl chg. of constr. of C.N.R.'s station and freight and train shed. Vancouver, 
B.C. .At present time res. engr. maintenance of way dept., C.N.R., Vancouver, B.C. 

References: H. A. Dixon, T. H. White. E. G. Matheson. R. P. Wilson, D. \. Ross, 
G. R. Pratt. 

NESHAM— LIONEL CHARLES, of Ottawa, Ont. Born at Torquay, Eng. 
Nov. 5th, 1892. Education, B.Sc, McGill, 1916. Nov. 1911-Oct. 1912, computer 
and recorder, Geodet. Survey of Canada; May 1913-Nov. 1916, on the Internat. 
Boundary Survey, as topographer, etc.; 1916-1917, inspec. for Montreal Tramways 
Co. underground conduit system (2 mos.); 1917-18, instrumentman on gen. constrn. 
and hydrographie surveys. Port Nelson Terminals; at present time draftsman, dept. of 
Rys. and Canals. Ottawa. 

References: D. W. McLachlan. J. J. McArthur. E. Brown. H. M. MacKay. 
C. B. Daubney. 

NEVILLE— EVERETT ARTHUR, of Windsor. Out. Born at Gosficld South. 
Ont.. Jan. 8th. 18.87. Education. B.Sc. Univ. of Toronto. 1911. Summers 1909 and 
1911. tran.sitman. D.Lr.S. party; summer 1910. transitman on location. G.T.P.; 1912-13. 
chief of survey party for Dom. Govt.; 1914-15, right of way surveyor for G.T.P., in 
B.C.; 1916-17, dftsman Can. Steel Corp., Ojibway; July 1917, to date, asst. to city 
engr., Windsor. 



References: M. E. Brian. O. McKay. J. 
N. C. Stewart. 



A. Heamaii, W. H. Powell, J. S. Nellcs, 



OWENS— JAMES EDWARD, of St. John. N.B. Born at Fredericton. N.B., 
June 12th. 1S94. Education. B.Sc. Univ. of N.B.. 1915. 3 summers tunekeeper with 
Powers & Brewer. Dom. .Atlantic Ry.; 1 summer with city engr. of St. John; 1915-16, 
dftsman and estimater. Union Fdy & Machine Wks. Ltd.; 3 mos. dfstman on survey 
St. J. & Que. Ry.; 1916 to date, office engr. St. J. & Que. Ry. 

References: C. O. Foss, R. Thompson, H. A. Ryan, J. A. Stiles, S. B. Wass. 

PALMER— ROBERT KENDRICK, of Hamilton. Ont. Born at Geneva. N.Y'., 
Jan. 16th. 1872. Education. B.Sc. (CE.). Univ. of Michigan. 1894. 1894. dfl-sman. 
American Bridge Works; 1895, dftsman. New Columbus Bridge Co.: 189G, dftsman, 
Elmira Bridge Co.; 1896, to date, with Hamilton Bridge Co., as chief dftsman, designer; 
and at present time, chief engr. 

References: P. B. Motley, R. L. Latham, J. M. R. Fairbairn, W. P. Chapman, 
J. L. WcUer, J. A. MacFarlane, lO. H. Darling. 



1 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



39 



REID— JOHN ALEXANDKR. of Cobalt, Oat. Born at Halifax. N.S., Oct. 
23rd, 1S77. Educ. B.Sc, Quoon'y Univ., 1902, licensed as.sayer of B.C. May-Scpt. 
1900. in chs:. of st:tmp mill, Torqvioy Mining Co., Moose Hiver, N.S.; May-Sept. 
1902 and 190:i, exploration work, Ham. Steel & Iron Co., Hamilton: Sept.-Dcc. 1902, 
assayer and surveyor. lirookfield MininE Co., N.S.; Nov. 190:i-April 1904, asst. assayer, 
I.* lioi No. 2 Mining Co., Rossland, U.C.: with Daly Reduction Co.. Hodlry, B.C.: 
.Tune-Oct. 190j. asst. assayer; Oct.-Nov. 190.'), ch. assayer; 190i-0.5, a.s.st. to R. W. 
Brock (late dir. geol. survey), on examination of mines at Hossland and I'hocnix, B.C.; 
1907-OS, cyanide foreman on various reduction works for mining companies in Mexico, 
May-Nov! 1909, exploration work, Temiskaniing dist. for B. C. syndicate, in cIik. of 
exploration work for private syndicate under F. \V. Connell on exam, work and develop- 
ment of silver mining propcrtv in Portland canal and Skeena dists., B.C.; April- Nov. 
1910, and in Mexico 1910-12. fall of 1913 mine exam, in E.. Que., for Can. Mining 
& Explor. Co.; Jan.-Oct. 1914, field and exam. engr. in northern Man. and Sask. for 
Can. Min. & Explor. Co.; .session 1915-lG, asst. in dept. of mining and metallurgy. 
Queen's I'niv.; 1910. to date, field engr. and mining geologist for M. J. O'Brien Ltd.. on 
exam, and valuation of outside properties. 



References: J. G. Dickenson. R. W. T-eonard. J. C. Gwillim, 
W. P. Wilgar. W. R. Rogers, J. B. Harvey, H. W. Sutcliffe. 



A. V. Redmond. 



SANDOVER SLY— R. J., of Campbcliton. N.B. Bornât Warminster, Wiltshire. 
England, .Ian. 9th, 1S86. Educ. grammar school (English), 3 yra. articled pupil 
under A. F. Long, municipal engr., Wilts., classes at South Ken-sington School of 
Art., in chg. of eonstr., Huntsville. Ont., under late Gait Smith, Toronto, and under 
T. Aird Murray. Dec. 1909- Mar. 1910. acting town engr., Oshawa, Ont.; 1910-11, in 
chg. of eonstr.. Kitchener, Ont., under Herbert Johnston, city engr.; 1911, to date, 
town engr., Campbcllton, N.B., in chg. of all engr. work since town was destroyed 
by fire in 1911. 

References: H. Johnston, G. Stead, F. G. Goodspeod, E. .\. James, F. Chappell, 
G. G. Murdock. 

SEDGWICK — ARTHUR, of Toronto, Ont. Born at Windsor. Ont.. April 22nd. 
1SS4. Educ. S.P.S. Tor., 1909. Rodman and instrumentman on Detroit River 
tunnel during college vacations; 1909-10, engr. in chg. Dog Lake Dams eonstr. of storage 
dams at head waters of Kaministiquia River, 1911. to date, asst. engr.. Ont. dept. 
of Public Highways, on the administration of provincial aid to county highways, 
building object lesson roads and examination of plans for highway britlges for Ontario. 

References: R. P. Fairbairn, A. J. Halford, W. A. McLean, G. Hogarth, E. A. 
James, W. R. Rogers. 

STEWART— ROBERT ADDIE. of Winnipeg. Man. Born at Chapelhall. 
Scotland. Sept. 21st. ISSl. Educ, 4 yrs. course, evening class, mech. engr.; 2 yrs. course 
(evenings), (jlasgow and West of Scotland Tech. Coll., I.C-S. course: 7 yrs. apprentice- 
ship. 3 yrs. with D. Rowan & Co.. Glasgow; 1 yr. Barclay Curb Co.; 8 yrs. witii 
C.P.R. ("i yrs. foreman); 3 yrs. boiler inspector foreman, C P R; 2 yrs. engr.. Tribune 
Publishing Co.; 191(î, ch. boiler inspector province of Man., and at present acting ch. 
inspector. Bureau of Labor, province of Man., in chg of boiler, factory and elevator 
inspection. 

References: E. Hanson, G. L. Guy, J. M. Leamy, H. Edwards. 

SVENNINGSON— SVEN, of Montreal. Born at Christiania, Norway, Mar. 
19th, 1SS4. Education, Mech. Engr., Christiania, 1907. and apprenticeship. 1907-08. 
designing and drafting of water turbines. Christiania; 1903-09, in charge of dsgn. and 
constrn. of rubber mfg. plant in Norway; 1909-11, gen. dftg. and inspec. work. Pa. 
Water & Power Co.; 1911-12, dsgr. of water and steam power station, Wm. Fargo, 
Jackson, Mich.; 1912-13, dsgn. and constrg. high tension transm-ssion lines for Stone 
& Webster; 1913, to present time, with Shawinigan Water & Power Co., in charge of 
mech. and structural dsgns. for Cedar Rapids Mfg. Co., and special engr. in ehrge of 
desgn. and engrg. supervision of constrn. 

References: J. C. Smith, C. E. Fraser, J. H. Brace, F. T. Kaelin, J. Morse 

TI MM— CHARLES HENRY, of Westmount, Que. Born at Sheffield, England, 
Aug. 16th. 1H77. Educ. public school, 4 yrs., Montreal Tech. Night School. 4 yrs. 
apprenticeship with James Cooper Mfg. Co., 1S93-97. In 1901, in James Cooper Mfg. 
Co's drawing office as junior draftsman, 1903-04, with Rand Drill Co., as draftsman; 
1901-05. with Can. Foundry Co., Toronto; May 190G-OS, with A. W. Robinson, steam 
shovel and dredge engr., as elevation draftsman on dredges for River Nile and River 
Niger; 1908-09, work on Dredge No. 10 for Sir John Kennedy, ch. engr., Montreal 
Harbour; 1909-13. elevation draftsman, C. P. R. Angus Shops; 1913-15. draftsman 
with St. Lawrence Bridge Co., on erection of Quebec bridge; 1915, to date, with 
Dominion Bridge Co., as ch. draftsman in chg, of mech. superintendent's drawing 
ofHce. 

References: G. II. Duggan, Sir John Kennedy, H. H. Vaughan, G. F. Porter, 
A. L. Harkness. 



WARD WELL— WILLIAM HENRY,of Westmount. Que. Bornât Buffalo, N.Y., 

on June 8th. 1875. Educ. Buffalo grammar and high school courses, mech. engr., 
Cornell Univ., 1S97. 1891-93, machinist with Jno. T. Noye Mfg. Co., 1897. with 
Buffalo Kngr. Co., in chg. of design and eonstr. of sub-contract on Great Northern 
Elevator; 1898-99. head of testing dept . with J. I. Case Co., Racine. Wis.; 1899-1900. 
supt., Wisconsin Wheel Works, jlacine. designed and rebuilt this plant when same 
burned down in 1900; 1901-01, ch. engr. and supt. of eonstr. with Shawinigan Carbide 
Co.. in complete chg. of eonstr. and equipment of plant; 190t-07, gen. manager, 
Continental Heat & Light Co.; 1907-11, gen. manager Shawinigan Carbide Co.; 1912-13, 
Reynolds Wardweli Co., cngrs , Montreal; 1913-17, consulting engr.. Montreal 
specializing in fireproof design and construction. At present time Major, Engrs., 
U.S. Reserve, on duty in France special duty with the eonstr. dept. of the Aviation 
Section of the Signal Corps. 

References: J C. Smith, R. M. Wilson, A. Adam.s. B. Leman, J. A. DeCew, H M. 
Lamb. 

WEEKES— MELVILLE BELL, of Regina. Sask. Born at Brantford, Ont., Nov. 
28th, 1875. Educ. B.A.Sc, Tor., 1898, Ont., Sask. and Dominion Land Surveyor. 
Asst. to city engr., Brantford, on general work and flood prevention work. 1901, 
drainage work at Winchester, Ont.; 1902-05, Dominion surveys in Alberta and 
Manitoba; 1908-09. in clig. of road surveys and drainage in Sask.; 1910, to date, 
director of surveys for the province of Sask. 



H. 



References; T. H. 
G. Phillips. 



Jones, H. S. Carpenter, W. T. Thompson, C. P. Richards, 



WINCKLER— GEORGE WALTER, of Toronto, Ont. Born at Cochin. India, 
2nd Dec. 1844. Education. C.E., Calcutta Universitv, 1865, and Sanitary Institute. 
Great Britain. 1870 (A.M.I.C.E., 1871). Govt, of India public works dept.; asst. 
engr. on state rys. S yrs.; executive engr. in charge of a div.; then transferred to roads 
and bldgs. branch in exec, charge; during the Afghan War, on the Boland Pass on rys. 
surveys to Quctta; afterwards transferred to Assan in exec, charge of roads and bldgs.; 
later in exec, charge of state rys. surveys, Cumbum dist.; at the pre.sent time consl. 
engr. at Toronto, Ont. 

References: L. M. Arkley, R. 0. Wynne- Roberts. 

YOUNG— WILLIAM IRVING, of St. John. N.B. Born at Brockwav. N.B.. 
Oct. 10th. 1882. Education. B.Sc. Univ. of N.B., 1910. Topographer for Roberval & 
Saguenay Ry. Co.; 1912. to present time, instrmtman and then res. engr., St. J. & Que. 
Ry. 

References: C. O. Foss. D. F. Maxwell. S. B. Wass. R. Thompson. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF ASSOCIATE MEMBER TO THAT 
OF MEMBER 

ARMSTRONG— JOHN, of Winnipeg. Man. Born at York Co., Ont., May 
17th, 1873. Educ. high school, B.A.Ss.. Tor., 1897. Instrument work with O.L.S. 
during summer vacations; 1898-1903, asst. engr. C.N.Rv., in chg. of location parties 
and eonstr.; 1903-03, locating engr., G.T.P.Ry.; 190S-0S, dist. engr., G.T.P.Ry., in 
chg. of location from Saskatoon to Prince Rupert, B.C., and inspector of eonstr. for 
the National Transcontinental Ry. through N.B. and Que.; 190S-13, dept. Rys. & 
Canals, Hudson Bay Ry., as ch. engr.; 1914-15, ch. engr. Hudson Bay, Peace River & 
Pacific Ry.; 1916-18, div. engr. Greater Winnipeg Water Dist., on eonstr. of aqueduct 
Irom Shoal Lake to Winnipeg; at present div. engr., Greater Winnipeg Water Dist. 



References: M. H. Macleod, W. G. Chace, W. 
Dunn, J. A. Heaman, A. E. Doucet, G. Grant. 



A. Bowden, T. TurnbuU, G. C. 



BOND— FRANK LORN CAMPBELL, of Montreal. Burn at Montreal. 
Feb. 21, 1877. Educ, B.Sc. McGill, 1898. 1898-1901, asst. res. engr., G.T.R., also 
instrumentman, draftsman, etc.; 1901-02, asst. supt. on constrn. of Park Ave. Tunnel. 
N.Y.C.; 1902, to date, with the G.T.R. as. res. engr. and div. engr., eastern lines, and 
in December, 1918, chief engr. Serving in France, 191t>-lS, as company commander, 
10th Batt., C.R.T. 

References: F. P. Gutelius, J. M. R. Fairbairn,. F. W. Cowie, H. R. Safford, 
P. Johnson. 

COLE— FRANCIS THORNTON, of Quebec, Que. Born at St. Catharines 
Ont., July Sth, 1884. Educ, B.Sc, McGill Univ., 1910. Summer 1907, draughtsman. 
Phoenix Bridge Co.; summer 1908, on erection Montreal harbour sheds; summer 
1909, inspection of various work aroimd Montreal for Inspection Co.; with Dom. 
Bridge Co., as follows: 1910-11, draughting, designing and estimating; 1912, res. engr. 
in Toronto; 1913, to date, ch. engr. of Eastern Canada Steel Co., Quebec, in ch. of all 
structural steel contracts. 



References: E. S. Mattice. P. L. Pratley, F. P. Shearwood, D. C. Tennant, 
Taylor, A. C. Fellows, J. Ruddick, W. D. Baillargo. 



W. V. 



TOBEY— WILMOT MAXWELL, of Ottawa, Ont. Born at Picton, Ont., 
May 14th. 1877. Educ. M.A.. Tor., Gold Medal, Math.. 1900. D.L.S.. D.T.S., 
1901-05. with International Boundary Survey on rectification of 49th parallel between 
B.C. and Idaho; 1906-09. taking special course under the late Dr. King in connection 
with present work; 1910-lS, examiner on Board of Examiners for Dom. Land & Topo- 
graphic Surveys, succeeding late Dr. King, Supt. Geodetic Survey, on examination of 
accuracy of all field work of the Geodetic Survey and refinement of such work, at 
present asst. supt. and gcodesist of the Geodetic Survey. 

References: N. J. Ogih-ie, J. J. McArthur, W. J. Stewart, J. B. Challies, G. G. Gale. 

VAUGHAN— FRANK P., of St. John. N.B. Born at Liverpool. England. 1874. 
Edue. Regent Coll., Southport, England. 1891-92, New Westminster & Barrard 
Inlet Telephone Co., Vancouver, B.C.; 1892-95, B. C. dLst. Telegraph & Tel. Co., 
Vancouver, B.C., Nanaimo Telephone Co., Vane. Island, B.C.; 1895-96. Yarmouth 
St. Ry. Co.. Yarmouth, N.S,; 1898-97, Northern Elec. Wks., St. John; 1897-99, G. M. 
Ongier & Co., elec engrs., Boston. Mass.; 1899-1900, Wilkinson & Co.. elec. engrs. & 
contractors, and Lord Elec Co., Boston; 1900-02, The General Elec Co., Schenectady. 
N.Y , tflsting dept,; 1902-03, business for self, elec. engr. and contractor; 1903-18, 
engr. and manager The Vaughan Electric Co., Ltd. 

References: J. A. Shaw, M. A. Sammett, C. C. Kirby, A. Gray, A. R. Crookshank, 
C. P. Edwards, J. K. ScammeU. 



DERROM— DONALD LAIRD, of Chicago, 111. Born at Caracas. Venezuela, 
South America, July 1885. Educ, B.Sc. McGill Univ.. 1910. 1902-06, apprentice 
mach., G.T.R-, and rodman on western div., C.P.R. ; 1908, and 9 summer vacations 
designing draftsman in mach. experts office, G.T.R., Montreal; 1910, in chg. of loco 
terminals, G.T.R.. Depot Harbour. Ont.; 1911, in chg. of loco, terminals, Belleville, 
with Can. Venezuelan Ore Co.. as follows: 1912, mech. and elec engr.; 1913, aupt. of 
eonstr.; 1914, manager with Can. Cement Co.; 1915, mech. supt., Winnipeg Mill; 
1916-17, supt. of shops, munition dept.; 191S. and at present, works manager for 
Winslow Bros. Co., Chicago, on manufacture of shells. 

Referencea: H. O. Keay, F. B. Brown, C. J. Chaplin, H. M. MacKay, V. I. Smart. 
W. McNab, R. J. Durley, H. M. Jaquays. 

McARTHUR— FRANKLIN, of Guelph, Ont. Born at Vanderbilt. Mich., March 
12th, 1885, Educ. B.Sc, Queen's Univ.. 1907. 1907-08, asst. engr., Guelph; 190S-09, 
city engr., Guelph; 1909-11, municipal engr. for Yorkton and other Sask. towns; 
Jan.-Aug. 1912, res. sanitary engr. to the bureau of Public Health, Prov. Sask.; 
1912-15, city engr., Regina, Sask.; 1915, to date, city engr., Guelph, Ont. 

References: O. W. Smith, L. A. Thornton, J. N. deStein, R. O. Wynne- Roberts, E. 
A. James, W. M. McPhail. 



40 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



McFARLANE— JOHN ALEXANDER, of Hamilton. Ont. Born at Atwood, 
Ont., Feb. 2ah, 1874. Education. B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto. 1904. Summer 190:i, 
(IfLsmnn, Ritcr A Conlcy Stool Co.; Kummor 1901. with the Western Portland CVmi^nt 
Co., in clmrjïo of deaiRn and installation; 190l-0.">, Fellow in Mechanical Drawing. 
S.P.S.. Toronto; 1905, to present time, with the Hamilton Hridce Works, n» dftflman. 
and chief dft^iman. in charge of nil detail drawings, ote. 



References: R. L. Latham. K. U. Darling, K. H. fîray. 
J. G. Jack. H. B. Dwipht, P. B. Motley. 



^. W.Oliver, P. Oillospie, 



MONTGOMERV—EDT.IX CI^ORCJK WILLIAM, of Uenina. Sa.sk. Born at 
Howrah. India. May 10th, 1S77. Kdue., trained for Indian Public Works dept. in 
Thoma.s Coll. of civil engr. Admitted to that service in .\pril 1898, by competitive 
exam. 189S-1902, with P.W.U.. central provinces, India, on maintenance and constr. 
of roatls and bldRs.. rural water mipply, eity drainage, irrication 8urvpy«, etc.; 1902-11. 
engr. to dist. board, (iurdarpur, Punjab. India, responsible for all ongr. work under- 
taken by board; 10l2-l."i.with board of highway con»mi.s.sioner.s, province of Sa.sk. on 
locution, design and coiiMtr. of l»riilgcs and dams; 191.'i. to date, acting a.«st. ch. engr., 
bridge branch, highways dept., Sask. 



References: H. S. Carpenter, J,. A. Thornton, 
C. P. Riclmrds, J. McD. Patton, E. B. Webster. 



G. D. Mackie. ,L N. dcStein. 



FOR TRANSFER FROM CLASS OF JUNIOR TO IIIGHKH GRADE 



RUTLEDGE— MICHAEL JOSEPH, of Montreal. Que. Born at Brighton, 
Mnm. Feb. Kîth. 1887. Educ. B.Sc. Univ. of N.B.. 1908, bridge design, reinforced 
concrete and electricity courses. Franklin Union, Boston. 191.3. Summers 190.'» and 
190ii, with Boston Elevated Ry.; Summer 1907, Mass. Highway Comm'n.: 1908-09. 
Hudson Bay Uy. Survey, leveller and transitman; 1910-11, C.P.U. instrunientman and 
Vice-President 'I'hompson Lumber Co.; 1912-l.'i, rcfl. engr.. C.N.H., Roberval (.'t mos. 
;icting div. engr); 191 l-l.'j (fi mos.), and lOlT»-!*; (K mos.). l*ub. Service Comm'n, New 
^'o^k. dcpt. of «ubway design; 19H',-i7, designer, Mt. Royal Tunnel &. Terminal Co. 
At present time designer with Henry Holgate, consulting engineer. 

Referenecs: H. Ilolgate, J. L. Allison. S. P. Brown. W. K. Joyce. S. J. W'aller, J. O. 
Montreuil. 

STAIUS— GOBDON S., of Halifax, N.S. Born at Maitland. N.S., Aug. :tlst. 
1889, Educ. B.Sc, Dalliousie. 1911. Summer 190t>, structural steel drafting on 
factory ercotion; summer 1911. at New Glasgow, with Brown Machine Co.; 191I-i;t, 
with Christie & Daw.son, land .surveyors, Kamlorms, in chg. of survey ofhco and field 
parties; 19i;i-ll, with Western Canada Power Co., asst. U^ constr. engr. on topo- 
craphieal surveys and eonstr. work; 191 1-10, a.sst. to Air. A. V. White, consulting engr. 
International Joint Comm'n, hydrographical and topographical surveys and hvdraulic 
engr. studies; 191(j to date, Lieut. C.E.. asst. to Third Division ofTicer. R.C.E., '.M.D. 0, 
Halifax. N.S. 

References: J. F. Pringle, U. W. MeColouEh, T. S. Scott, F. J. Dawson, K. }I. 

Smith. 



ASKWITH— FRANK CHATHAM, of Ottawa, Ont. Born at Chatham. Ont.. 
Jan. 1st, 1SK4. Coll. Inst., coached in theory and practice of engr.. by E. P. Fether- 
st^nhnugh. B.Sc., 1901-0;i. With eity of Ottawa as follows: ch. draughtsman, city 
engr's dcpt.. 1909-10; 1910-11. asst. engr. in chg. of special works and concrete walks; 

1911-12, asst. engr. in chg. of roa<hvuys; 1912-i:i, acting city engr. in full clig. of dcpt.; 
191;M4, asat. city engr., in chg. of works, br.: 1914-1(1. acting city engr. in eh. of road- 
ways, bridges and special works, 1910 to date, deputy city engr.. in chg. of works dnpt.. 
on constr. of bridges, (Billings bridge, a ô-span through plate girder structure over 
Rideau river, and a Strauss direct lift bridge with approaches over Rideau canal), 

Water works, sewers, etc. 

References: .\. F. Maeallum. N. J. Ker, G. A. Mountain, R. S, Lea, J. B. McRac 
A. A. Dion, A. T. Phillips. 

DEVEREUX— LAWRENCE JAMES, of Edson. Alta. Born at St. Peters. 
N.S., Aug. 188S. Education, high school. 1907-09, rodman, dftsman. Que., Montreal 
A Southern Ry.; 1909. to date, with the G.T.P.Ry., as rodman, instrumentman. 
asst. engr., and at the present time res. engr., in charge of constrn. and maintenance, 
at different western pouita. 

References: G. C. Dunn, J. A. Heaman, W. H. Tobey, J. C. Legrand, R. W. Ross. 

DIXON— ARTHUR, of South Fort George. B.C. Born at Whitehaven, Eng., 
Aug. Ist, 1883. Education, Ghyll Bank Coll., Whitehaven, and articled pupil 3 yrs. 
1904-05, asst. engr. and clerk of works on drainage and sewage disposal works, Trow- 
bridge, Eng.; 1905-00, dftsman and instrumentman, C.P.R.. in Que. and Ont.; 1906-10, 
chief (Iftsman and instrumentman, Atlantic, Quebec & Western Ry., responsible for 
design of sub-structure of bridges; 1910-14, field dftsman and res. engr., of constrn., 
C.N.Ry.; 1917, to date, dist. pub. wks. engr., for B.C., in charge of roads, bridges, 
and bldgs. 

References: E. S. M. Lovelace, T. H. WHiite, D. 0. Lewis, W. K. Gwyor. A. E. 
Foreman. 

HILL— GEORGE RIXON, of Virden, Man. Born at Ashburnham. Ont., Dec. 
4th, 1888. Education. Collegiate Institute. 1900-07, on Brandon, Saskatchewan & 
Hudson Bay Ry., as rodman, etc.; 1908-09, D.L.S., Man. & Sask.; with the C.P.R. 
from 1909 to 1912, as instrumentman, topographer, leveller, transitman. etc.; 1912-14, 
govt, engr., western Manitoba; 1914, municipal engr., Wallace, Man.; 1915, to date, 
municipal engr. for Wallace and Pipestone, Man. (34-mile3). 



References: W. A. James, A. McGillivray, 
LirlDgstone. 



M. A. Lyons, S. A. Button, D. A. 



HUNT— WILLIAM HAROLD, jf Winnipeg, Man. Born at Lennoxville, Que.. 
Nov. 24th. 1884. Edur. B. C. E., TIniv. of Manitoba, 1902-05 apprentice mach.. 
Northern Iron Works, Winnipeg, 1905-07 journeyman mach. C.P.R., 1907-11 (summers) 
on surveys & constr. with H. B. Ry.. C. P. R. &C. N. R , 1912 (6 mos.) asst. engr. 
Can. Northern Bridge dept. (concrete substructure) 1913-15 asst. engr. in city engr's 
dept.. Moose Jaw, Sask on design & constr. of sidewalks, sewer & water extension, etc.. 
1915-16 civil engr., 1916 to date road engr. Good Roads Board, D.P.W., province of 
Manitoba. 

References: E. E. Brydone-Jack, A. McGillivray, N. B. McTaggart, N. A. Lyons, 
T.W.White. 

INNESS— ROBERT D.. of Woodman's Point, N.B. Born at Liverpool, N.S.. 
Aug. 20th. 1888. Educ. High School, Liverpool Acad. With N. T. Ry. 1906-08 
rodman on surveys «& constr.. 1908-13 transitman on constr.. 1913-16 instrumentman, 
maintenance of way. Can. Govt. Rye., Campbellton, 1916-17 partner in firm of 
Longley & Innesa, superintending contract in rock cutting on St. John & Que. Ry., 
1918 to date superintendent N. S. Constr. Co., Ltd., Halifax, on constr. work on 
St. John & Que. Ry. 

References: C. O. Foes, 11. Longley, R. A. Black, C. B. Brown, R. H. Gushing, 
E.M. Archibald. 



STRACHAN— JOHN. JR., of Ihidson Bay Junction. Sask. Born at Halifax, 
X.S.. March 31st, 188:i. Educ. Acacia Villa School. N.S., St. Andrews Coll., Toronto. 
With T.C.Hy., as follows: 1903-08, rodman; I90S-09. topographer and levclman on 
location; 19()9-11, instrumentman on constr.; 1912-14, res. engr.; 1915-IS, res. engr., 
Hudson Bay Ry., Dec. 1918, supervisor " Pasquia Fore.st Reserve." 

References: A. E. Doucot, J. W. Porter. A. D. Porter, F. P. Moffat, W. T. Jamiseon, 
D. S. Scott, A. Dick, E. J. Bolder. 

TURNER— STANLEY ROY, of Petcrboro. Ont. Born at Pelcrboro, Mar. 22nd. 
1888. Educ, B.Sc. Queen's L'niv., 1916. 1901-OS, mech. shop work, pattern and 
mach. shops and foundry, with Wm. Hamilton Co., Petcrboro; 1908-09, asst. supt. of 
stool constr., bldgs. and penstock. Structural Steel Co.. Montreal; 190!t-12 (3J yrs.). 
draughting, chcc.ing and designing of steel bldgs. and bridges. Can. Foundry f'o.. 
Torouto; 1913 (6 mos.), draughtsman on Quebec bridge, St. Lawrence Bridge Co., 
Montreal; 1914 (4 mos.), C'.E.F.; 1915 (5 mos.), water power design, Wm. Hamilton 
Co., Poterboro; 191(1 {7\ mos.), in chg. of installation and erection of machinery 
of power devclojiment at Bala, Ont., Wm. Hamilton Co.; 1916-18, mill engr., Riordou 
Pulp & Paper Co., Hawkesbury, Ont.; 1918. engr. Spanish River Pulp & Paper Co., 
Espanola, Ont. (5 mos.); 1918 (3 mo.s.), C.E.F. At present engr., Wm. Hamilton Co., 
Petcrboro, Ont. 

References: W. J. Francis, G. 
Harkncss. 



R. Munro. E. A. Stone, E. C. Kerrigan, A. h. 



FOR TRANSFER FROM CL.VSS OF STUDENT TO HIGHER GRADIC 

BOULTON— CHARLES ALBERT, of Saskatoon, Sask. Born at Ayr., Ont.. 
Jan. 3rd, 1893. Educ. commercial course. Gait Business Coll., 1913. B.Sc, Queen's 
Uuiv., 1917. 1914-lS, staff -sergeant on the engineering staff of Military dist. No. 3, 
Kingston, Ont., at present with Alurphy and Underwood, consulting engrs., Saskatoon, 
on municipal engineering work. 

References: J. E. Underwood, .\. A. Murphy, E. A. Stone, J. C. Gwillim, J. B. 
Harvey, G. Hemmerick, G. L. Guillet. 

DALTON— GEORGE FRANCIS (Lieut.) of Ottawa, Out. (now on Active 
Service). Born at Ottawa, Ont., July 0th. 1891. Educ, B..\.3c. (structural engr. 
option), Toronto, 1914, Summers 1903-10-11-12, with Geodetic Survey of Canada, 
field work, triangulation and precise levelling, 1913-15, with Geodetic Survey precise 
levelling and triangulation in chg. of work. At present Lieut. 3rd. Can. Engr. Battn., 
B.E.F., France. 

References: N. J. Ogilvie, J. J. .Mc.\rthur, J. D. Craig, J. L. Rannic, L. O. Brown. 

GIGUERE— EUDORE. of Montreal, Que. Born at Lachine, Que.. Jan. 13th, 
1895. Educ. commercial course. Civil Engr., Laval. 1917, and Chemist Engr., Laval. 
1918. Summers of 1912-13-14, with E. Desaulnier.s, C.E., on survey work; 1915, with 
Geological Survey; 1910, with Roads Material Survey. At present time chemist 
analyst with The Canadian Explosives Ltd., Bel-Oeil. 

References: E. Marceau, P. Lecointe, C. I..ehiau, S. \. Baulne, A. Frigon. 

WELSFORD—HUBERT GRAY, of Winnipeg. Man. (now in France). Born at 
Lios Gates, Cal., U.S..\., July 16th, 1891. Educ, 2 yra. private tuition in math, and 
engr. With Dominion Bridge Co., Winnipeg, Man., as follows: 1911-13, draughtsman 
on structural steel work; Jan.-Oct, 1913, asst. to shop supt.; 1913-1916, in engr office, 
designing, estimating and contracting; 1916, to date. engr. officer in R.A.F.; Feb.-Nov, 
1917, asst. ofiicer in chg. of engines No. 1 Aircraft Depot; 1917, to date. ofTieer in chg. 
of engines, Recei>tion Park. B.E.F.. in command of 120 mechs. (man supply depot for 
France). Experience includes care and tuning of engines and 100 hrs. flying as engr. 
observer on air tests. 

References: G. E. Bell, J. G. LeGrand. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



41 



ENGINEERING INDEX 

In this deparlment will he published from month to month the titles of current engineering papers with the authors 

and source and a brief extract of the more important. It is designed to give the members 

of The Institute a survey of all important articles relating to the ejigineering 

profession and to every branch of the profession. 



PHOTOSTATIC PRINTS 

Pholoslatic copies may be obtained oj any of the articles listed in this section. 
Price of each print (up to It x li in. in site), iS cents, plus postage. A separate 
print is required ior each page of the larger-size periodicals, but where possible two pages 
will be photographed together on the same print. BiVwillbe mailed with the prints. 
Orders should be sent to 

II arris son Jf. Craver, Director, 

Engineering Societies Library, 
SO Il'est Thirty-ninth Street, New York, N.Y. 

AERONAUTICS 

AEROPLANE PARTS 

Stick Control. The Warner Duplex Stick Control. Aerial Age, vol. 8, no. 13, 
Dec. 9, 191S, p. 6C1, 3 figs. Brief description of [hand and knee grips for use 
of pilots. 

Tail. A Gotha Biplane Tail. Flight, vol. 10, no. 40, Oct. 3, 191S, pp. 1167-UOS, 
1 fig. Design consisting of two horizontal approximately triangular planes, 
top plane being supported on cabine of steel times, while sides of bottom plane 
arc t)olted to sides of body. 

AEROSTATICS 

MlllTAHY. Military Aerostatics, H. K. Black. Aerial .kgc, vol. 8, nos. 6, 7 and 9. 
Oct. 21 and 28, and Nov. II, 1918, p. 325, 1 fig., 371, 1 fig. and 475, 2 fig^. 
Oct. 21 : Balloon baskets. Oct. 28 and Nov. 11 : Equipment of basket. 
(Continuation of serial.) 

AIRCRAFT PRODUCTION 

U. S. Navy. Naval Aircraft Factory at Philaflelphia, Indus. Management, vol. 56, 
no. 6, Dec, 1918, pp. 465-470, 13 figs. Story of great industrial 
achievement of UnitedStates Navy. 

APPLICATIONS 

Exploration. The Possibility of .\crial Reconnaissance in the Himalaya. A. M. 
Kellaa. Aeronautics, vol. 15, no. 257, Sept. IS, 1918, pp. 275-277. Funda- 
mental facts and requirements of undertaking. Paper before Roy. Geog. 
Soc. 

AUXILIARY SERVICE 

Trucks. Building for the Aviation Service, M. E. Hoag. .4m. Maeh., vol. 49, 
no. 23, Dec. 5, 1918, pp. 1043-1044, 7 figs. Building a 3 «-ton special truck 
for U. S. Aviation Signal Service. First article. 

DYNAMICS 

Ceiling. Elementary Considerations on the Ceiling of an Airplane (Données élémen- 
taires sur le plafond d'un avion), André Laine. l'Aérophile, year 26, nos. 17-18, 
Sept. 1-15, 1918, pp. 264-265. Points out convenience of high ceiling and 
means of attaining it. 

On an Experience of the Flyer Gilbert (Sur une expérience du pilote 
Gilbert). F. Roux. l'Aérophile, year 26, nos. 17-18, .Sept. 1-15, 1918, p. 236, 
1 fig. How it happened that Eugène Gilbert maintained his plane stationary 
in air while machme was running at full speed. 

Stability. Lateral Stability in Aeroplanes, C. Levick. Aerial Age, vol. 8, no. 13, 
Dec. 9, 1918, p. 660, 3 figs. Computation of eflfect of a roll on a machine in 
terms of dihedral angle of aerofoils. Also in Flight, vol. 10, no. 42, Oct. 17, 
1918, p. 1165, 3 figs. 

ENGINES 

Design. The Design of .\irplane Engines (II), John Wallace. Automotive Eng., 
vol. 3, no. 9, Oct., 1918, pp. 415-417 and 401, 3 figs. Comparison of rotary 
and fixed radial; trend of modern design; cooling of cylinders: indicator 
diagram: compression ratio. From Aeronautics. (Continuation of serial.) 

History. Outline of History of .\viation Engine Production, H. H. Emmons. Aerial 
Age, vol. 8, no. 13, Dec. 9, 1918, pp. 662-665, 2 figs. Elementary training 
engines: development of Liberty, 12; methods of production. Also in Motor 
Age, vol. 34, no. 23, Dec. 5, 1918, pp. 18-19 and 30, 3 figs. 

Liberty. American Liberty Motor (Le moteur Américain Liberty). l'Aérophile, 
year 26, nos. 17-18, Sept. 1-15, 1918, p. 271. Abstract of description author- 
ized by War Department. Also in Sei. Am., vol. 99, no. 23, Dec. 7, 1918, 
pp. 455 and 466, 4 figs. 

Maybach. The 300-Hp. Mavbaeh Aircraft Engine, Automotive Ind,, vol. 39, nos. 18, 
20 and 21, Oct. 31, Nov. 14 and 21, 1918, pp. 7.55-759, 8 figs., 840-842, 9 figs., 
882-887, 5 figs. Technical description of largest German Aircraft engine 
model. Issued by Tech. Department, Aircraft Production, Ministry of 
Munitions: Nov. 14 ; Lubricating system: details of oil pumps: cooling and 
ignition systems: carburetor and fuel feed system: detads results of horse- 
power and fuel consumption tests; table of engine dimensions; general analysis 
of weights; chemical and physical analysis of m.aterial in various parts. Also 



in Automobile Engr., vol. 8, no. 119, Oct. 191S, pp. 285-295, 27 figs.; Flight, 
vol. 10, no. 39, Sept. 26, 1918, pp. 1084-1087, 2 figs. 

The 200-Hp. Austro-Daimler Aero Engine. Engineer, vol. 126, nos 
3279 and 3280, Nov. 1 and 8, 1918, pp. 376-379, 10 figs, 393-394, 7 fig». 
Description of details, with principal data and illustrations. Also in Fliglit, 
vol. 10, no». 44 and 45, Oct. 31 and Nov. 7, 1918, pp. 1217-1222. 10 figs., 
and I2.i.')-I2.59, 12 figs.; Engineering, vol. l()(i, no. 27.57, Nov. 1, 191S, pp. 
488-492, 17 fig».; .\eronautica, vol.15, no. 263, Oct. 30, 1018, pp. 40.3-417, 
27 figs. 

Paniiard. The Panhard — 300 Hp. (Direct Type Aviation Motor), E. H. Sherbondy. 
Aerial Ago, vol. 8, no. 6, Oct. 21, 1918, pp. 308-309, 5 figs. Motor with two 
rows, each of six cylinders, set at an angle of 60 deg. from each other. 

GLIDERS 

.\n Interesting Biplane Glider, F. J. Camm. Aeronautics, vol. 15, no. 
202, Oct. 25, 1918, p. .393. Chief dimensions and process of construction. 

HISTORY 

Langley What Langlcy Did for the Science of Aviation (II). .automotive Ind., 
vol. 39, no. 17 and 18, Oct. 24 and 31, 1918, pp. 714-718 and 728, 10 figs., 
and 761-705, 7 figs. Experiments with rubber-driven models and others 
using compressed air, carbonic acid, gas and electric batteries: adoption of 
steam as source of power. Oct. 31: Ejcperiments with quarter-size and man- 
carrying aerodromes. (To be continuefl.) 

INSTRUMENTS 

BAROGR.1PH. German Barograph No. 1623, Range o to 8000 m. Flight, vol. 10, no. 42, 
Oct. 17, 1918, pp. 1167-1168, 6 figs. General remarks on details of con- 
struction. Also in Aeronautics, vol. 15, no. 262, Oct. 23, 1918, pp. 382-384, 
6 figs. 

Instruments for Air Use, W. A. Robson. Sci. .Am. .Siipp., vol. 86, no. 
2235, Nov. 2, 1918, p. 285. From Flight. 

M.4.TERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION 

Steel Tdbes. Steel Tubes, Tube Manipulation, and Tubular Structures for 
Aircraft, W. W. Hackett and A. G. Hackett. Flight, vol. 10, no. 44, Oct. 31, 
1918, pp. 1233-1235. Tapered tubes; tubular liners or reinforcements: tests 
on soldered joints; brazing; welding; rust prevention. (Concluded.) Also 
in Automotive Eng., vol. 3, no. 9, ,Oct. 1918, p. 390 and (discussion) pp. 
397-398. 

METEOROLOGY 

Meteorology in Relation to Aeronautics (1), W. H. Dines. Sci. Am. 
Supp., vol. 86,' no. 2239, Nov. 30, 1918, pp. 351-352. Review of data 
required by an aviator when in the air. Paper before .Aeronautical Soc. of 
Gt. Britain. From Aeronautical Jl. 

MILITARY AIRCRAFT 

British. Some Recent Types of Allied Military Planes. Automotive Ind., vol. 39, 
no. 17, Oct. 24, 1918, pp. 706-707, 4 figs. General features of Spad single- 
seater tractor scout, Vickers F B-14, long-distance reconnaissance tractor 
biplane, Sopwith " Hippo " two-seater fighter, and Avro training machine. 

German. German .Aircraft. Times Eng. Supp., no. 527, Sept., 1918, p. 198. 
Abstract of five reports of Technical Department, .Aircraft Production, 
Ministry of Munitions, describing Maybach engine, Rumpler two-seater 
biplane. Hannoverjmer biplane, an armored machine, and Pfalz scout. 

MODELS 

Model Consthoction. Model Aeroplane Building .is a Step to Aeronautical 
Engineering. Aerial Age, vol. 8, nos. 6, 7, 8 and 9, Oct. 21, 28 and Nov. 4, 
1] 1918, p. 377, 7 figs., 389, 1 fig.. 433 and 483, 1 fig. Oct. 21: Construction 
vertical stabilizer. Oct. 28 : Design and building of a man-carrying 
aeroplane. Nov. 4 and 11; Calculation of sustaining power and resistance 
of wings and explanation of table giving aerodynamic laboratory tests. 
(C^ontinuation of serial.) . , ,- 

Model Aeroplanes (XVI). F. J. Camm. .Aeronautics, ^ol. 15, nos. 
258 and 261, Sept. 25, Oct. 16, 1918, p. .300, 1 fig., 369, 2 figs. Details of a 
tractor monoplane. Oct. 16; Notes on attaching elastic and on manner 
of flying model. , . i 

Model Testing. The Theoretical Basis of Model Strength Tests for .Aeroplane 
Structures, W. L. Cowley and H. Levy. Aerial Age, vol. 8, no. 0, Oct. 21, 
1918, pp. 322-323. Application of principle of homogeneity of dimensions to 
determination of strength of structure. 

PLANES 

i" A E G .A. E. G. Armoured .Aeroplane. Engineering, vol. 106, no. 2754, Oct. 11, 

1918, pp. 416-417, 15 figs. Principal data and description, with details 

of construction illustrated. .« ,. j 

The Fokker Biplane, Type D VII. Fhght, vol. 10. nos. 40, 41 and 

42, Oct. 3, 10, and 17, 1918, pp. 1109-1116, 1142-1144 and 1161-1104, 23 figs. 



42 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Data rdatiiiK to performance and detailed particulars of wcialits. Issued by 
Technical Department. Aircraft Protluclion, Ministry of Munition!!. Also 
in Aerial Ako. vol. S, no. S. Xov. 1. 191S. pp. -124-427, 20 figs.; l'A^^TOphiie. year 
2(i, noH. !7-KS, Sept. I. IIUS, pp, 2ô7-2t.2. H) fies.: -Veronautic.-*. vol. 1'». no. 
259, Oct. 2, lOlS, p|.- :iI()-3H;. 2.1 figs. 

A. R. The French A. R. Biplane. Aerial Age, ^ol. S, no. 7, Oct. 28. lOlS. pp. 374-37.5 
fi fiK». Particulars of two-strutter biplane of 13.3 m. span wilncli has its 
fuselage supported between planes on ash struts. 

Bebo. The Austrian Berg .SinRle-Sealer. Flight, vol. 10. no. 44. Oct. 31. 191S. 

pp. 1225-1227. 7 figs. Mounting of 200-Iïp. Austro-Daimler enRÎne with 

which plane is equipped; tanks; instruments; control; undercarriage. 

(Continuation of serial.) 
Continental. The Continental Kb-3T Training Tractor, John F. McMahon. 

Aerial Age. vol. 8. no. fi. Oct. 21. 1918. pp. 3UV-317 and 345. 4 figs. General 

spécifications of machine designed for cheap construction by the Continental 

.Vircrnft Corporation. 
llALnEnsT.\nT. Report on the Ilalberstadt Fighter. Flight, vol. 10, no. 41, Oct. 10, 

191S. pp. 1133-1141. 3S figs. Details of performance and construction. 

Issue<l by Teclmical Department Aircraft Production. .Ministry of Munitions. 

Supplementing brief description given in issue of Aug. 1. Also in Kngineer, 

vol. 126, no. 327fi, Oct. II, lUlS, pp. 302-304, 25 figs. 

Pfai7. Report on the Pfals Single-Seater (GI41). Aeronautics, vol. 15, no, 257, 
Sept. IS, 191S. pp. 27t)-274, 22 figs. Particulars and performance of German 
scout with strcandine-shaped fuselage. By Technical Department. 
Aircraft Production, Ministry of Munitions. 

Roland. The Roland Chaser D II. G. Douglas Wardrop. Aerial Age, vol. S, no. 
C. Oct. 21. lOIS. pp. 3I(V312, 9 figs. Construction of fuselage, plane.**, tail, 
engine and undercarriage. 

SiEMEN-s-ScnrcKERT. A New German Chaser. Flight, vol. 10. no. 39, Sept. 26. 

1918. p. 1083, 2 figs. Characteristics of Siemens-Schuckert biplane. 
Sopw^TlI. The Sopwith " Camel." Automotive Ind., vol. 39, no. 19, Nov. 7. 1918, 

pp. 790-791, ti figs. Description of late model of British scout plane. Trans- 
lated from German aircraft publication. 

ZEprF.LiN. The Zeppelin Biplane. Jean Lagorgettc. Sci. Ain. Supp.. vol. 80, nos. 
2237 and 223S. Nov. l(î and 23, 1918, pp. 316-319 and 334-335, 8 figs. 
Description of German bombing machine 134 ft. long. From Aeroplane. 

PRODUCTION 

Standabdization. Effect of Changes on Airplane Output, Ind. "Sinn., vol. 56, no. 5, 
Nov., 1918, pp. 375-377. Nlanufacturcrs must abandon idea of standardized 
production. 

PROPELLERS 

Analysis. Notes on .Airscrew Analy.sis (III), M. A. S, Riach. Aeronautics, vol. 15. 
no. 257, Sept. 18, 1918. pp. 265-266. Outlines process by which experimental 
results on airscrews are analyzed and compared with their respective calculated 
performances. (Concluded.) 

CAi-rrtATiONS. Calculating Airplane Propeller .Strength and Efficiency (ID. F. W. 
Caldwell. Automotive Eng.. vol. 3, no. 9. Oct., 191S. pp. 402-40.5. Limit of 
ceiling, comparison of conventional designs; calculations of efficiency during 
climbing; calculations for propeller chart. (Concluded.) 

SPECIFICATIONS, AEROPLANE 

U. S. Navy. Navy Department Airplane Specifications. Jl. Soc. Automotive Engrs., 
vol. 3, no. 5, Nov. 1918, pp. 325-329. Issued for use in connection with con- 
tracts and submission to Navy of new and undemonst rated designs. 

TRANSATLANTIC FLIGHT 

Transatlantic Flight, Frithiof G. Ericson. Jl. Soc. Automotive Engrs., 
vol. 3, no. 5. Nov. 1918, pp. 319-321. Favorable routes; requirements of 
airplane: flight endurance. From Aviation. 

CIVIL ENGINEERING 

BRIDGES 

CONCBETK Bridges. Bridging the James River at Richmond, Va. Cement & Eng. 
News. vol. 30, no. 11, Nov. 1918. pp. 1.V16. General dimensions of strxicture 
consisting of 18 reinforeed-concrcte arch spans. 

Reinforced Concrete Bridges and Their Architectural Treatment, F. G. 
Engholm. Contract Rec. vol. 32. no. 45. Nov. C, 1918. pp. SS0-S83, G figs. 
Recommends considerations of fitness, proportion and adaptability in design, 
and moderate use of decorations. 

Reinforced-Concrete Trestles. Sci. .Am. Supp., vol. 86. no. 2238, Nov. 
23, 191H. p. 324, 3 figs. Viaducts recently constructed by Can. Pac. Ry. 

Drsign. New Impact Formulas Needed in Designing Bridges of Various Types, 
J.A. L. Waddell. Eng. News-Rec, vol. 81. no. 21, Nov. 21. 1918. pp. 924-928, 
2 t ga Scarcity of expérimental knowledge of impact shown by review of tests 
and studies; group o! formulas proposed; lower impact allowances for solid- 
floor bridge** and concrete arches. 

The Principal Bridges of the World. Sci. Am. Supp.. vol. 86, nos. 2235 
and 2236, Nov. 2 and 9. 1918. pp. 286-288 and 294. Comparison of their 
size, importance and principles oi design. 

Highway Bridges. Standardization of Detail in Highway Bridge Design, M W. 
Torkelson. Cement & Eng. News. vol. 30. no. 11, Nov. 1918. pp. 33-34. 
Practice of Wisconsin Highway Commission. 

J>irT Bbidges. Scherzer Lift-Bridge at Keadby (Ponte levatoio tipo Scherzer a 
Keadby). Ingegneria Italiana, vol. 2, no. 37, Sept. 5, 1918, pp. 131-134, 7« 
figs. Plans, dimensions and details of mechanism. From Génie Civil, 
Jan. 19. 1918. 



Railboad Bbidg&s, Special Foundation Work for a Railroad Bridge, J. H. Merriam. 
Ry. Age, vol. 65. no. 22. Nov. 29, 1018. pp. 951-953. 6 figs. New Burlington 
structure over Platte River-is supporteu entirely on concrete piles. 

Wilson Bbidoe. The Wilson Bridge at Lyons. Engineer, vol. 126, no. 3280. Nov. 8, 
1918, pp. 387-388, 9 figs. Drawings, illustrations and description of Ic pont 
Wilson, formally opened at Lyons, July 14. 1918, and named in honor of Presi- 
dent Wilson. 

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION 

Cin'BCHES. Steel Construction Characterizes Chicago Church. Eng. News-Rce., 
vol. 81, no. 10. Nov. 7. 1918, pp. 860-803, 5 figs. Cantilever trusses carry 
front wall and gallery; dome trusses arc supported by girders on tall four- 
post tower having no interior bracing. 

Co.vcBETE Pedestal Pile. The Mr.Vrthur Concrete Pedestal Pile. Contract 
Rec, vol. 32, no. 42, Oct. 10. lOKS, pp. S30-S31. 2 figs. Prce.'t.ses followed in 
construction of pile consisting of a 10-in. cylindrical shaft, with an enlarged 
base. 

Fibe-Re9I8TIVe CoNSTRrcTioN. Fire Resistive Construction Committee Report. 
Eng. & Cement World, vol. 13. no. 10, Nov. 15, 1918. pp. 13-14. 1 fig. Speci- 
fications drawn by joint conference of representatives from ten .\mcricaD 
technical societies and the Can. Soc. of Civil Engrs. 

Railroad Station. Toronto's Union Station Nears Completion. Contract 'Rec.^ 
vol. 32, no. 41, Oct. 9, 1918. pp. 805-808, 9 figs. Water-proofing; roof; 
elevators. 

Reservoirs, Oil. Circular Earth Embankment Lined with Concrete Forms Oil 
Reservoir, E. D. Cole. Eng. Ncws-Rcc, vol. IS, no. 21, Nov. 21, 1918. 
pp. 932-930, 3 figs. Type originated in California; introduced into Texas 
fields on account of lack of steel; concrète roof carried on wood frame also 
because of lack of steel. 

Reinforced Concrete Fuel-Oil Tanks. Can. Engr., vol. 35, no. 17. Oct. 
24, 1918, p. 370, 2 figs. Dimensions and process of executing work. 

Reservoirs, Water. Newton, Mass., Water Reservoir, Edwin H. Rogers, Eng. 
Cement World, vol. 13, no. 10. Nov. 15, 1918, pp. 9-12, 3 figs. Details of its 
four rectangular sections and circular gate chamber at centre, in which are 
installed a steel distributing tank and pipes from force main to different 
sections and overflow pipes and drains. K rom Proc. Boston Soc. Civil Engrs. 
Reinforced Concrete Reservoirs, Montevideo. Engineering, vol. 10l>, 
no. 2756. Oct. 25, 1918. pp. 453-455, 43 figs. Description of two 6..5O0.0O0-gal. 
reservoirs constructed for City of Montevideo. I'ruguay, R. C. Parsons, 
Engineer. Drawings of principal features. 

Scaffolds and Falsework. Safe Construction of Scaffolds and Falsework, T. F. 
Foltz. Contract Rec., vol. 32, no. 42, Oct. 10. 1918. pp. 82(KK29. Outlines 
general construction of pole, suspended, outrigger, carpenters' bracket and 
painters' scaffolds, and indicates their general construction requirements. 
Paper before Nat. Safety Council. 

SuDMERc.ED Strcctcres. Essentials of PropCT Construction, J. W. Rollins. Contract 
Rec, vol. 32. no. 44. Oct. 30, 1918, pp. 870-873. Requirements of Concrete for 

submerged structures. 

EARTHWORK, ROCK, EXCAVATION, ETC. 

Blasting. Drilling and Blasting in Construction of Halifax Ocean Terminals Railwav 
Eng. & Contracting, vol. 50. no. 21, Nov. 20, 1918. pp. 480-481. Description 
of some features of work. From paper by B. H. Smith before Eng. Inst, of 
Canada. 

Quarry Blasting with Electricity. A. S. .Vnderson. Du Pont Magazine, 
vol. 9, no. 6, Dec, 1918, pp. 20-27, 3 figs. Ways of producing current and 
precaution to be observed. 

Park Con'STRUction. Construction Plans Developed for the Bronx River Parkway 
Reser\-ation,-L. G. Holleran. Eng. News-Rec, vol. SI. no. 20. Nov. 14, lOlS, 
pp. 899-903, 4 figs. Designs of Park Commission contemplate development 
of 1400 acres by grading and planting; numerous structures proposed; work 
to be done by day labor. 

HARBORS 

Concrete Construction. The Use of Reinforced Concrete Construction in Harbor 
Work. A. F. Dyer. Jl., Eng. Inst. Can., vol. 1. no. li, Oct. 1918. pp. 242- 
251, 11 figs. Descriptions derived from articles and papers published in 
technical journals and proceedings of technical societies. Also in Eng. A 
Contracting, vol. 50, no. 21, Nov. 20. 1918, pp. 483-485. 

Piers. Compression Strengths of Large Brick Piers. Eng. & Cement World, vol. 13, 
no. 10, Nov. 15, 1918, p. 25. Summary of conclusions based on past records 
and recent investigation by Bureau of Standards, composed of testa on piers 
2 ft. in. s(\. by 10 ft. high in which three grades of brick were used. 

Ports. Railway Constrviction in Connection with the Halifax Ocean Terminals, 
R. H. Smith. Jl. Eng. Inst.. Can., vol. I, no. 6, Oct. 1918, pp. 281-288. 
Methods employed and difficulties overcome in construction operations which 
necessitated considerable excavation work and presented other difficulties. 

St. John Harbor. .-Vlex. Gray. Jl. Eng. Inst. Can., vol. 1. no. 6. Oct., 
1918, pp. 273-278, 15 figs. Outstanding features in habor and type of con- 
struction used in wharves. 

The Port of Honduras. Times Eng. Supp., no. 527, Sept. 1918. p. 193. 
Projected improvements. 

Sea Walls. Drive Inclined Precast Concrete Slabs for Sea Wall. Eng. News-Rec, 
vol. 81. no. 20. Nov. 14. 1918. pp. S97-89S. 3 figs, .\c_-ouni of rew type of 
beach protection replacing vertical concrete wall at Lot" Beach, Cal. 

Pneumatic Caisson Method of Quav Wall Construction at Halifax 
Eng. & Contracting, vol. 50, no. 21, Nov. 20. 1918. pp. 489-490, 2 figs. From 
paper by J. J. MacDonald before Eng. Inst, of Canada. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



43 



MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION 

Tnint-n. Decay in Mill-Roof Timber, R. J. Blair. Textile WorM Jl.. vol. 51. no. 23. 
Dec. 7, 1918, pp. 95-101, 4 lies. How it occurs nnd how it can be pre- 
vented. (To be continued.) 

ROADS AND PAVEMENTS 

Canada. Canadian Highway Construction, Harry Stewardson. Contract Roc, 
vol. 32, no. 40, Nov. 13, 191S, pp. 899-901. Considéra how to distribute cost 
of construction and maintenance so that necessary money can be secured and 
norcssary expense fairly placed upon people who use roads and communities 
which receive benefits. 

Highway AVork in Ontario. Good Roads, vol. 10, no. 20. Nov. 10, 191S, 
pp. 1S.J-1SG and 191. Progress made in Canadian Province. 

Roadway Improvements in Ontario, W. A. MacLean. Contract Rec, 
vol. 32, no. 4i, Oct. 9, 1918, pp. K13-S19, 10 figs. Extracts from annual report 
of Department of Public Highways for 1917. 

CoNCRKTE. Concrete Road Construction, William W. Cox. Good Roads, vol. 10, 
no. IS, Nov. 2, 1918, pp. 10.1-106 and 109, 1 fig. Precautions and care to be 
observed. Paper before Mich. State Good Roads Assn. 

Vertical Movements in Concrete Pavements and a Suggestion Towards 
Their Elimination, J. VV. Lowell. Eng. & Contracting, vol. 50, no. 19, 
Nov. 6, 1918, pp. 441-443, 4 figs. From paper before Am. Concrete Inst^ 

Cost Keeping. Better System of Highway Cost Keeping, J. J. Tobin and A. R. Losh. 
Contract Rec, vol. 32, nos. 44. 45 and 40, Oct. 30 and Nov. and 13, 1918, 
pp. 800-869, 886-888 and 903-900, 4 figs. Study of principles governing cost 
keeping and application of these principles to highway work. Detail of cost 
accounts and necessary codes. 

Fn.\N'CK. Principles Upon Which the French Highways Are Built, Frank W. Harris 
Eng. News-Rec, vol. 81, no. 21, Nov. 21, 1918, between strategic points 
followed; great attention is given to drainage. 



Location. P 



'utting the Right Road in the Right Place 
9, no. 5, Nov. 1918, pp. 350-358, 4 figs. Ei 



_ ^. Rodman Wiley. Am. City, 

vol. 19, no. 5, Nov. 1918, pp. 350-358, 4 figs. European practice in locating 
road; importance of exercising good judgment in grading and surfacing. Paper 
before Ky. Highway Engrs. Assn. 



Macaoam. Capacitv of Macadam Roads for War Business Increased. Eng. News- 
Rec. vol. 81^ no. 22, Nov. 28, 1918, pp. 990-992, 5 figs. Three-foot concrete 
shoulders added at each side without closing highways to traffic; war labor 
conserved by using convicts for construction. 

Oiled Macadam Roads Resurfaced with Concrete, E. A. Burt. Eng. 
News-Rec, vol. 81, no. 21. Nov. 21, 1918, pp. 942-944, 3 fig.s. Los Angeles 
County, Calfornia, builds roads in two sections to keep traffic moving; 
centre joint keeps autos on own side; cost figures. 

Tar- Macadam v. Granite Macadam. Ellis W. Jones. Surveyor, vol. 
54, no. 1399, Nov. 8, 1918, p. 220. Author's experience and recommendation 
that roads which have to carry from GOO to 1,000 tons a day should be main 
talned wich tar-macadam. 

Maintenance. Motor Vehicles and Their Influence Upon Road Construction 
W. A. Maclean. Surveyor, vol. 54, no. 1399, Nov. 8, 1918. pp. 221-222., 
Record of Deputy Minister of Public Highwys for Ontario. 

Road Maintenance Methods and Devices Effect Saving of Material 
Labor and Fuel. Eng. News-Rec.,vol. 81, no. 22, Nov. 28. 1918, pp. 981-984 
5 figs. Bureau of Maintenance and Repair, New York State Highways 
Department, working through nine division engineers' endeavors to keep, 
war-time traffic roads open still conserve material. 

Mixers. Direct Charging of Concrete Mixers. Mun Jl., vol. 45, no. 20, Nov. 10, 
1918, p. 392. Feature of construction of concrete pavement in ten-mile 
section of Delaware road. 

Two Mixers on Variable Road Work. Eng. & Cement World, vol. 13, 
no. 10, Nov. 15, 1918, pp. 31-32, 2 figs. Methods followed in const rucion 
of a Western road. 

Snow Removal. Snow Removal on Trunk Line Highways, Chas. J. Bennett. Good 
Roads, vol. 16, no. 20. Nov. 10. 1918, pp. 188-189. Study of the problem 
and suggestion for its solution. Before conference On Snow Removal from 
Trunk High ways Automobile Club of America. 

StJnFACiNG. How to Get Best Surface on a Concrete Road, A. H. Hunter. Cement & 
Eng. News, vol. no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 25-28, 2 figs. Sugges-tione in regard to 
application of forms, building of expansion joints and use of roller and ball. 

Resurfacing Part of Buffalo-Albany Turnpike with Concrete, A. f?. 
Hinman, Cement & Eng. News. vol. 30, no. 11, Nov., 1918, pp. 35-36, 
3 figs. Method of carrying on work without closing traffic. 

Wood Roads. Gasoline Consumption Tests Demonstrate Value of Hard, .Smooth- 
Surfaced Roads, A. N. Johnson. Eng. News-Rec, vol. 81, no. 19, Nov. 7, 
1918, pp. 843-850, 8 figs. Gasoline saving which would pay for construction 
of hard surface in few years is indicated between earth and smooth concrete, 
where daily motor traffic of 500 can be expected. Results of some tests 
and description of methods employed. 

Paved Roadways Aid Plant Efficiency, H. Colin Campbell. Indus. 
Management, vol. 56, no. 0, Dec, 1918, pp. 471-472, 4 figs. Plea for better 
roadways around factory buildings. 

The Measure of a Good Road, Robert C. Barnett. Eng. & Contracting, 
vol. 50, no. 19, Nov. 6, 1918. pp. 438-440, 3 figs. Mathematical treatment 
of thesis. Assumptions of good road; 1. A straight line is shortest distance 
between two points; 2. A plane of uniform slope is best grade between two 
points; 3. A hard, smooth surface offers less tractive resistance than rough 
or yielding one. 

The Vital Importance of the Highway, S. M. Williams. Am. City, 
vol. 19, no. 5, Nov. 1918, pp. 354-355, 1 fig. Plea for establishment of Federal 
Highway Commission. 



WATER SUPPLY 

Consumption. Water Consumption in New York State Cities and Its Effect on Coal 
Consumption. Am. City, vol. 19. no. 5, Nov. IfllH, pp. 370-378. From a 
report compiled by the State Bureau of Munieipitl Information of the New 
York State Conference of Mayors. 

Mains in Winter. Waterworks Operation. Mun. Jl., vol. 45, no. 21, Nov. 23, 
1918, pp. 408-410, Methods of thawing water mains and services. 

Pollution. Sanitary Aspects of Water Supplies at Army Cantonments, James T. B. 
Bowles. Eng. & Contracting, vol. 50, no. 20, Nov. 13, 1918, p. 460. From 
Sept. Jl. of Am. Waterworks Assn. 

Railway Wateh Supply. New W^ater Treating Plants for the Burlington. Ry. Rev,, 
vol. fî3, no. 19, Nov. 9, 1918, pp. )i01-<'»60, 10 figs. Fsc of reinforced-eoncrctc 
tanks on Casper division; variou.s conditions of water supply: different typea 
of construction. 

Railway Water Svipply from W'ells. Ry. Rev., vol. 03, no. 19, Nov. 9, 
1918. pp. 669-671. From report of committee on .sources of railway water 
supply, to Am. Ry. Bridge and Building Assn., Chicago, Oct. 15, 191S, by 

C. R. Knowlcs, chairman. 

Sand Filters. Coagulants Versus Sand Filters as Aid to Water Purification in the 
Field, H. S. Briggs and E. R. Marie. Contract Rec, vol. 32, no. 40, Nov. 13, 
1918, pp. 906-908. Description of installation embodying alum process. 
From Roy. Engrs. Jl. 

Drifting Sand Filter, Toronto Island, Geo. G. Nasmith and N. J. 
Howard. Can. Engr., vol. 35, no. 17, Oct. 24, 1918, pp. 359-364, figs, 
lîeport of bacteriological and physical tests performed on section compri.sing 
five filter units. 

Toronto's Drifting Sand Filter. Mun. Jl., vol. 45. no. 20, Nov. 16. 
1918, pp. 390-392. Construction and operation: bacteriological and phyBical 
tests; conclusions as to efficiency of plant. 

WATERWAYS 

Dams, High-Pressure Gates in Dams for Water-Works and Irrigation Reviewed. 

D. W. Cole. Eng. News-Rec, vol. 81, no. 20, Nov. 14. 1918. pp. 880-884, 
5 figs. From sluice gates in Sudbury Dam of Boston Water- WorKs through 
various stages of gate development in higli dams of U. S. Reclamation Service, 
From paper presented at Idaho conference of engineers in 1918. 

MocUfications in the Character of a Water Stream Produced by Con- 
struction of a Dam (Modifications apport6es au régime d'un cours après 
l'établissement d'un barrage), K. Zorayan. Revue Générale de l'Electricité, 
vol. 4, no.7, Aug. 17, 1918, pp. 226-229, 5 figs. Chart for tracing output 
curve knowing the declivity of a water course and the height of water in 
dam. 

Gates. Some Experiences with Large-Capacity Reservoir Outlets, James M. Gaylord. 
Eng. News-Rec. vol. 81, no. 21, Nov. 21, 1918, pp. 94.V950, 2 figs. Specially 
designed gates control discharge of immense volumes of water under pressures 
above 200 ft.; difficulties and how they have been overcome. Paper before 
Colorado Assn. of members of Am. Soc. of Civil Engrs. 

Run-Off. Progress Report of Committee on Run-Off. Jl. Boston .Soc Civil Engrs., 
vol. 5, no. 9, Nov., 1918. pp. 3S7-422, 3 figs. Use of the current meter in stream 
gaging; 0.2 and 0.8 method inpower canals; precipitation, evaporation and run- 
off; effects of ice on river discharge; methods to be used in compilation of 
data. 

Stream Regulation. Stream Regulations in Quebec Province, Olivier Lefebvre. 
Can. Engr., vol. 35, no. 19, Nov. 7, 1918, pp. 399-402 and 411, 5 figs. Account 
of increase in water power by using Lakes St. Francis and Aylmer as storage 
basins and indications of possible developments. From Annual Report of 
Quebec Streams Commission. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 

ELECTROCHEMISTRY 

Reduction of Metals. Electric-Furnace Reduction of Certain Metals Suscep- 
tible of Industrial Utilization (Sur la préparation au four électrique de quelques 
métaux susceptibles d'utilisation industrielle), Jean Escard. Revue Générale 
de l'Electricité, vol. 4, no. 11, Sept. 14. 1918. pp. 375-386, 3 figs. Notes on 
reduction of barium, calcium, glucinum, cobalt, nickel, titanium, manganese, 
cliromium, molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium. 

ELECTROPHYSICS 

DiSTniB ution, e le ctrost ati c. The Electron Theory of Metallic Conductors 
Applied to Electrostatic Distribution Problems, L. Silberstein. Lond., 
Edinburgh & Dublin Phil. Mag., vol. 30, no. 215, Nov., 1918, pp. 413-420. 
General expression for equilibrium distribution in terms of total charge and 
potential of external field, and application of general formula to cases of full 
spherical conductors and hollow sphere. 

Periodic Currents. Oscillating Energy (Energie oscillante), G. Szarvady. Revue 
Générale de l'Ectricité. vol. 4, no. 12, Sept. 21, 1918, pp. 411-422, 2 figa. 
Application of Ohm's law and Kirchoff's laws to watt currents and wattless 
components of electromotive forces and intensities of periodic currents. 

Saturation. On the Calculation of Magnetic and Electric Saturation Values, J. R. 
Ashworth. Lond., Edinburgh & Dublin Phil. Mag., vol. 30, no. 214, Oct.. 
1918, pp. 351-360. Deduces Ia=^(R/R^ ) where /» is limiting intensity of 
magnetization, R the gas constant and R^ the reciprocal of the product of sus- 
ceptibility into absolute temperature; also (i'ù = \/{R/S), where t'o is 
maximum current density a conductor can carry, S ratio of resistivity to 
absolute temperature and T the velocity of electron as it passes along con- 
ductor. 

Vacuum Phenomena. Rectification by Vacuum Discharge, T. Kujirai. Denki 
Gakkwai Zasshi, no. 361, Aug. 31, 1918. 



44 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Theory of Coolidge Tube (Sur la théorie du fonctionnement du tube 
CoolidRe h radiateur). A. Dauvillicn. Revue Générale de i'Klectricilé, 
vol. 4, no. 13, Sept. 2S, I91S, pp. 443-*4.'>. Kxplains increase in resistance 
l>y proaence of largo quantity of oxygen lîhoratod ut focus and by partial oxida- 
dation of filament, tORethor with forntadon of double layer wîiirh diminishes 
electronic emission. 

VinnATiON*. MKriiANiTAL Gknhiïatino Electuic.m. Kmergy. Experiments on the 
JOffect of the Vibration of a Stretched Wire Torming Part of a Closed Electric 
Circuit, Henry Jack^<on. l*roc. Roy. Soc., vol. Dâ, no. A665, Sept. 2, 1918, 
pp. 51-57. Experiments with sensitive telephone detector which in author's 
judgment confirm Mnrran's suggestion that a mechanical vibration or note 
prorluces electricity. 

GENERATING ST.VTIONS 

Ai.TKRN'ATOitfl i>J Param-el. Synchronizing Altornatorâ Coupled in Parallel (La 
mise en plia.sc dans le couplage en parallèle des alternateurs). Elivind Styff. 
Revue Générale de l'Electricité, vol. 4. no. i:i, Sept. 28, 1918, pp. 4(>O-40.-.. 
1 1 fîgfl. Schemes of connections and diagrams of electromotive forces. From 
Elcktrot4?chni.'iche Zeitschrift, vol. 38, Sept. 20. 1917. p. 401. 

Tnnno-ALTEnNATOiw Accidents to Steam Turbo-Alternators (Au sujet des accidents 
aux turbo-alternatoura à vapeur), P. Boucherot. Revue Générale de PElec- " 
tricité. vol. 4. no. 13. Sept. 28. 1918, pp. 457-400. Report of Sub-Committee 
of l^nion of Electrical Syndicates proposing aa a result of studies: (1) modifi- 
cations in present designs of turbo-alternators, (2) modifications in usual speci- 
fications, and (3) dispositions to reduce loss when accident occurs. 

Tlie Production of Electricity by Steam Power, Alex. Dow. Elecn., vol. 
81, no. 2111, Nov. 1, 1918. pp. .55.5-557. Abstract of address before Am. 
Electrochemical Soc. 

GENERATORS AND MOTORS 

Direct Ciirrent Motors. Weight of Direct Current Motors, A. Brunt. Elec. 
Eng., vol. 52. no. 2, Aug.. 1918. pp. 28-29. 2 figs. Requirements of direct- 
current motors and graphs showing relation between weight and torque for 
commutating-polp and non-conmiutating-polc motors, and also between weight 
and torque for variou.s-makcs of apparatus. 

Induction ■ Motors. Changing Speed of Induction Motors. Power Plant Eng., 
vol. 22, no. 22, Nov. 15, 1918. pp. 926-928. 2 figs. Possible speed changes of 
induction motors to suit conditions in power plants. 

RoLLiNO-MiLL. Motors. Standardizing Large Rolling Mill Motors, K. Pauly. Blast 
Furnace, vol. 0, no. 10, Oct. 1918, pp. 411-414, 1 fig. Suggests motors be 
rated on continuous capacity at some particular temperature in order to avoid 

Î resent difficulties of users of large rolling-mill motors. Paper before Assn. 
ron & Steel Elec. Engrs. 

Single-Phase Generators. Armature Reaction and Wave Form of a Single-Phase 
Generator (in Japanese), G. Shimizu. Denki Gakkwai Zasshi, no. 302, 
Sept. 10, 1918. 

Starting Resistances. Method for Determining Resistance Used for Starting 
Various Types of Motors. B. W. Jones. Power, vol. 48, no. 21, Nov. 19. 
1918, pp. 740-744, figs. A simple method for determining the ohmic value of 
resistance used for starting series, shunt and compound-wound direct- 
current motors and wo\md-rotor induction motors xmder various load 
conditions. 

SrNCHKONors Motors. For and Against Synchronous Motors, Will Brown. Elec. 
World, vol. 72. no. 21. Nov. 23. 1918, pp. 982-984.4 figs. Four objections that 
that have been frequently made to using synchronous motors; discussion 
showing how conditions have changed; synchronous motors and unity power 
factors. 

Température Rise. Guarantees for Temperature Rise in Electrical Machinery, with 
Special Reference to Large Turbo-Generators. A. E. Du Pasquier. Tran. 
South African Inst. Elec. Engrs., vol. 9, part 7. July 1918, pp. 127-137 and 
(discussion) pp. 137-140. Urges that there is no good reason for restricting 
temperature rises, providing suitable materials are obtainable for with- 
standing the heat conditions that may arise. 

LIGHTING AND LAMP MANUFACTURE 

Anc-I..AMP Globes. Renovation of Discolored Arc-Lamp Globes, Alfred Herz. 
Elec. World, vol. 72, no. 20, Nov. 16, 1918. pp. 935-930, 2 figs. Description of 
a system of removing stain by heat treatment. 

Need for Improved Lighting in the Leather Industrv, F. H. Bernhard. 
Elec. Rpv., vol. 73, no. 20. Nov. 10, 1918, pp. 759-70.5. 7 figs. Tenth of 
series of articles on lighting in industries. 

Lighting (General). Daylight vs. Sunlight in Sawtooth-Roof Construction, W. S. 
Brown, Jl. Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs., vol. 40, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 1025-1029, 
5 figs. Empirical research of amount of direct sunlight and intensity of day- 
light to be admitted on working plane in sawtooth construction; equation to 
determine time of admission of direct sunlight and nvmiher of hours of its 
duration with given orientation of sawtooth buildings and slope of lighting 
area; influenccof sizcand.sloiîc of sawtooth lighting area on relative intensity 
of daylight from northern sky; examples illustrating manner of computing 
amount of difTnsed liglit entering building under several conditions. Pre- 
sented at annual meeting of the Soc. 

Elements of Illuminating Engineering (III), Ward Harrison. Elec. 
Eng., vol. 52, no. 2, Aug. lflI8, pp. 30-34, 4 figs. Essentials in illumination 
design — coefficients of utilization, location of light sources, and recommended 
minimum spacings and minimum heights above plan of illumination for various 
units. 

Lighting in Its Relation to the Eye, C. E. Ferrée and G. Rand. Proc. 
Am. Phil. Soc. vol. 57, no. 5, 1018. pp. 440-478. 9 figs. Report of work of 
sub-committee on Hygiene of the Eye of Am. Medical Assn., invoh-ing an 
extensive experimentation on effect of different lighting conditions on eye. and 
investigation of factors in lighting situation causing eye to lose in efficiency 
and experience discomfort. 



Some Modern Methods of Lighting, Geo. H. Stickney. Nat. Engr., 
vol. 22, no. 10, Oct. 1918, pn. 469-477. 7 figs., and (discussion), pp. 477-479. 
Analysis of elements of lighting systems required by factories, offices and 
stores. Paper before Nat. .Assn. of Stationary Engrs. 

War Time Lichting Iv-onomJes, I^lec. World, vol. 72, no. 19, Nov. 9, 
pp. 885-887. Saliint fi-ulun-s of report prepared by War Service Committee 
of Illuminating I^iminctTing Society for L'. S. i''ucl .administration; falacies 
to be avoided; making maximum u.se of daylight. 

Reflecting and Diffusing Light. Reflecting and Diffusing Light, Ward Harrison. 
Textile World Jl., vol. 54, nos. 18, 20, 21 and 22, Nov. 2, 16. 23 and 30. 1918, 
pp. 61 and 71, 4 figs., 25-27, 1 fig., 59-63. 5 figs., and 33, .'5 figs. Properties of 
acce.ssories necessary for good industrial illumination. 

Steel Mill.s. Better Lighting of Iron and Steel Mills and Fabricating Plants. F. H. 
Bernhard. Elec. Rev., vol. 73, no. 22, Nov. 30. 1918, pp. 841-845, 7 figs. 
ICIeventh of scries of articles on improvement of lighting in industries. 

MEASUREMENTS AND TESTS 

Galvanometers. The Einthovcn Galvanometer, Samuel D. Cohen. Wireless 
World, vo.. 6, no. 68, Nov. 1918, pp. 437-438. Special simple construction of 
ï'jnthoven type used by writer for measuring radio receiving currents. From 

Elec. Experimenter. 

Insulation Measurement. Electrolytic Method of Measuring Electrostatic Field 
of Insulators (La mesure du champ electrostatic dans les i.solat^urs 
d'après la méthode éleetrolvtique), W. Estorff. Revue Générale de 
rElectricité, vol. 4, no. 12, Sept. 21, 1918, pp. 43.3-434. 1 fig. A small 
line is placed between clectrocfes in electrolyte and ratio of resistances 
of distances between line and each electrode is determined by Wheatstone 
bridge operating circuit with alternating current; correction coefficient for air 
values is determined in similar manner. From Elektrotcchnischc Zeitschrift, 
vol. 39, Feb. 7, 14 and 21, pp. 53, 62 and 70, 28 figs. 

Some Notes on Leakage Indicators, G. W. Stubbings. Electricity, vol. 
32, no. 1451, Aug. 30, 1918, pp. 45:5-454, 1 fig. Principle of instruments 
measuring state of insulation of a complete electrical system. 

Meters. The Demand- Meter Situation, C. F. Mathes. Elec. World, vol. 72, no. 22. 
Nov. 30, 1918, pp. 1024-1020. Critical discussion of demand meters, pointing 
the advantages that are gained through use of well-known types of these 
instruments and remedies for some of the troubles encountered inthelrpractical 
application. 

Official Testing Laboratories. British Electrical Proving House. Times Eng. 
Supp., no. 527, Sept. 1918, p. 197. Essentials of schemed testing institution, 
with authoritative credentials, to deal with types of apparatus rather than with 
individual specimens. 

Test Ring Methoo. Test Ring Method for Determining Transformer Ratio and 
Phase Error, H. S. Baker. Eiec. Rev., vol. 73, no. 20, Nov. 16, 1918, 
pp. 766-769, figs. Use of special watt meter and current transformer for 
current transformer testing. From paper before Am. Inst, of Elec. Engrs. 

POWER APPLICATION 

Cement Industry. Electric Motors in the Cement Industry. R. B. Williamson. 
Proc. Am. Inst. Elec. Engrs., vol. 37, no. 11, Nov. 1918. pp. 1237-1273, 9 figs 
Outline of various kinds of machinery used, and data as to power requirements; 
description of types of motor best suited to each application together with 
starting characteristics, o\ erload capacity, torque and other features. Also 
in Elec. Rev., vol. 73, nos. 20 and 21, Nov. 23 and 26, 1918, pp. 770-771 and 
813-814. 

Coal Mining. Explosionproof Equipments of Colliery Motors and Accessories (in 
Japanese). Denki Gakkwai Zasshi, no. 363. Oct. 10, 1918. 

The Use of Electric Power in the Mining of Anthracite Coal. J. B. 
Crane. Proc. Am. Inst. Elec. Engrs., vol. 37. no. 10, Oct. 1918, pp. 1197-1202, 
7 figs. Power cost and current consumption of anthracite mines, also of 
bituminous mines; estimates of additional coal obtainable by electrification of 
anthracite mines, illustrations showing representative installations of electric 
drive. 

Furnaces. Notes on Electric-Furnace Problems, J. L. McK. Yardley. Bui. Am. 
Inst. Min. Engrs., no. 142, Oct. 1918. pp. 1593-1598, 4 figs. Analysis made to 
determine maximum capacity and approximate performance of a new furnace 
designed to operate at 100 volts on a GO-cyclc current. 

Power Factor of the Electric-Arc Furnace -Fattore di potenza dei forni 
elettrici ad arco', O. Scarpa. Revista Tecnica d'Eletrricita, no. 1891, Oct. 
25, 1918, pp. 105-100. Presents formula for power factor of arc including power 
factor of furnace and ohmic resistance of electrodes. 

Technical Analysis of Industrial Electric Furnaces; Classification, Choice 
of Apparatus, Installation and Operation (Considérations techniques sur les 
fours électriques industriels; classification choix des appareils, installation 
mode d'emploi et conduite) Jean Escard. Revue Générale de l'Electricité, 
vol. 4, no. 16, Oct. 19, 1918, pp. 575-591, 31 figs. Electric arc furnaces; 
electric resistance furnaces; induction furnaces; electrothermotic and aluminum 
fiu-naces. 

The Electric Furnace After the War. Francis A. J. Fitzgerald. Elec. 
Rev., vol. 73, no. 19. Nov. 9. 1918, pp. 726-727, 2 figs. EfTect of the war 
upon electric furnaces; new uses to replace war's needs; tendencies in furnace 
design. 

Heating. Electric Heat for Drving and Baking, George J. Kirkgasser. Indus- 
Management, vol. 56. no. 6, Dec. 1918, pp. 489-49.5. 11 figs. Types of indus- 
trial apparatus that have had rapid development during past five years. 

Electric Thermal Storage Heaters for Rooms. English Mechanic & World 
of Sci., vol. 108, no. 2796, Oct. 25. 1918. pp. 155-156. Summary of report used 
by Committee of Swiss Electrotechnical Union. From Schweizerischcr 
Elektrotechnischer Verein, Bui., June 1918. 

Electrically Heated Industrial Appliances and Devices, George J. Kirk- 
gasser. Indus. Management, vol. 56, no. 5, Nov. 1918. pp. 417-423, 32 figs. 
Outlines most important applications cla6sifie<l for 18 different industries 
and shows many of simpler devices. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



45 



InoN OnE Mining. Central Station Service Used in Operation of New Jersey Iron 
Ore Mines, L. R. W. Allison. Elec. Rcc, vol. 24, no. 4, Oct. 1918. pp. 24-2G. 
5 figs. Installation where energy generated at steam station ia tranamltted 
to mines at 33,000 volt.s for operation of pnmpa, air compressors, hoists, etc., 
involving consumption of COO.OOO kw-hr. per month. 

I.iME Plant. A Modern Motor-Driven Lime Plant. Cement & Eng. News, vol. 30 
no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 19-20, 4 figs. Processes in electrically driven plant 
utilizing waste marble. 

Pumping. Electricity Supersedes Steam in Los Angeles, Eng. & Cement World, 
vol. 13, no. 10, Nov. 15, 1918, pp. 18-19. 3 figs. Electrical operation of 
pumping plants, it is said, will effect an annual saving of 18,000 bbl. of fuel 
oil. Also in Elec. Rev., vol. 73. no. 19, Nov. 9, 1918, pp. 723-725, 3 figs. 

High Efficiencies Shown bv Motor-Driven Water Works Pumps, Geo 
H. Gibson. Can. Engr., vol. 35, no. 19, Nov. 7, 1918. pp. 412-413. 2 fig.s. 
Data on two 12-in. centrifugal pumps. 

UoLUN(i Mills. Electrically Driven Mills at Bethlehem, J. T. Sturtevant. Blast 
Furnace, vol. 6. no. 10. Oct. 1918, pp. 417-419. 10 figs. Layout, equipment, 
power consumption and tonnage on eleven installations at Lehigh plant, 
where G. E. induction motors are used. 

Ship Phopulsion. Electricity's Part in Building and Navigating of Ships, H. A. 
Hornor. Elec. Eng., vol. 52, no. 2, Aug. 1918, pp. 15-22, 20 figs. Considera- 
tions entering into selection of propulsion; commercial angle, first cost, 
efficiency, safetj , upkeep, cost of operation, etc.; propelling machinery of 
various ships. (Concluded .) 

Silk Industry. Electric Drive Applied to Silk Industry, Charles T. Guilford, Elec- 
Rev., vol. 73. no. 22, Nov. 30, 1918, pp. 855-857, 4 figs. Advantages of central- 
service for this work; selection of motors and drives; interesting data on pre- 
sent installations. 

SuGAH Mills. Complete Electrification of Sugar Mills, Clarence G. Hadley. 
Elec. World, vol. 72, no. 22, Nov. 30, 1918, pp. 1022-1024. 2 figs. Extensive 
application of motors in this industry of recent origin; satisfactory results 
obtained in new Cuban niilLs, showing possibilities that may arise in this 
field as it is developed. 

TELEGRAPHY AND TELEPHONY 

li.vDio Telbgr.\phy and Telephony. A Combination Circuit for Tube and Cr^'stal. 
Wireless Age, vol. 6, no. 2, Nov. 1918, p. 21, 1 fig. Combined or individual 
use of vacuum tube and crystql rectifier. 

A New Protective Condenser. Wireless Age, vol. G, no. 2, Nov. 1918, 
p. 34, 1 fig. Designed to protect electrical transmission lines from eflfect. 
of high-frequency disturbances. 

A Novel Radio Telegraph Aerial. Wireless Age, vol. 6, no. 2, Nov. 19 IS, 
p. 20, 1 fig. Type having series of coils inserted in antenna from earth to 
free end. 

A Thermionic Valve Slopemeter, E. V. Appleton. Wireless World, 
vol. 6, no. 68, Nov. 1918, pp. 458-4G0, 3 figs. Derives formula to compute 
slopes of grid voltage-anode current and plate voltage-anode current curves 
at any particular operating plant. 

Marconi's Improved Radio Transmitter. Wireless Age, vol. 6, no. 2, 
Nov. 1918, pp. 19-20, 3 figs. Method of producing continuous oscillations 
by overlappmg wave trains. 

Metliod for Exhausting Vacuum Tubes. Wireless Age, vol. C, no. 2, 
Nov. 1918, pp. 20-21, 1 fig. Apparatus which provides for heating anode by 
vigorous bombardment of electrons without endangering filament, this being 
method to drive gases from plate. 

Propagation of Electric Currents in an Antenna (Propagation des courants 
électritiues dans imc antenne), H. Chircix. Revue Générale de l'Electricité, 
vol. 4, no. 11. Sept. 14. 1918, pp. 363-374, 9 figs. Formulae (1) in 
general case of non-homogenous antennae, (2) when antenna consists of one 
brancii, (3) when it consists of two, and (4) when it consists of three branches 
having different seif-inductances and different capacities. 

Solid-Contact Detectors (Contribution à l'étude des détecteurs à contacts 
solides). René Audubert. Journal de Physique, vol. 7, May-June 1918, 
pp. 127-128. Study of physical phenomena which probably take in the action 
of crystal detectors used in wireless telegraphy. (To be continued.) 

Some Aspects of Radio Telephony in Japan, Eitaro Yokovama. Wireless 
World, vol. 6, no. OS. Nov. 1918. pp. 430-435, 8 figs. Account of recent 
discoveries: Evolution of a rarefied gas discharger. (To be continued.) 

The Radioelectric Installation at Stavanger, Norway (Stavauger Radio), 
Olaf Moe. Teknisk Ukeblad. year 65, no. 43, Oct. 25, 1918, pp. 595-514, 23 
figs. (To be continued.) 

Telephony (Wire). How to Locate Telephone Troubles. J. Bernard Hccht, 
Telephony, vol. 75, nos. 21, 22 and 23, Nov. 23, 30 and Dec. 7, 1918. pp. 32-34. 
3 figs.: 13-16, 10 figs, and 16-18. 2 figs. Rural line telephones and their 
circuits. Suggestions to managers, wire chiefs and troublemen of local 
battery exchanges. (Continuation of serial.) 

Wave-Length and Weakening of Telephone Circuits (Longueur d'onde 
et affaiblissement des circuits téléponiques), Pomey. Revue Générale de 
l'Electricité, vol. 4, no. S, Aug. 24, 1918, pp. 251-253. Simplification of author's 
formula for constant B given in Aug. 3 issue. 

TRANSFORMERS, CONVERTERS, FREQUENCY CHANGERS 

TuANSFORMEns, A. C. Study of the Calculations Involved in the Design of Large 
Capacity Transformers for Use with Electric Furnaces (Etude sur le calcul de 
transformateurs à forte intensité pour fours électriques), R. Jaccjuot. Revue 
Générale de l'Electricité, vol. 4, no. 15, Oct. 12, 1918, pp. 523-536, 9 figs. 
Explains sudden variations in efficiency and voltage drop by conditions of 
varying load and suggests practical and economical modifications. (To be 
continued.) 

Rectifiers. Three-Phased Current Rectifier (Convertitore di correnti trifasi in 
correnti continue). O. M. Corbino. L'Elettrotecnica, vol. 5, no. 28, Oct. 
5, 1918, pp. 392-39t, 3 figs. Apparatus operating by rotary mercury jet. 



Substations. Electric Railway Substaiioua for Automatic Transformation (Sottos- 
tazioni di trasformazione automaticbe per l'aliraentazione de ferrovie 
elettriche), A. Guemano. L'Elettrotecnica, vol.5, no. 31, Nov. 5, 1918, 
pp. 444-446, 6 figs. Principles of system followed in America. 

Thansformehs, D. O. Size and Working Coat of Machines for Continuous-Current 
Transformation, Thomas Carter. Elecn., vol. 81, no. 2108, Oct. 11, 1918. 
4 figs. Methods of continuous-current transformation; differences between 
three schemes; conclusions in regard to cost and method of operation; curves 
of overall efficiency of transformer: schemes for variable-speed motors. 

Frequency Changer. Radio Frequency Changers, E. E. Bûcher. Wireless Age, 
vol. 6, no. 2, Nov. 1918, pp. 10-13, 8 figs. Reported progress in their 
application to wireless telegraphic and telephonic communication. (To be 
continued.) 

TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION. CONTROL 

Distribution, Three-Phase. Economic increase Made in Distribution Capacity, 
S. Bingham Hood. Elec. World, vol. 72. no. 22, Nov. 30, 1918, pp. 1030- 
1032, 7 figs. Saving of copper and transformers by replacing old overloaded 
2300-voIt system with 2 300-24 00- volt star-connected, three-phase, common- 
neutral primary and interconnected secondary. 

How to Remedy Inconveniences of Excessive Overload in Threc-Phase 
Network (Comment pcut-on remédier aux inconvénients d'une très forte 
surcharge dans un réseau triphasé), E. Piernet. Revue Générale de l'ÊIec- 
tricité, vol 4, no. 15, Oct. 12, 1918, pp. 540-544, 2 figs. Proposes adjustment 
of step-up and step-down transformers so as to be able to dispose of voltage 
U so long as delivered power does not exceed a certain limit and of voltage 
f/s/3 when delivered power exceeds this limit. 

Interconnection. More Light on New England Interconnection. Elec. World, 
vol. 72, no. 22, Nov. 30, 1918. pp. 1027-1029, 1 fig. Estimated savings to be 
exceeded; convenient energy-exchange arrangements; railroad electrification 
possible without buying new generators; price at which tie-line energy can be 
sold. From paper by L. L. Elden before Boston Section of Am. Inst, of Elec. 
Engrs. 

Relays. Factors to Consider in .\pplying Relays, E. A. Hester. Elec. World, vol. 72, 
no. 20, Nov. 16, 1918. pp. 931-934, 9 figs. Determination of short-circuit 
current connections and settings suitable for radial and parallel feeder systems: 
protection against high-resistance grounds on balance systems. 

Relay Protective Devices, C. J. Monk. Tran. South African Inst. Elec. 
Engrs-, vol. 9. part 7, July 1918, pp. 140-143, 1 fig. Proposes short method of 
obtaining approximate circuit currents by observing voltage drop between 
two stations at normal load, according to equation; short-circuit current = 
Normal voltage times load current di\àded by voltage drop. Discussion of 
paper published in JI. of Inst., Oct. 1917. 

SuBST.vTiONS. Permanence in Outdoor Substations, S. B. Hood. Elec. World, 
vol. 72, no. 20, Nov. 19, 1918, pp. 928-930, 6 figs. Discussion of standard 
design used in all sizes from 300 kva. to 2250 kva. in order to eliminate fire 
losses prevalent in modern structures; increase in cost to secure permanence 
held to be negligible. 

Remote Controlled Substations Described, W. T. Snyder. Blast Furnace, 
vol. 6, no. 10, Oct. 191S, pp. 408-410. 2 figs. Control for central station 
and motor-generator substation located about 2200 ft. from main power 
station, feeding 250- volt direct-current transmission line. Paper before 
Assn. Iron & Steel Elec. Engrs. 

Switches. An Automatic Three-Phase Switch, W. Ernst. Elecn., vol. 81, no. 2108, 
Oct. 11, 1918, pp. 491, 4 figs. Abstract of article in Elektrotechnische Zeit- 
schrift. No. 4, 1918. 

Safety Features in Switching Installation, M. M. Samuels and F. Bechoff. 
Elec. World, vol. 72, no. 19. nov. 9, 1918, pp. 878-880, 9 figs. Review of 
existing alarm systems used to indicate switch positions and overheating of 
apparatus; weak points in installations and suggestions designed to bring 
about their improvement. 

Tr.vnsmission Lines. Locating Troubles in Electric Lines (Note sur les essais et 
mesures relatifs aux lignes électriques). Louis Puget. Revue Générale de 
l'Electricité, vol. 4, no. 16, Oct. 19, 1918, pp. 563-565, 2 figs. Method for 
measuring resistance of line and locating a ground, which author claims to 
have found serWccable in his experience with underground lines. The 
methods given are applicable to overhead lines as well. 

110,000- Volt Transmission Line over the St. Lawrence River, S. Sven- 
ningson. Proc. Am. Inst. Elec. Engrs., vol. 37, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 1275- 
1284, 3 figs. Account of investigation leading to construction of 350-ft. 
towers to support transmission wires on a span of 4800 ft.; design of towers 
and insulators; provisions for protection from ice and method of sag calcula- 
tions. 

WIRING 

House Wiring. Three- and Four- Way Switch Circuits, Terrell Croft. Elec. Eng., 
vol. 52, no. 2, Aug. 1918, pp. 23-25, 5 figs. Cottage wiring; unusual wiring: 
two-location control. (Concluded.) 

GENERAL SCIENCE 

CHEMISTRY 

Electrolytic Conductivity. Electrolytic Conductivity in Non-Aqueous Solutions. 
The Electrical Conductance of Trimethyl-Para-Tolyl- Ammonium Iodide in 
Water and Several Organic Solvents. Henrv Jermain, Maude Creighton 
and D. Herbert Way. Franklin Inat. Jl., vol. 1S6, no. 6, Dec. 1918, pp. 675- 
798, 7 figs. Investigations. 

Elements. Automic Number and Frequency Differences in Spectral Series, Herbert 
BeU. Lond., Edinburg & Dublin Phil. Mag., vol. 36, no. 214, Oct. 1918. 
pp. 337-347, 2 figs. Numerical tests of Rydberg's law that square root of 
doublet and triplet differences is proportional to automic weights, substituting 
atomic number for atomic weight. 



46 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Elements in the Ortlor of Their Atomic Weights, Rnvmond Srymanowitz. 
Chcm. Newtf, vol. 117. no. 3059. Oct. 25. 191s, pp. 3;i9-;J40. Presents table 
which shows numbers lollow sclieme of Hequence expressed hy: A', A' -j- 3, 
A '+ ;i + I, A '+ :t + 1 + 3. etc., adding 1 and 3 alternately. 

Solutions. The Eleetrienl Conductivity of Acids and Bases in Amuoous Solutions. 
Jnanendra Chandra Ghosh. II. of the Chcm. Soc., vols. 113-114. no. (372. 
Oct. uns, pp. 790-799. Kxnlain.s Hbnormally high mobility of hydrogen and 
hydn>xylions in aqueous solutions on assumption that electricity is partly 
carried by ordinary proretis of convection and partly propagated through 
water molecules undergoing alternate dissociation and recombination; 
apparently high activity of strong acids and bases is also traced to this cause; 
modifies OstwaJd equation for electrolytes where degree of rissocation is lesa 
than one. 

Structure of Mattkr. Atomic Structure from the Physico-Chemical Standpoint, 
Alfred W. Stewart. I-ond., Edinburgh & Dublin Phil. Mag., vol. 30. no. 211, 
Oct, 1918, pp. 320-33*1. 1 fig. Model atom proposed as having a structure 
accounting tor all the facts known concerning elements, including radioactive 
transformat ion.s. 

Interfacial Tension and Complex Molecules. G. K. AutonofT. Tvcmd., 
Edinbumh & Hublin. Phil. Mag., vol. 30. no. 215, Nov. HI IS. pp. 377-396. 
5 figs. Theory of molccuhir attraction based on modern representation of 
nature of atoms and molecules; explanation of phenomena of molecular 
attraction by action of forces wliieh cause chemical atlinity; deduction of rela- 
tion between surface tension and inolecidar pressure. 

Valency. Definition of Valency, F. H. Turing. Chcm. News. vol. 117, no. 3058, 
Oct. 11. 191S. pp. 319-322. Simile to explain significance of term and nature 
of atoms which exercise variable valencies. 



Flcorescence- On the Phenomena of Fluorescence. Desmond Gcoghcgan. Chcm. 
News, vol 117, no. 3(t58, Oct. 11^ 1918 p. 322 Suggests experiment which, it 
is said, will prove that rays of light passed through a euflïcient thickness of a 
fluorescent substance lose thereby power of exciting fluorescence when they 
arc passed through a second layer of same substance. 

Magneto-Thkrmo Puenomkna. Magneto-thermal Phenomena (Lc phénomène 
magn^tocaloriquc), Pierre Weiss and August* Picard. Journ^il de Physique, 
vol. 7, May-JuJie 1917, pp. 103-109, 1 fig. Account of pronounced changes in 
temperature which were observed in eovirse of experimental measurements 
preliminary to plotting set of isothermals for nickel. Near Curie's point 
temperature increased 0.7 dcg. on establishing field of 15,000 gausses. 

Oi'Tics- The Correction of Telescopic Objectives, T. Smith. Ix)nd., Edinburgh & 
Dublin Phil. Mag., vol. 30, no. 215, Nov. 1918. pp. 40;>-112. Criticism of 
expressions for constructional data for small objectives as given by A. O. 
Allen in Phil. Mag., June 1918. 

The Scattering of Light by Air Molecules, R. J. Srutt. Lond.. Edinburgh 
it Dublin Phil. Mag., vol. 30, no. 214, Oct. 191S, pp. 320-321. Supplements 
former account of experiments (Proc. Uov. Soc. A., vol. 41, p. 453, 1918) by 
answering inquiry from R. W. Wood (Phil. Mag., vol. 30, p. 272, Sept. 1918) 
in regard to precautions taken for drying air in experiments. 

Quanta Law Researches on the Limit of the Continuous Spectrum of X-Rays 
(Recherches sur la limite du spectra continu des rayons X), Alex. Muller. 
Archives îles Sciences Physiques et Naturelles, y<'ar 123, vol. 40, Aug. 1918. 
pp. 03-73, 1 fig. Theoretical and experimental verification of Planck's 
law of quanta as generalized by Einstein by confirming the relation é V = 
h V in the case of the continuous spectrum of X-rays, and for un interval from 
14 to 28 kilovolta. 



MATHEMATICS 

Analytical Functions. Factoring and Prolongation of Analytical Functions 
(Quelques remarques sur la déromposition eu facteurs primaires et le pro- 
longement des fonctions analyti(iues), Emile Picard. Comptes rendus des 
s/'ances de l'Académie des Sciences, vol. 107, no. 12, Sept. 10, 1918, pp. 40.V 
40S. Further comment on Wcierstrass' method of decomposition. In 
Comptes rendus, vol. 92. ISSl, p. 090, author showed application of this 
method to uniform functions whose roots approach indefinitely a given line. 

Divergent Series. \ Conspectus of the Modern Theory of Divergent Series. Walter 
B. Ford. Bui. Am. Math. Soc. vol. 25. no. 1, Oct. 1918. pp. 1-15. Review 
of modern theory of divergent series in regartl to (1) the question as to how a 
sum may be assigned to a divergent series in general, and (2) the functional 
properties of a symptotic series; proposed limitations to form a consistent gen- 
eral theory of summation. 

Equations. Simultaneous Linear Differential Equ.it ions Involving Partial Derivatives 
and Reduction of Hypcr-Cîoometric Functions of Two Varialîles {Sur des 
étpiations lim'-ares simultanées aux dérivéespartielleset sur des cas de réduction 
des fonctions hyper- géométriques de deux variables). Paul Appeli. Comptes 
rendus des séances de l'Académie des Sciences, vol. 107, no. 12, Sept. 10, 
1918. pp. 408-413. 

Solution of Partial-Derivative Equations by Means of Hormitc's Poly- 
nomials (Snr les équations aux dérivées partielles vérinées par les polynomics 
d'Hcrmite. déduîtw d'une exponentielle), Pierre Humbert. Comptes rendus 
des séances de l'Académie clés Sciences, vol. 107, no. 15. Oct. 7. 191S. pp. 
522-525. Application of Appell's method (Comptes rendus, vol. 107, 1918, 
p. 309) to variables obtained from differentiation of exponential function whose 
exponent is of ciuadratic form in .V and Y. 

Solutions of Differential Equations as Functions of the Constants of 
Integration, Gilbert Ames Bliss. Bui. Am. Math. Soc, vol, 25, no. I,_Oct, 
191s. pp. 15-20, Proposes-mcthod, 

Treatment of Partial-Derivative equations by Hyperspherical Poly- 
nomials (Sur le.-* systèmes d'équations aux dérivées partielles vérifiés par les 
polynômes -hyp-Tsphéri(iues). J. Kampé de Fériet. Comptes-rendus des 
séances de l'Académie des Sciences, vol. I(i7, no, 15. Oct, 7, 191S, pp, 519-522, 
Study of case of n linear equations involving partial derivatives of second order. 

IsooENEOua Complex Functions. Note in Isogenous Complex Functions of Curves, 
W. C. Graustein. Bui. Am. Math. Soc, vol. 24, no. 10, July 1918, pp. 
473-477. 

Orthogonal Sudstitution. Note on the Construction of an Orthogonant, Thomas 
Muir. Proe. Roy. Soc. of Edinburgh, vol. 38. part 2, session 1917-191S. 
pp. 140-153. Comments of and addition of theorems to Cayley's mode of 
forming an orthogonal .'«ubstitution, 

PRODABILITY. An Elementary Derivation of the Probabilitv Function, Albert .\. 
Bennett, Bui. Am, Math. Soc, vol. 24. no, IQ, July 1918. pp. 477-481. 
Derives by means of elementary considerations equation of probability from 
sequence of binomial coefficients 



PHYSICS 

Pi.AME Propagation. The Propagation of Flame through Tubes of Small Diameter. 
Wdlmm Paynian and Richard Vernon Wheeler. Jl. Chem. Soc, vols. 113 
«S: 114. no. 070, Aug. 191S. pp. (i.^O-OOO. 3 figs. Report of experiments, performed 
in connection with work on construction of miners' safety lamp, on speed of 
uniform movement during propagation of flame in mixtures of methane and 
air through tubes of small diameter on the passage of flame through similar 
tubes filled with mixtures of methane and air and open at both ends and 
on the passace or prajcntion of flame through short tubes of ,«mall diameter. 



IÎAD1U.M. On Some Properties of the Active Deposit of Radium, S, Ratner. Lond,, 
Edinburgh & Dublin Phil, Mag., vol. 30, no, 215. Nov. 1918, pp. 397-405, 2 
figs. Experimental research which leads author to question whether 
phenomenon of recoil of RaC from RaB has ever been observed, also that 
proportion of recoil atoms of RaB carrying negative charge in less than 1 to 
100,000. 

Rel.vtivitv. On the Essence of Physical Relativity, Joseph Larmor. Proc. Nat. 
Ac:idemy of Sci., vol. 4, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 334-337. Offers objection to 
Leigh Page's expression (no 4, p. 40) for translatory force required to sustain 
assigned varying velocity in electrostatic system of type usually investigated 
as model of electron. 

Semi-Flvids. Mechanics of Serai-Fluids (Mécanique des semi-fluides). Comptes 
Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, vol. 167, no. 7, Aug. 12, 1918, 
pp. 253-250. Discusses possibility of disregarding tangential action of central 
cylinder on annular part of the limiting surfaces. 

Vibrations -«jd Wave Motions. Dififraction of Plane Waves by a Screen Boundeil 
by a Straight Edge, F. J. W. Whipple. Lond.. Edinburgh & Dublin Phil, 
Mag., vol. 36, no. 215, Nov. 1918. pp. 420-424. Adaptation of R. Hargrcaves' 
method for simple harmonic wave (Phil. Mag., vol. 30, p. 191), to diffraction 
of waves of arbitrary type. 

Periodic Irrotational Waves of Finite Height T. H. Havclock. Proc. 
Roy. Soc. vol. 95, no. A065. Sept. 2, 1918, pp. 38-51. Extension of Mitchell's 
form for highest wave and its generalization by means of surface conditioas; 
method of approximation for coefficient, calculation for highest wave. 

The Interferomctry of Vibrating Systems, C. Barus. Proc, Nat. 
Acatlemy of Sci., vol. 4, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 328-333, 4 figs. Report of 
experimental work. 

The Sount Waves and Other .\ir Waves of the East London Explosion 
of January 19, 1917. Charles Davison. Proc. Roy. Soc, of Edinbur^i, vol. 
38, part 2. session 1917-1918. pp. 115-129. 1 fig. Construction of paths fol- 
lowed by air waves and sound waves; offered explanation for fact that inaudible 
air waves were observed beyond limits of sound areas by reason of their more 
nearly horizontal path. 



ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT 

ACCOUNTING 

Akmy. Accounting Systems in Army Camps. E. J. Holmes. Jl. ,\ctcy., vol. 20, no. 6, 
Dee. 1918. pp. 429-435. Explains the system used by the Ù. S. Army in 
connection with the disbursement of funds appropriated by Congress. 

Carrving on with the .\ccountants in the American Expeditionary Forces, 
C. B. Holloway. Jl. Actcy., vol. 20. no. 0, Dec. 1918. pp. 412-416. Specific 
operations carried on by the accounting personnel. 

Cost Accounting. Cost Accounting to Aid Production (III), G. Charter Harrison. 
Indus. Management, vol. 50, nos. 5 and 6, Nov. and Dec 1918, pp. 456-463, 
2 figs, and 391-398, 1 fig. Emphasizes necessity of cost-accounting system 
and illustrates its planning with diagram showing ba>*ic features of simple 
system for a business manufacturing various kinds of standard machines. 
(Continuation of serial.) 

Duties of a Factory Cost Accountant, Joseph Gill. Jl. Actcy.. vol. 26, 
no. 0, Dec 1918. pp. 441-449. A thesis presented at the May examinations 
of the Am. Inst, of Accountants. Routine work of cost accountants. 

Setting Production Standards for Industrial .Vccounting and Engineering, 
F. J. Knieppel. Jl. of Accountancy, vol. 26, no. 5, Nov. 1918, pp. 361-375. 
Explains methods of determining four basic standards. 

Inve.ntoru». Verification of Inventories, A. L. Philbrick. Jl. Actcy., vol. 26. 
no, 6, Dec. 1918, pp. 417-428. Briefly outlines the work of the auditor and 
his responsibilities. Difficulties involved in the verification of the inventory. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



47 



M AH. OiiDKK. Mail Order Accountinc, Harry L. Cavanagh. Jl. Actcy.. vol. 2(i, no. 
li, Dec. 1918, pp. 136-410. A thesis presented at the May examinations of 
the Am. Inst, of AccountanU. 

I'owEu House. Economics of the Power House, L. W. Alwyn-Sclimidt. Power 
Plant Eng.. vol. 22. no. 23, Dec. 1. 1918. pp. 949-952. Problem of Power- 
house accounting approached from point of view oficonomist. 

EDUCATION 

Thain-ing of Employees. Packard Training Schools for Employees, D. G. 
Stanbrough. Indus. Management, vol. 56, no. 5, Nov. 1918. pp. 378-382. 
13 figs. Four schools operated ; for men , women, instructors for women and tor 
job setters and foremen. 

Vestibule School of Lincoln Motor Co., J. M. Eaton. Indus. Manage- 
ment, vol.. 56, no. G, Dec. 1918. pp. 452-455, 10 figs. Equipment of traming 
rooms; system of instruction in machine-shop practice. 

Soldiers. Vocational Training for Returned Soldiers. Jl. Eng. Inst. Can., vol. 1, 
no. 7, Nov. 1918, pp. 333-334. Work being done at Toronto and McGill 
Universities. 

University. The Khaki University. Can. Min. Inst., bu!. no. 80. Dec. 1918, pp. 
985-989. Letter from F. D. Adams giving an account of the work and 
plans for future development. 

FACTORY MANAGEMENT 

Boiler Shop. Business Equipment in the Boiler Shop. Edwin L. Seabrook. Boiler 
Maker, vol. IS, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 305-307. Suggests items of b«sines.s 
conduct in boiler making plant. 

EnjPLOYMENT MANAGER. The Employment Manager, Edward D. Jones, Wood- 
Worker, vol. 37. no. 9, Nov. 1918. pp. 38-39. Organization and direction of 
course offered gratis to representatives of manufacturers by Management 
Division of War Industries Board. 

The Employment Manager in Our Shipyards, Edward B. Jones. Int. 
Mar. Eng-, vol. 23, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 612-014. Duties of general exe- 
cutive; importance of schools; wage system and ideal service; psychology 
of mass action. 

Foremen. Instructions to Assistant Foremen. George H. Shcpard. Indus. Man., 
vol. 56, no. 5, Nov. 1918. pp. 403-407. Prepared by plant working extensively 
on governmental orders to inspire and guide minor executives. 

Industrial Organization. After- War Economics of Engineering. Times Eng. 
Supp., no. 529, Nov. 1918, pp. 225-226. Suggests that plants review their 
methods of manufacture and adopt convenient modifications when necessary. 
Illustrations of practical procedure by reference to foundry work. 

Industrial Organization as it Afi'ects Executives and Workers. Charles 
E. Knoeppel. Jl. Am. Soc. Engrs.. vol. 40, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 1031-1033. 
Proposes rules of efficient organization for practical guidance of executives in 
developing system of industrial relationship. Presented at annual meeting 
of the Sos. 

Management — The Solution of the Shipbuilding Problem, W. L. 
Churchill. Indus. Management, vol. 56. no. 5. Nov. 1918, pp. 361-366, 2 
figs. Based on study of conditions in 20 shipyards and pointing to manage- 
ment as developed recently in other industries as proper solution to problems. 

Practical System in Factorv Operations. M. H. Potter. Can. Machy., 
vol. 20, no. 20, Nov. 14, 1918. pp. 559-560, 6 figs. Forms of charts developed 
from investigation of actual case. 

Scientific Management Simplified. Malcolm Keir. Sci. Monthly, 
vol. 7. no. 6, Dec. 1918, pp. 525-529. Adaptability of scientific management 
to industry; fundamental elements of scientific management. 

Industries. New Industries, H. W. Gepp. Aust. Min. Std., vol. 60, no. 
1564, Oct. 31, 1918, pp. 686-688. Address with discussion before Soc. of 
Chem. Ind., Melbourne. Essential factors in the successful development 
of new industries in a young country. 

Mechantcai. Department. Coordination in the Mechanical Department, W. U. 
Appleton. Ry. Rev., vol. 63, no. 22, Nov. 30, 1918, pp. 73-774. Recom- 
mendations for system and harmony within department and with other 
departments. Paper before Canadian Ry. Club, Oct. 1918. 

Rate Setting. Mastering Power Production, Walter N. Polakov. Ind. Man., vol. 
56, no. 5, Nov. 1918. pp. 399-403, 6 figs. Conservation of labor, power and 
fuel in relation to rates. Tenth article. 

Time Studies for Rate Settings on Gisholt Boring Mills, Dwight V. 
Merrick. Indus. Management, vol. 56, no. 5, Nov. 1918, pp. 409-411. 1 fig. 
Fifth article. 

UouTiNC. About the Handling of Mill Work (ID, Chas. Cloukey. Wood- Worker, 
vol. 37, no. 9, Nov. 1918, pp. 23-24, 1 fig. Part which routing of work through 
mill has in economical production. 

Task Setting. The Human Factor in Task Setting, W. E. Camo. Indus. Manage- 
ment, vol. 56. no. 5, Nov. 1918, pp. 372-374, 1 fig. Chief conditions that 
affect factor; how they are evaluated; how to predetermine proper allowance. 

Tool Department. Continuous Tooling. Times Eng. Supp., no. 527, Sept. 1918, 
p. 183. Suggests a means of obtaining increased output from machine-shop 
tools. 

Tool Department of Winchester Works. Iron Age. vol. 102, no. 19, 
Nov. 7, 1918, pp. 1129-11.33, 4 figs. Virtually on factory production basis, 
workers being trained for single type operation; preparation section's important 
functions. 

FINANCE AND COST 

Capital. Capital: Its Waste and Its Conservation, Archibald P. Main. Gas Jl., 
vol. 144, no. 2894. Oct. 29, 1918, pp. 249-251, and (discussion) pp. 251-252 
Means by which author judges Britisn ind 



credit and financial accommodation. 
Industries. 



Paper before Soc. of British Gas 



INSPECTION 

Graphic Control. Graphic Production Control, C. E. Knoeppel. Indus. Manage- 
ment, vol. 56, nos. 5 and 6, Nov. and Dec. 1918, pp. 383-390, 17 figs., 490-502, 
14 figs. Controlling materials and operations. Fourth .\rticle. 

Production Records. Keeping Close Track of Shop Operation, Robert I. Clegg. 
Iron Age, vol. 102, no. 21, Nov. 21, 1918, pp. 1251-1253. 6 figs. Kecords^of 
production and labor bulletined to management; reports with alarm-clock 
attachment. 

Supervision. Mechanical Department Supervision, Frank McManamy. Ry. Mach. 
Eng., vol. 92. no. II. Nov. 1918, pp. 597-598. Better supervision and more of 
it needed to keep up shop output. From paper before New York Ily. Club. 

LABOR 

Bargaining (including collective systems). Agreement vs. Bargaining, Harry 
Tipper. Automotive Ind., vol. 39. no. 19, Nov. 7, 1918. pp. 784-785. Claims 
confidence between employer and employee is impossible so long as both base 
their relations upon their ability to take advantage of a bargain. 

Handling Eniplovment Relations Without Help from the Outside 
Automotive Ind., vol. ."iO. no. 17, Oct. 24, 1918. pp. 722-723, 1 fig. Collective- 
bargaining plan for handling all matters relating to wages, hours of labor, 
discipline, discharges and grievances. 

Important Phases of the Labor Problem, Magnus W. .AJesandcr. Iron 
Age, vol. 102. nos. 21 and 22. Nov. 21 and 28, 1918, pp. 1258-1325. Problems 
of pensions and insurance; profit sharing in industry; adjustment of labor 
disputes; working conditions; hours of work. Nov. 21; Recruiting of men; 
collective bargaining discussed. 

Bonuses. Paying Bonuses to Power Plant Employees, Frederick L. Ray. Nat. 
Engr., vol. 22, no. 10. Oct. 1918. pp. 493-495, and (discussion) pp. 49-5-497. 

A .. „f „..,* r.ii J I— A..1 1-_^ Tri__ «.. ^ Light Co. 



Account of system followed by Milwaukee Elec. Ry 
before Nat. Assn. of Stationary Engrs. 



Paper 



ndustry can" make best use of available 



British Labor Admini.stration. Labor Administration, Edward T. Elbourne, 
Engineer, vol. 126, nos. 3276. 3278. 3279, 3280, Oct. 11 and 25, Nov. 1 and 8 
1918, pp. 299-300, 348-350, 2 figs., 365-367. 4 figs.. 388-390, 1 fig. Oct. 25: 
Women; Nov. 1: Time office (men); Nov. S: Methods of Remuneration. 

Dilution. Labor Dilution as a National Necessity, Frederick A. Waldron. Jl 
Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs., vol. 40. no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 1033-10.35. After 
referring to work done by British Bureau of Labor, the writer outlines 
the scope of labor dilution as necessary application to national resources of 
U. S. Presented at annual meeting of society. 

Employment Department. Employment Department Routine of the Curtiss Aeroplane 
& Motor Corp., Charles E. Fouhy. Ind. Man., vol. 56, no. 5, Nov. 1918, 
pp. 412-416, 17 figs. Routine and forms of employment department. 

Industri.vl Relations. Employment of Labor, Dudley R. Kennedy. Jl. Am Soc 
Mech. Engrs., vol. 40, no. 12. Dec. 1918, pp. 1030-1031. Activities of 
Industrial Relations Department of Hog Island plant in connection w'ith 
securing and maintaining a force of 35,000 employees and providing for 
their needs and comfort. Presented at the annual meeting of society. 

Fundamental Factors in Sound Industrial Relations. H. T. Waller. 
Ind. Management, vol. 56, no. 5, Nov. 1918, pp. 367-371, 8 figs. Seven 
factors discussed by author and illustrated by cartoons interpreting \-ital truth. 
Use of Non-Financial Incentives in Industry, Robert B. Wolf. Jl. 
/Viii. Soc. Mech. Engrs., vol. 40, no. 12. Dec. 1918, pp. 1035-1038. 2 figs. 
Account of instances where personal interest has been developed in workmen 
by supplying foremen with information upon costs, methods of operation, 
possibilities in direction of economy and efficiency, etc. Presented at annual 
meeting of the A. S. M. E. 

Lunch Rooms. Feeding Employees at a Steel Plant. Iron Age, vol. 102, no. 19, Nov. 
7, 1918, pp. 1136-1138, 2 figs. Reasons for abolishing dinner pail; manage- 
ment of lunchroom; auxiliary room for foreigners; commissary. 

National War Labor Board. The War Labor Board and the Li\-ing Wage, Frank 
P. Walsh. Survey, vol. 41, no. 10, Dec. 7, 1918, pp. 301-303. Account of 
origin of National War Labor Board, its purpose and achievements. 

Profit Sharing. A Tested Profit Sharing Plan, Dale Wolf. Indus. Management, 
vol. 56, no. 6, Dec. 1918, pp. 486-488, 3 figs. Average of 46 per cent of com- 
pany's profits are distributed to employees. 

Soldiers. Returned Soldiers Make Very Good Welders, W. F. Sutherland. Can. 
Machy.. vol. 20, no. 22. Nov. 28, 1918, pp. 618-619, 2 figs. Outline of work 
done by training school. 

The Employment of the Returned Soldier. Can. Machy., vol. 20, 
no. 20, Nov. 14, 1918, pp. 561-562. Résumé of problem as viewed by 
English correspondent. From Times Eng. Supp. 

The Industrial Restoration of Disabled Soldiers, Bert. J. Morris. Indus. 
Management, vo.. 56, no. 6, Dec. 1918, pp. 477-481, 4 figs. Review of 
accomplishments of other nations and notes on organizations preparing to 
re-educate American soldiers. 

Turnover. Interpretating Labor Turnover, Luther D. Burlingame. Ain. Mach., 
vol. 49, no. 19, Nov. 7. 1918, pp. 855-858, 1 fig. Discusses real meaning and 
how it should be computed. 

Wo.men. Women in the Machine Shop, S. A. Hand. Am. Mach., vol. 49, no. 23, 
Dec. 5, 1918, pp. 1035-1037, 9 figs. Successful experience of large firm oi 
machine tool builders in employment of women workers. 

Women Workers. Women in the Service of the Railways, Pauline Goldmark. Ry. 
Age. vol. 65, no. 23, Dec. 6, 1918, pp. 1016-1018. Used in a great variety ot 
work. Address before Labor Reconstruction Conference, Academy cl 
Political Science, N. Y. 



48 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



LEGAL 

BoiLCK CosTHACTS. CoDBtruing Boiler Contracts, A. L. H. Street. Power, vol, 48, 
no. 22, Nov. 20, 1918, pp. 765-766. Case reported in the Maryland Court 
of Appeal», bearing on oblifcation» of manufacturer under contract for instal- 
lation of boilers according to particular specifications. 

Casual Kmi'loymknt. What Constitutes Casual Emnloyment ? Chcsla C. Sherlock. 
Am. Much., vol. 49, no. 19, Nov. 7. 1918, pp. S50-SÔ2. Discussion of certain 
IcRftl interpretations. 

CoNTRiBTTOR IN Neiîligence. Disobctlimcc of Orders by Employees and Ita 
Relation to Compensation. Chesia C. Sherlock. Am. Mach., vol. 49, no. 
22, Nov. 28, 1918, pp. 980-982. Hcview of some court decisions. 

Floors, Slippebv (\criDENTs rnoM). Injuries Cau.sed by Slippery Floors, Chesia 
C. Sherlock. Power, vol. 4S, no. 22, Nov. 26, 1918, pp. 790. Some court 
decisions. 

SiuPLC Tools (accide.s'ts ikom). Linbilitv in the Use of Simple Tools, Che.sla C. 
Sherlock. Am. Mach.. vol. 49. no. 21. Nov. 21. 1918. pp. 939-940. Some 
IcchI aspects of employers' liability in tise of simple tools. 

PUBLIC REGULATION 

CjOveu.s.mknt Tradinc;. The Functions of the Government in Ilclution lo Industry, 
W. I-. Hichcns. Iron & Steel Trades Jl.. nos. ^099 and ."ÎIOO. Nov. 2 and 9. 
1918, pp. 48S-IS9 and 514. Examination of adWsability of carrying out 
sugec^^tions that the Government ensagc in trading undertakings. 

RECONSTRUCTION 

Electricat. In'distry. Problems of the Reconstruction Era. Elcc. World, vol. 72. 
no. 19, Nov. 9, 1918. pp. S77-S7S. Taking effective part in great world 
war, this country will necessarily be powerful factor in succeeding period; 
closer co-operation in electrical industry advocated. 

ExroHT Trapb. Reconstructing Ovir Business Fabric. Shipping, vol. 5. no. 8, 
Nov. 23. 1918, pp. 15-16. 1 fig. Steps being taken and progress macle to take 
udvantuge of present opportunity United States has of developing inter- 
nationally. 

SAFETY ENGINEERING 

BoiLEit Rooms. Boiler Room Rules. Eng. & Cement World, vol. 13, no. 10. Nov. 15, 
1918, p. Gti. Suggestions to boiler-room attendants on the care of oilers and 
prevention of accideut-i. From Safety Bui. 

Boiler Shops. Accident Prevention in Boiler Shops, Boiler Maker, vol. IS, no. 11, 
Nov. 1018. pp. 31.5-317. 5 figs. Account of what Bethlehem Steel Co. has 
nccomplisheu and consideration of causes of accidents. 

DlsE.\8E Prévention. Engineers and Disease Prevention. Times Eng. Supp., no. 
529, Nov. 1918, p. 231. Points out part engineers can play. 

First Aid. Standardization of First .\id Methods, C. H. Connor. Safety Eng., 
vol. 36. no. 4. Oct. 1918. pp. 237-238. From Proc. Seventh Annual Safety 
Congros.s. 

Foundries. Injuries from Molten Metal, Chesia C. Sherlock. Iron Age. vol. 102. 
no. 21. Nov. 21, 19IS. pp. 1262-1262. Ordinary i>crils; defective tools and 
appliances; basis of foundryman's responsibility. 

Water-SI'PI'LY Protection. Protection of Water Mains, Fire Hydrants and Valves 
in Winnpeg. Thomas H. Hooper. Mun. JI., vol. 45, no. 21, Nov. 23, 1918, 
p. 410. Froni Quarterly of Nat. Fire Protection A.ssn. 

WooDWORKiNO Indtstrv. Infcctioiis and Blood Poisoning in the Woodworking 
Industry, Leroy Philip Kuhn. Safety Eng., vol. 36, no. 4, Oct. 1918, pp. 
228-230. From Proc. Seventh Annual Safety Congress, 

SALVAGE 

Salvaging imd Utilizing Wastes and Scrap in Industry. W. Rockwood 
Conovcr. Indus. Management, vol. 56. no. G, Dec. 1918, pp. 449-451. 
Signifirance of salvaging; reclaiming practice for number of classes of materials 
and wastes. 

TRANSPORTATION 

Comparative Metuoos. Light-Traffic Railway vs. Highway and Motor Truck, 
Clement C. Williams. Eng. Newa-Rcc, vol. 81. no. 22, Nov. 28. 1918. 
pp. 984-985. Analyses of operating expenses, fixed charges and amount and 
kind of traffic should be made for each case. 

Motor Trtcks. Highwav- Motor Truck Problem as Viewed by User. Manufacturer 
and Engineer. Eng. Ncws-Rec. vol. 81. no. 22. Nov. 28, 1918. pp. 96S-977, 
2 figs. Three Views. Limitations to be Placed on Trucks, from User's 
Viewpoint, by George H. Pride; Factors that Will Govern Future Road 
Design, by Edward L. Viets; Hiehways and Truck Loads they Can Econ- 
omically Sustain, by H. Eltinge Breed. 

Motor Truck Transportation Growing Rapidly. Ry. Rev., vol. 63, 
no. 22. Nov. 30. 1918. pp. 703-769. U figs. Formerly regarded as competitive, 
intcr-city motor-truck traffic is now encouraged by railroads. 

INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES 

Alcohol. Industrial Alcohol. Times Eng. Supp., no. .529, Nov. 1918. p. 228. 
Possible sources of supply. 

AspnALT. Chemical Constitution of Artificial As-phalta (La constitution chimiquo 
des asphaltes artificiels). Génie Civil, vol. 73, no. 13. Sept. 28, 1918. p. 256. 



Results of expermiunt.H with petroleum residues, lignite, tars and schist. 
From Zeitschrift fur angewandte Chemie, June 11, 18. 

Coal Distillation. Distilhition at Low Temperature. Gas Age. vol. 42, no. 11, 
Dec. 2, 1918, pp. 466-467. Discusses advantages of " coalite " process. 
From Journal des Usines îi Gaz. 

Ix)w Thermal Distillation of Coals. G. W. Traer. Coal Industry, vol. 1, 
no. 10, Oct. 1918. pp. 393-.39Ô. Details of experimental plant; character- 
istics of semi-coke or charcoal; how to make a coke of suitable structure, 
.^m. Inst. Min. Eugrs. paper. 

Di'BT Precipitation. Electrastatic Dust Precipitation. William H. Eattton. Indus. 
Management, vol. .56, no. 6, Dec. 1918. pp. 473-47.5. 5 figs. Dust-laden 
gases become ionized when pas-t^ing through iield around grounded tubes inside 
which fine wires are chargea with current of .50,000 to 100,000 volts 

G.^3 Manupacturc. Coal Conservation in Relation to Gas Manufacture. Tim 
Duxbury. Gas Jl.. vol. 144. no. 289.5. Nov. .5, 1918, pp. 302-30.5 and (dis- 
cussion) pp. 305-30S. Results of experience with vertical retorts. Paper 
before Manchester Instn. of Gas Engrs. Al.-to in Gas World, vol. 69. no. 17o9, 
Nov. 2. 191.S. pp. 262-263. 1 fig. 

Economizing Coal in Gas Manufacture. Frederick Shewring. Gas World, 
vol. 69, no. 1789, Nov. 2, 1918, p. 261. Comments on steaming retorts. 

Inclined Retort Plant at Rome. N. V.. A. Success, S. Bent. Russell. 
Gas Age, vol. 42, no. U. Dec. 2. 1918, pp. 4t');t-466. 4 figs. Views and 
mechanism details of plant having daily capacity of 500,000 cu. ft. of gas. 

Institution of Gas Engineers. Gas Investigation Committee. Gas Jl., 
vol. 144. DOS. 2894 and 2895, Oct. 29 and Nov. 5. 1918. pp. 2.3.V249. 3 figs, 
and (discussion) pp. 291-299. Report of sub-committee appointed to an- 
vestigate relative efficiency in use of different grades and compositions of 
gas. 

Glass. Substitutes for Glass. Sci. Am. Supp.. vol. 86, no. 2235. Nov. 2, 1918. p. 
283. Composition of siloxide and artificial mica; possibilities of derivatives 
of cellulose, oiled cotton cloth and vitro-cellulose. From La Nature. 

Le.vther. Reeent Developments in Leather Chemistry. Henry R. Proctor. Jl. 
Roy. Soc. of Arts. vol. 66, no. 3442, Nov. 8, 1918. pp. 776-781. Discussion 
of chemical and physical changes taking place in tannmg process. 

Naphthalene and Benzol. Estimation of Naphthalene in Coal Gas, Harold G. 
Colman. Gas JL, vol. 144, no. 2894. Oct. 29. 1918, pp. 231-232. Modifi- 
cations in Col man-Smith's method (vol. 7.5. p. 798). 

Notes on Benzol and Naphthalene Recovery. Harold E. Copp. Gas 
Jl . vol. 144, no. 2895. Nov. 5. 1918. pp. 311-313. 2 figs. Results obtained 
with plant installed at gas works. Paper before Midland Assn. of Gas Engrs. 
and Mgrs. Also in Gas World, vol. 69. no. 1789. Nov. 2, 1918. pp. 265-266. 

Nitric Acid. Nitric .\cid as a By-Product of Internal Combustion Engines, A. W. H. 
Griepe. Am. Gas Ene. Jl., vol. 109. no. 21, Nov. 23. 1918, pp. 487-489, 
7 figs, and p. 492. Process to precipitate nitric oxide as by-product of 
internal-combustion engines, flue gases, illuminating gas, furnace gas, blast- 
furnace gas, natural gas, etc. 

Oxygen and Hydrogen. Electrolytic Oxygen and Hydrogen. Travellers' Standard, 
vol. 6. no. 7, July 1918. pp.' 137-145. Method of producing oxygen and hydro- 
gen and their respective industrial applications. 

Potash. Recovery of Potash from Blast Furnaces, Linn Bradley. Iron Age, vol. 
102, no. 19. Nov. 7. 1918, pp. 1151-1153. From paper before Fourth Nat. 
Expos, of Chcm. Ind., New York, September 1918. 

Stoneware. Chemical Stoneware, Fred A. Wliitaker. 
no. 11. Nov. 19. 1918. pp. 875-877. 10 figs, 
industry in United States. 

Water Gas. Applications of Peat for the Production of Water Gas (Trvs Anvcndels 
til Fremstilling af Vandagas). Ingeniren, year 27. no. 86, Oct. 26. 1918, 
pp. 561-562. 

MARINE ENGINEERING 

AUXILIARY MACHINERY 

Boats. Boat Ixjwering AppHances. J. R. Hodge. Tran. Inst. Marine Engrs., vol. 
30. Aug. 1918. pp. 123-127. 4 figs, and (discussion) 127-136. 1 fig. Type of 
disengaging gear designed to deal simultaneously and automatically* at Doth 
ends of boat, to free it from davit falls or tackles as soon as boat is water- 
borne. 

General Rules and Regulations Prescribed by the Board of Supervising 
Inspectors as Amended at Board Meeting of January. 1918. Department of 
Commerce, Steamboat-Inspection Service. Aug. 1, 1918, 147 pp., 5 figs. 
Rules for boiler plate, boilers and attachements, boats and their appliances, 
steamers, barges and duties of inspectors; list of instruments, machines and 
equipments approved for use on vessels. 

Diving Bell. Diving Bell in Use at Halifax Ocean Terminals. J. J. MacDonald. 
Jl. Eng. Inst. Can., vol. 1, no. 6, Oct. 1918. pp. 252-262, 14 figs. Outline of 
function design, construction and operation: formulation of principles of 
design proposed as applicable to future work; survey of fields of activity where 
plant of this ty^pe promises applicability. 

SALVAGE 

Salvage Methods. Salvage of Wrecked Ships (I.^ sauvetage des navires coulés), 
A. Poidlouê. Génie Civil, vol. 73. no. 13. Sept. 28. 1918. pp. 241-244. 6 figs. 
Review of processes used and considerations on probability of future develop- 
ments. 

Turning Vçssel. Salvaging the Steamship St. Paul, Charles NL Horton Int. 
Mar. Eng.. vol. 23, no. 11. Nov. 1918, pp. 644-648. 6 figs. Methods tued 
in turning vessel; Character of problems solved; placing patch under 
difficulties. 



Brick & Clay Rec.. vol. 53. 
Account of development of 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



49 



Duct Keels 



SHIPS 

Canada. A Canadian ShipbuildinE Industry, Thomaa Cantley. Can. Miu. Inst., 
bul. no. 80, Dec. 191S, pp. 095-1000. Excerpts from paper ut 20th annual 
meeting of the Institute. The question of developing steel shipbuilding in 
Canada. 

CONCHETE Ships. Concrete Ship Design, R. J. Wic Enjç. & Cement World, vol. 13, 
no. 10, Nov. 15, lots, pp. 15-17, 9 figs. Summary of conclusions on adviaa- 
bility of constructing concrete ships reached by Concrete Ship Departinent, 
Emergency Fleet Corporation. From Special Report to Chairman of Shippmg 
Board. Also in Eng. News-Rec.. vol. SI, no. 20, Nov. 1-4, 1918, pp. 903-904. 

Concrete Ships. Times Eng. Supp., no. 527, Sept. 1918, pp. 184-185. 
.\ccount of shipyards where 18 concrete vessels are under construction and 
others will shortly be started. 

Different Types of Framing in Two New Government Reinforced- 
Concrete Ships. Eng. News-Rec, vol. 81, no. 22, Nov. 28, 1918. pp. 986-989, 
6 figs. 7500-ton oil tanker has clo.'ie-spaced frames with vertical and hori- 
zontal reinforcing in shell, while 2500-ton schooner barge has long-span framing 
system with diagonal shell reinforcement. 

Reinforced-Con Crete Barges (Barca de hormigon armado), Julio Murûa. 
Revista de Obras Pubhcas. year 60, no. 2245, Oct. 3, 1918, pp. 493-497, 10 
figs. Calculations of design for 60-ft. barge. 

Reinforced Concrete Vessels, Walter Pollock. Can. Engr., vol. 35, no. 
17, Oct. 24, 1918, pp. 367-373, 5 figs. Considerations of design and ideals 
aimed by builders; strength, advantages and disadvantages; classification 
rules; structural details of hull, steelwork and fittings. Paper before British 
Instn. of Naval Architects. 

EELS. Improvements in the Construction of Ships, E. F. Spanner. Ship- 
building and Shipping Rec, vol. 12. no. 9. Nov. 7. 1918. pp. 451-452. Discusses 
question of duct keels. Before Instn. Engrs. & Shipbudders. 

iBàEBWOOD Framing. Large Freighters of Isherwood Framing Adapted to Bridge- 
Shop Fabrication. Eng. News-Rec, vol. 81, no. 19, Nov. 7. 1918, pp. 853- 
857. 4 figs. Problems worked out by co-operation of naval architect and 
engineer on barge shop; 200 tons weight saved; time gained in detailing; 
all molded work done in large shop at shipyard. 

Reduction Gearing. Italian Reduction-Geared Turbine Cargo-Steamship "Ansaldo 
I." Shipbuilding & Shipping Rec, vol. 12, nos. 19 and 20. Nov. 7. and 
14, 1918. pp. 447-450, 13 figs., 470-471, 4 figs. Principal dimensions, plans and 
photographs. 

Resistance. Effect of Appendages on Resistance and Propulsion. Shipbuilding 
&. Shipping Rec, vol. 12, no. 19. Nov. 7, 1918. pp. 452-453. 2 figs. Account 
of Luke's experiments with various angles of bossing, with outward- and 
inward-turning screws; values of wake fractions and hull efficiencies; resistance 
compared with resistance of naked model. (Concluded.) 

Rolling. The Rolling of Ships. Sci. Am. Supp.. vol. 86, no. 2236. Nov. 9, 1918. 
p. 299 Factors upon which natural period of roll of a ship depends; results 
obtained by Froude with his apparatus to record angles of roll. From 
Shipping World. 

Standardized Ships. Structural Steel Standardized Cargo Vessels, Henry R. 
Sutphen. Inst. Mar. Eng., vol. 23, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 695-968, 1 fig. 
How quantity production was met. 

Stresses. Investigation of Shearing Force and Bending Moment on Ship Structures, 
A. M. Robb. Int. Mar. Eng., vol. 23, no. 11, Nov. 1918. pp. _637-;642, 8 figs. 
Moderate amplitudes of heave; sagging bending moment; pitching treated 
graphically; effect of rotational acceleration. (Second article.) 

Tow Boats. Plans and Specifications of New Wood Tow Boats. Inst. Mar. Eng., 
vol. 23, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 673-674, plate, 1 fig. Built for hard service. 

Wooden Ships. Building Wooden Ships for the Emergency Fleet Corporation, E. A. 
Suverkrop. Am. Mach.. vol. 49, no. 20. Nov. 14, 1918, pp. 383-387, 11 figs. 
Planking and interior work. Third article. 

YARDS 

Canada. Canadian Vickers Shipbuilding Works at Montreal. Engineering, vol. 106, 
no. 2754, Oct. 11, 1918, pp. 395-396, 12 figs. Illustrated description of ship- 
building in Canada. 

Departmental Organization. Effective Arrangement of Departments in Ship- 
yard Organization, G. F. S. Mann. Int. Mar. Eng.. vol. 23, no. U, Nov. 
1918. pp. 615-fil7. Shipyard divisions; relations between organization 
dei>artments and production departments; duties of chief engineer. 

New Lake Shipvard has Side-I-aunching Wavs Under Cover. Eng. 
News-Rec, vol. 81. no. 19. Nov. 7, 1918. pp. 839-841, 3 figs. Ships built at 
Ferguson yard fabricated in company's shops two miles away; berths covered 
with cantilever roof served by semi-gantry crane. 

Great Lakes. Great Lakes Yards Lead Coast Districts in Building Ocean-Going 
Ships. Eng. News-Rec, vol. SI. no. 22. Nov. 28, 1918. pp. 978-980, 4 figs. 
Canal-size steamers produced in large numbers; spirit of co-operation; yard 
capacity doubled; no outside fabrication; equipment of varied character; 
labor shortage. 

Shooter's Island. Methods Used at Shooter's Island for Constructing Standard 
Ships, Charles M. Horton. Int. Mar. Eng., vol. 23, no. 11, Nov. 1918, 
pp. 618-624. 13 figs. Serving individual ways; method for increasing output; 
well-lighted boiler shop; handy plate-lifting clamp. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 

AIR MACHINERY 
Air Conditioning. Air Conditioning, Charles L. Hubbard. Domestic Eng., vol. 
85, rios. 3 and 4, Oct. 19 and 26. 1918. pp. 82-84. 2 figs, and 118-120, 5 figs. 
Possibilities of this branch of heating and ventilating engineering and how 
it may save coal and raise efficiency of employees in industrial plant. 



Pneumatic Tools in Winter. Effects of the Use of Pneumatic Tools on the 
Nervous System, Francis M. Barnes. Safety Eng., vol. 36, no. 4, Oct. 1918, 
pp. 239-210. Recommends warming chisel in cold weather, enlarging or 
covering shank to prevent cramp in hand muscles, and condemns practice of 
blocking I xhaust outlet, thereby forcing current of cold air over fingers. 
From Proc. Seventh Annual Safety Congress. 

CEMENT AND CONCRETE 

Aggregate. Clean Aggregates Obtained under Difficvdt Conditions, C. P. Mowry. 
Cement & Eng. News, vol. 30, no. U, Nov. 1918, pp. 31-32. 3 figs. Arrange- 
ment and working of a western plant. 

Proportioning the Materials of Mortars and Concretes by Surface Areas 
of Aggregates, L. N. Edwards. Surveyor, vol. 54, no. 1398, No. 1, 1918, 
pp. 209-210. Results of tests made by Toronto Department of Works with 
object of developing surface-area method of proportioning and securing infor- 
mation relative to (1) surface area of aggregates of varying granulometric 
composition. (2) quantity of water necessary to produce a '"normal" 
uniform consistency of mortar for varying sands and cement constant, and 
(3) strength of mortar attained by varying proportion of cement in mix. 
Paper before Am. Soc. for Testing Materials. 

Cement Gun. Cement Gun Used for Repairing Pit Stacks. Blast Furnace, vol. 6. 
no. 10, Oct. 1918, pp. 399-401, 5 figs. Steel reinforcement placed on old 
shell and gunite applied. 

Cold-Weather Concreting. Cold Weather Concreting. Eng. & Cement World» 
vol. 13, no. 10. Nov. 15. 1918, pp. 20-24, 8 figs. Effect of low temperatures 
on concrete work; suggestions of Portland Cement Assn. in regard to heating 
materials and protecting work. 

Disintegration. Conclusions on Causes of Concrete Disintegration, A. Blackie. 
Eng. & Contracting, vol. 50, no. 21, Nov. 20, 1918, pp. 503-505. From paper 
before Eng. Ins. of Canada. 

Form Units. One Set of Tool Forms Used Three Times Completes Concrete Foundry, 
J. M. Villadsen. Eng. News-Rec. vol. 81, no. 21. Nov. 21, 1918, pp. 950- 
951. 3 figs. Form units assembled on ground with reinforcement in place 
erected by derrick; concrete placed by telescoping chute. 

Francois and Portier Cementation Processes. Cementation Processes of 
Francois and Portier, A. H. Krynauw. Contract Rec, vol. 52, no. 44, 
Oct. 30, 19 IS, pp. 864-865. Conditions most suitable for hard setting in shortest 
time when cement is pumped under pressure into fissures; cases in which 
cementation has been successfully applied; comparison between two processes. 
Paper before Chem. Metallurgical & Min. Soc. 

Moisture. Effect of Water on Strength of Concrete. Contract Rec, vo.. 52, no. 44, 
Oct. 30, 1918, p. 865. 1 fig. Diagram presenting amount of water used in 
per cent of quantity giving maximum strength against per cent of maximum 
strength. Drawn from results of experimental testa. 

Saturation of Concrete Reduces Strength and Elasticitv, M. B. Lagaard. 
Eng. News-Rec. vo.. 81, no. 20, Nov. 14, 1918, pp. 908-910, 6 figs. Tests, 
made at University of Minnesota, show that moisture content of specimens 
serves to counteract benefits of moist curing. 

CORROSION 

A Case of Corrosion Caused by Electrolytic Action in a Westinghouse- 
Leblanc Air Pump (Un cas de corrosion à allure électrolytique dans une 
pompe à air Westinghouse-Leblanc), L. Congé. Revue Générale de l'Elec- 
tricité, vol. 4, no. 15, Oct. 12. 191S. pp. 539-540. 2 figs. States that no pipe or 
machine element intended to operate exposed to direct action of any kind 
of water should be composed of metals capable of forming a voltaic couple. 

FOUNDRIES 

Brass Foundry. A Brass Foundry With Automatic Ventilation, Charles Vickers. 
Foundry, vol. 46, no. 316, Dec. 1918, pp. 568-574, 11 figs. Description of 
foundry with its ventilation arrangemente. 

Coreroom. Modern Coreroom for Malleable Foundry, Donald S. Barrows. Iron 
Age, vol. 102, no. 21. Nov. 21, 1918, pp. 1254-1255, 5 figs. Designed and 
constructed for 50.000-ton foundry, provides for economical handling of raw 
materials and finished cores. Abstract of paper before Am. Foundrymen's 
Assn.. Oct. 1918. .\l30 in Foundry, vol. 46. no. 316, Dec 1918, pp. 577^78, 
5 figs. 

Die Casting. Die-Casting of Aluminum, H. Rix and H. Whitaker. Sci. Am. 
Supp., vol. 86, no. 2237, Nov. 16, 1918, pp. 314-315. Advantages; heat 

treatment; material for dies; cost of process. Paper before Inst, of Metals. 

Furnaces. Continuous Tunnel Furnace in Malleable Industry. Phihp d'H, 
Dressier. Foundry, vol. 46, no. 310, Dec 1918. pp. 566-567, 5 figs. Discus- 
sion of paper by H. E. Diller on Experiments in Annealing Malleable Iron, 
at annual meeting of Am. Foundrymen's Assn.. Milwaukee, Oct. 1918. 

Electric Furnace in the Steel Foundry, W. E. Moore. Iron Age, vol. 
102, no. 20. Nov. 14, 1918, pp. 1206-1207. Comparison of electric and converter 
costs; relation to power station; future of electric steel foundries. From paper 
before Am. Foundrymen's Assn., Milwaukee, Oct. 1918. 

Oil-Burning Cupola Operations Analyzed, John Howe Hall. Foundry, 
vol. 46, no. 316, Dec. 1918, p. 558. Results attained in melting iron for 
3-ton converter plant point to saving in fuel and labor with more steady 
output. From paper before Am. Foundrymen's Assn., Milwaukee, Oct, 1918. 

Ladles. Suggest Standard Sleeves and Nozzles. Brick & Clay Rec, vol. 53, no. 
11, Nov. 19, 1918, pp. 882-883. 21 figs. Standard dimensions for round-face 
and straight-face nozzle brick for foundry ladles proposed by Am. Face 
Brick As.sn., also dimensions of sleeves for foundry ladles proposed by a com- 
mittee of steel men and founders in joint assembly with a committee of 
manufacturers of sleeve and nozle brick. 



50 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Malleable Ihon. Malleable Iron Caating», P. A. Paulson. Iron Ace vol. 102, 
no. 21. Nov. 21, 191S, p. 1266. Advantanca over steel castinEa for aRri- 
ciiitural purposes. From paper presented at Am. Foundrymen'a .\ssn., 
Milwaukee, Oct. 191.S. . .„ j , . 

The IntCRrity «f the Malleable CastinE, Enrique rouccda. iron Age 
vol. 102, no. 20, Nov. 11, I'JIS, pp. 1201-1205. Pos-sibility of obtaining 
thoroughly sound caslinns; use of chilli detrimental; effect of war on 
industry. From paper before Am. Foundrymen'a Assn., Milwaukee, Oct. 

igis. 

MoiDiNO. How Marine Cylinders arc Molded and Oast, F. H. Bell. Can. Machy. 
vol. 20. no. 22, Nov. 2S. 191S, pp. 611-014, 7 figs. Description of method 
used in a Toronto plant. . -, , ,„ .,,. 

Pit Molding an Intricate Condenser CastinK. Foundry, vol. 46, no. 316, 
Dee. 1918. pp. 5.")2-.').^7. 10 figs. Structural difficultiea, experienced more 
generally in light work, attended production of this 34.900-lb. casting. 

Patterns. The Engineer in Relation to the Foundry. E. S. Carman. Iron Age. 
vol. 102, no. 20, Nov. 14, 191S, pp. 1200-1202, 13 figs, ilachinc designs not 
adapted to advanced foundry practice; comparison of correct and incorrect 
patterns for floor molding. From paper before Am. Foundrymen's Assn., 
Milwaukee, Oct. 191S. 

PoDBiNO. A Modern Pouring System. Iron Age. vol. 102. no. 20. Nov. 14. 19IS, 
p. 1203. 3 figs. New type of pouring device and hand crane. 

Sand. Improving Foundry Sand Mixtures, Henry B. Haneley. Iron .\ge. vol. 102. 
no. 19. Nov. 7. 191S. pp. 1146-1148, 3 figs. U.se of sand-mixing machine; 
time required for mixing; effect of sea coal and fireclay. From paper before 
Am. Fdrys. As-soc, Milwaukee, October 1918. Also in Foundry, vol. 46, 
no. 316, Dee. 1918. pp. 559-562. 5 figs. 

Semi-Steel. Methods of Manufacturing Semi-Steel for Projectiles (Sui vari metodi 
di fabbricazione della ghisa per proiettili). GiuUo Sirovich. Ingegncria 
Italiana, vol. 2. no. 4, Sent. 26, 191S. pp. 178-180. 

Urgent Shell Need Found Foundries Ready. Foundrj-, vol. 46, no. 
316, Dec. 1918, pp. 5S1-587, 15 figs. Manufacturing operations and practices 
developed in Ajnerican foundries would have furnished tonnage of Bcnii- 
steel shell beyond all prospective requirements. 

Sdpebvision. a Foundry Supenision System, Paul R. Ramp. Iron Age. vol. 102, 
no. 23, Dec. 5. 19'l8. pp. 1383-1385. 2 figs. Routine set of reports designed to 
provide quick and accurate gage of current costs and operations. From paper 
Deforc Am. Foundrymen's Assn., Milwaukee, Oct. 1918. 

FUELS AND FIRING 

AsD. Clinker and Ash in Fuel. Times Eng. Supp. no. 527. Sept. 1918. p. 186 
Methods employed for curtailing labor entaded in remoring large and hard 
masses of clinker. , . , . c. , ■ 

The Fusibility of Coal Ash and the Determination of the Softening 
Temperature, Arno C. Fieldner, Albert E. Hall and Alexander L. Field. 
Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines, Bui. 129, 1918, 146 pp., 38 figs. 
Review of literature on subject; effect of various o.\idizing. reducing, and 
neutral atmospheres such as are found in various parts of fuel bed on softening 
temperature of ash when molded in form of Seger cones; development of 
method for determining fusibility whereby ash is caused to soften and forpa 
slags in which iron exists in approximately same state of oxidation as when m 
fuel-bed clinkers. 

Boiler Firing. Combustion in Its Relation to Boilers. E. A. Uehling. Power, 
vol. 48, no. 23. Dec. 3, 1918, pp. 804-806 Describes requirements for com- 
plete combustion and discusses combustion efficiency and absorption 
efficiency. ., „ ,,. 

Generation of Heat and Its Absorption by Boiler, Henry Misostow. 
Nat. Engr., vol. 22, no. 10, Oct, 1918, pp. 518-522. 4 figs., and (discussion) 
pp. 522-525. Conditions which will realize an efficient commercial combustion 
and suggestions to utilize-heat indications in securing good performance in 
boiler room. Paper before Nat. Assn. of Stationary Engrs. 

The Firing of Steam Boilers. English Mechanic & World of Sci., vol. 
108, no. 2796, Oct. 25, 1918, p. 155. Report of German patent comprising 
an air chamber divided by two transverse partitions and placed immediately 
below top portion of endless chain grate. From Zeitschrift fur Dampfkessel 
und Maschinenenbetrieb, July 5. 1918. 

Coal, CosmosTiO!) Characteristics. Combustion Characteristics of Coals. Joseph 
G. Worker. Elec. Rev., vol. 73. no. 22, Nov. 30. 1918, pp. 849-851. Com- 
bustion characteristics of coals and their influence upon choice of stoker équipe- 
ment; load conditions also important factor. 

Co.NSEBVATiON. Coal Conservation. Times Eng. Supp., no. 527, Sept. 1918, p. 187. 
Abstract of report of Coal Conservation Committee of Ministry of Re- 
construction. 

England's Fuel Rationing Order. Heat. & Vent. Mag., vol. lo. no. 11, 
Nov. 1918. pp. 17-21. Prortsions of new regulation limiting supply of coal, 
gaa and electricity to domestic consumers. 

Fuel Regulation during the War. P. R. Noyes and D. M. Myers. Nat. 
Engr., vol. 22. no. 10, Oct. 191S. pp. 481-492. Discussion by Federal Govern- 
ment officials before Nat. .\s3n. of Stationary Engrs. 

|M Industrial Coal Economy. Da\-id Wilson. Machy. Market, no. 939, 
Nov. 1, 1918. pp. 19-20. Suggestions based on the experience of the author 
who is technical advisor to Coal Controller. Paper before Assn. of Engrs.- 
in-eharge. (To bo continued.) Also in Elecn., vol. 81, no. 2110. Oct. 2.i, 
1918JI.540. „ „ , „ . 

Proposed Coal-Rationing Rules for the United States. Heat. & vent. 
Mag., vol. 15, no. 11. Nov. 1918. pp. 21-23. Allowances designed for heating, 
cooking and hot-water service in residences, flats and apartment houses. 
Final draft of report of Committee on Fuel Conservation. Am. Soc. of Heating 
and Vent. Engrs. 

Rational Utilization of Commercial Fuels (Sur l'utilisation rationnelle 
des combustibles dont dispose actuellement l'industrie). Re\Tie Générale 
de l'Electricité, vol. 4. no. 14, Oct. 5. 1918, pp. 505-511. Report of the 
Ministry of Armament and War Manufacturies. From Bulletin des Usines 
de Guerre, Aug. 26 and Sept. 2, 1918, pp. 137-149 and 145-147. 



Gasoline. Substitute for Gasoline Tested. Motor Age. vol. 34. no. 23. Dec. S. 1918, 
p. 15. Excerpts of teats made by Bureau of Standards on secret product said 
to be composed of inexpensive and easily obtainable materials. 

Hand-Fired Plants. Fuel Economy in Hand-Fired Power Plants. Power Plant 
Eng.. vol. 22. no. 23. Dec. 1. 1918, pp. 953-956, 4 figs. Settings, stacks and 
breechings. Fourth article. 

Load Factor. Coal Consumption Rates in Various Central Stations and Industrial 
PlanU. Elec. Ilev.. vol. 73. no. 22. Nov. 30. 1918, pp. 8.10-848. 2 figs. Result 
of study by H.vdro-Electric Commission of Ontario proves superiority of 
large power plant and emphasizes economy of hich load-factor. 

Oil Fdel. California Petroleum as a Fuel Oil. Thomas J. Royer. Nat. Engr., vol. 
22, no. 10. Oct. 1918. pp. 525-533. 13 figs., and (discussion) pp. 533-534. 
Account of development; study of use in steam-boiler practice and suggestions 
for satiafactor.v operation; test in a water-works pumping station. Paper 
before Nat. Assn. of Stationary Engrs. 

Pt;LVEiiizED Coal. First Pulverized Coal Installation in Western Canada. H. R. 
Collins. Min. & Eng. Rcc. vol. 23. nos. 17 and 18. Sept. 30, 1918, pp. 177- 
179. Features of pulverizing plant. 

Pulverized Fuel, E. R. Knowles. Steam, vol. 22. no. 5. Nov. 1918, 
pp. 128-133. 10 figs. Temperatures attainable; disadvantages of pulverized 
coal as fuel; requirements for successful burning. (Concluded.) 

Pulverized Fuel in the Oneida Street Plant of the Milwaukee Elec. Ry. A' 
Light Co., F. Dornbrook. Nat. Engr., vol. 22. no. 10. Oct. 1918. pp. 5.35-537, 
and (discussion) pp. 537-539. Results obtained with trial installation. 
Paper before Nat. A.ssn. of Stationary Engrs. 

Pulverizing Coal, J. Cunliffe. Eng & Cement World, vol. 13, no. 10, 
Nov. 15, 1918, pp. 56-5S, Waste resulting from burning coal in lumps; 
preparation, application and burning of pulverized coal. 

Waste Heat. Waste Heat from Steel Furnaces. Thomas B. Mackenzie. Times 
Eng. Supp.. no. 527. Sept. 1918. p. 195. Jfethod of utilizing waste heat from 
open-hearth furnaces in generation of steam. Paper before Iron & Steel 
Inst. 

HANDLING OF MATERIALS 

Coal. Coal Handling Plant of Virginian Railway, E. F. Case. Ry. Rev., vol. 63, 
no, 21, Nov. 23, 1918, pp. 731-735, 9 figs. Account of extensive additions 
to this railroad's plant at Sewall's Point, Va, 

Excavation Material. Comparison of Excavation Haulage by Motor Trucks. 
Industrial Railways and Teams. Eng. News-Rec, vol. 81, no. 22, Nov. 
28, 1918. pp. 993-996. 1 fig. Detailed cost accounts on construction of 
Brooklyn Army Supply Base show that trucks are more economical than teams 
and less economical but more flexible than railways. 

Grain. Car Equipment for Loading or Unloading Grain (Installations pour le 
transport des grains montées sur wagons). Génie Civil, vol. 73, no. 14, Oct. 
5. 1918. pp. 261-263, 11 figs. Two systems; by air pressure, and by suction. 

Ore. Large Ore Storage in a Limited Space. F. L. Prentiss. Iron Age. vol. 102. no. 22. 
Nov. 28. 1918. pp. 1311-1313. 4 figs. Double bin system of Iroquois Iron Co 
solves material-handling problems and results in short haul to skip cars. 

Sand. Pneiunatic Car Pro\ndes Efficient Method of Handling Sand. W. L. Whitlock. 
Elec. Ry. Jl., vol. 52. no. 22. Nov. 30, 1918, pp. 967-908. 5 figs. By use of 
new sand car, crew of regular car takes c^re of sand transportation which 
formerly required serWces of three additional men. 

HEAT TREATING 

Malleable Cast Iron. Experiments in Annealing Malleable Cast-iron, H. E. 
Diller. Foundry, vol. 46. no. 316. Dec, 1918. op. ,")64-566, 4 figs. Results of 
several laboratory experiments show that malleable iron can be annealed in 
tunnel furnace in 48 hours or les. From paper before Am. Foundrymen's 
Assn., Milwaukee, Oct. 1918. 

Qdenching Steel. Warping of Steel bv Repeated Quenching. J. H. Whiteley. Iron 
Age. vol. 102, no. 21, No^ . 21, 1918, pp. 12.56-12.57. 6 figs. How the metal 
contracts: direction of its flow; interesting features revealed by microscope. 
From paper before Iron and Steel Inst., London, Sept. 1918. 

HE.\TING AND VENTILATION 

Eqiupment. Care of Heating and Ventilating Equipment. Harold L. Alt. Power, 
vol. 48. no. 21. Nov. 19. 1918. pp. 736-738. 3 figs. Down-draft furnace. 
Also in Power, vol. 48. no. 23, Dec. 3, 1918, pp. 801-803, 5 figs. 

Factory Heatino. Factory Heating. Charles L. Hubbard. Steam, vol. 22. no. .5. 
Nov. 1918. pp. 12.3-127, 9 figs. System of heating with hot water under forced 
circulation. (To be continued.) 

Some Factory Heating Problems, B. C. Moore. Wood-Worker, vol. 
37. no. 9. Nov. 1918. pp. 26-27. Considerations of the economical value of 
keeping a factory heated night and day. 

Hot Air Fitrnace. How to Improve the Hot- Air Furnace. Charles Whiting Baker. 
Department of Interior. Bureau of Mines. Tech. Paper 208. 20 figs. Recom- 
mends practice of adding auxiliary cold-air duct by which air suppl.v to furnace 
may be taken from inside the house, instead of from outdoors, during very 
cold or windy weather. 

House Heating. Economical Heating of Cottages and Small Housra. Frederick 
Grant. Domestic Eng.. vol. 85. no. 5. Nov. 2. 1918. pp. 160-162. 4 figs. 
Suggests features of design for both hot-water and steam-heating systems. 

OrncE BciLDiNO Heatino. Fuel Economy in the Singer Building. Norman King. 
Power, vol. 48. no. 20, Nov. 12, 1918, pp. 710-711. Some figures on costs and 
economies. 

Vapor Heatino. Modern Practice in Vapor Heating. Heat. & Vent. Mag., ycl. 
15. no. 11, Nov. 191S, pp. 44-46. 5 figs. The Moline System. Sixth article. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



51 



VENTILATION. A Discussion cf Ventilating Practices, Charles A. Mitke. Coal 
Industry, vol.1, no. 10, Oct. 19 IS. pp. 379-381. Analysis of workin» conditions 
as aflfected by ventilation; installation of mechanical ventilation. Paper 
before Nat. Safety Congress. 

No Quarrel Necessary Between Natural and Mechanical Ventilation 
Advocates. Heat. & Vent. Mag., vol. 15, no. 11. Nov. 191S, pp. 37-40. 
Clear and well-defined field for each method depending upon required air 
conditions with given typo of occupancy and occupation. From reply by 
K. Vernon Hill to newspaper article. 

HOISTING AND CONVEYING 

Cranes. Handling Shipbuilding Materia! at Atlanta Shipyard. Eng. News-Rec., 
vol.Sl.no. 23. Dec. 5. 1918. pp. 1020-1022, S figs. Planned for direct routing; 
three craneways in fabricating yard; shape shop in open; turret cranes at 
shipbuilding berths; assembly jard. 

Hoisting and Conveying Machinery (Des appareils de manutention dans 
l'industrie en général), F. Séba. Revue Générale de l'Electricité, vol. 4, nos. 
12 and 14, Sept. 21, and Oct. 5, 1918. pp. 423-433 and 493-501. 39 figs. 
Sept. 21: construction and arrangement of bridge cranes, traversing jib 
hoists, ceiling hoists and foundry hoists. Oct. 5, trai eling cranes with 
auxiliary erab, rollers, rails, gear shafts, drums, cables and grab hoists. 

Some Heavy Fitting-Out Cranes — I. Fixed Cranes at Kearny and Hog 
Island Yards. Eng. News-Rec., vol. SI. nos. 20 and 21, Nov. 14 and 21, 
1918, pp. SS5-S90, G figs.; 937-941, 6 figs. 100-ton trolley bridge spanning 
slipway supplemented by portal cranes; platform derrick of unusual capacity 
and reach uses single-motor hoisting engme at Hell Gate arch-erection plant. 
Nov. 21: II. Cantilever and Jib Travelers at Newark Bay and Bristol; 
double cantilever bridge traveling along pier commands line cf ships on either 
Bide; provision for extension; friction draft gear buffers; tower jib crane fitted 
with special safety devices. 

Drums. Drum Shapes as Affecting the Mine Hoist Duty Cycle and Motor Rating. 
F. L. Stone. Proc. Am. Inst. Elec. Engrs., vol. 37. no. 10, Oct. 1918. pp. 1203- 
1221, 22 figs. Points out that the problem of drum shape consists in varying 
diameter of different parts of windmg drum so that load may be accelerated 
and retarded at beginning and end of its travel with minimum consumption 
of power, and gives numerical examples of performance of various drum 
shapes under assumed conditions. 

Electhic Hoisting Machines. Electric Hoisting Machines (Les machines 
d'extraction à commande électrique), G. Rouet, Revue Générale de l'Elec- 
tricité, vol. 4. no. 13, Sept. 28, 1918, pp. 451-457, 9 figs. Comparison between 
Léonard and three-phase types. 

RopEa. Ropes for Hoisting Coal from Mines, M. W. Reed. Coal Industry, vol. 1, 
no. 10, Oct. 1918, pp. 388-391. Discussion concerning strength, elasticity, 
bending stress, startmg. stopping, corrosion, clips and sockets for hoisting 
ropes; care and life of hoisting ropes. Paper before Nat. Safety Congress. 

HYDRAULIC MACHINERY 

Flow of Water. A Proposed HydrauUc Experiment. Lord Ravlcigh. Lond., 
Edinburgh & Dublin Phil. Mag., vol. 36, no. 214, Oct. 19i8, pp. 315-316, 
1 fig. Observation of flow of liquid between two cylinders revolving about 
their axes in opposite directions for the purpose of testing Froude's explanation 
regarding phenomena which take place when fluid passing along uniform pipe 
arrives at place where pipe expands. 

Flow of Water in Wash Water Troughs for Rapid Sand Filters. Eng. 
& Contracting, vol. 50, no. 20, Nov. 13, 1918, pp. 461-462, 2 figs. From 
description in Cornell Civil Engineer of experiments made by Ernest C. 
Fortier and Frank V. Fields to determine surface curves for flow of water in 
wash water troughs and to develop formula for assistance of designers of 
troughs. 

Flow of Water Through One- and One-Half-Inch Pipe and Valves, 
Frederick W. Grève, Jr., Purdue Univ., Bui. 1, Eng. Experiment Station, 
vol. 2, no. 2, July 1918, 21 pp. 16 figs. Tables and formulae for determining 
head losses incurred with use of pipes and valves. 

Hydraulic Experiments with Valves. Orifices, Hose, Nozzles, and Orifice 
Buckets, Arthur N. Talbot, Fred B. Seely, Virgil R. Fleming and Melvin 
L. Enger. Univ. of Illinois Bui., vol. 15, no. 37, May 13. 1918, Bui. 105, 
80 pp., 28 figs. Lo.s3 of hydraulic head in small valves; flow of water through 
submerged orifices; fire streams from small hose and nozzles; orifice bucket 
for measuring water. 

Tides. Power from the Tides, J, O. Boving. Times Eng. Supp.. no. 529, Nov. 
191^, pp. 232-233, 6 figs. Design of turbines which author thinks will render 
utilization of tidal power economically feasible. 

Water Hammer. Causes of Shock in Hydraulic Mains, Alfred Towler. Machy. 
Market, no. 942, Nov. 22, 1918, pp. 17-18. Broad consideration of cause 
and effect in principle of violent collision as determined by momentum. 
Paper before Leeds Assn. Engrs. 

Maxima Escess Pressures Produced by Water Hammer (Etude sur les 
maxima de surpression dans les phénomf'nes de coups de bélier), Maurice 
Gariel. Revue Générale de l'Electricité, vol. 4, nos. 11 and 12, Sept. 21 and 
Oct. 5, 1918. pp. 403-411. 6 figs., and 4S3, A90. 4 figs. Analysis of modem 
theory of water hammer leads author to establish that Michaud's formula for 
maximum excess pres-sure applies to great majority of turbine installations; 
that Joukowski-Alliévi's formula applies to conduits of uniform dimensions 
when opening closes in less than 2 /..a (where L is length in meters and a 
velocity of propagation of wave; and Sparre's formula in cases of non-uniform 
conduits and extremely rapid shut-ofi". Oct. 5: Investigations of phenomena 
of pressure waves developed in conduit by sudden release at opening and 
account of experimental verification of theoretical conclusions. 

Waterwheels. Principles of Waterwheel Design. Da\*id R. Shearer. Power, 
vol. 48. no. 21. Nov. 19, 1918, pp. 732-734. 5 figs. Some of underlying prin- 
ciples simply illustrated, referring particularly to relation between velocity 
of water and the peripheral velocity of wheel. 

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 

Heavt Oil Engines. The Diesel Engine, Its Fuels and Uses, Herbert Haas. 
Automotive Eng., vol. 3, no. 9, Oct. 19 18, pp. 4 1 8-424, General characteristics 



of oil engines; three general types; various cycles and comparison of advan- 
tages of each; comparative economies; detail of construction. (To be con- 
tinued.) Also in Jl. Soc. Automotive Engra., vol. 3, no. 5, Nov. 1918, po. 
299-308, 5 figs. 

The Heavy Oil Engine, Charles E. Lucke, Int. Mar. Eng., vol. 23, no. 11, 
Nov. 1918. pp. 625-629 (Conclusion of article.) 

The Semi-Diesel Imagine. Times Eng. Supp., no, 529, Nov, 1918, 
p. 245. Cliaracterisitics and design. 

The Semi-Diesel Oil Engine, James Richardson. Engineering, vol. 
106, no. 2756, Oct. 25, 11)18. pp. 461-46-J, 12 figa. Review of mny types of 
eemi-Dieeel engines. Paper before Diesel Engine Users* Asso. Oct. 24, 1918. 

High Speed Engine. Modern Types of Engines, Harry R. Ricardo. Machy. Market, 
no. 941, Nov. 15, 1918, pp. 17-18. Features of high-speed engine design and 

Eointa upon which designers have concentrated their attention. Paper 
efore North-East Coast Instn. of Engrs. & Shipbuilders. (To be continued.) 
Also in Int. Mar. Engr., vol. 23, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 650-651. 

Magnetos. Operation of Internal-Combustion-Engine Magnetos (SulFunzionamento 
dei magneti di accensione dei motori a scoppio), Emilio Biffi. I'Electrotec- 
nica, vol. 5. nos. 22, 24 and 28. Aug. 5 and 25, Oct. 5, 1918, pp. 302-306, 
326-332 and 386-392, 26 figs. Aug. 5 and 25; theory of the magneto-generator. 
Oct. 5 : theory of formation of spark in secondary coil. (To be continued.) 

Marine Engines. Two versus Four-Cycle Internal Combustion Marine Enginea. 
Giovanni Chiesa. Engineering, vol. 106, no. 2757, Nov. 1, 1918, pp. 482^ 
486, 6 figs. Purpose of article is to coordinate arguments which have been 
alleged for and against both types in their best form of construction and 
to endeavor to draw conclusion after careful consideration of all points of 
question. 

Mixture. Mixing the Mixture, Robert Miller. Motor Boat. vol. 15, no. 22, Nov. 
25, 1918, pp. 1 1-14, 6 figa. l^oints out importance of securing uniform mixture 
in cylinder in order to secure chemical combination and considers the problem 
of direct injection. 

Pistons. Piston Design, Harry R. Ricardo. Automobile Engr., vol. 8, no. 119 
Oct. 1918, pp. 274-278, 12 figs. Design in which connection between ring- 
carrying portion o/ piston and slipper surface is severed, so that heat can only 
be conductd to slipper surfaces by way of main webs, these being so con- 
structed that heat from crown is distributed evenly over surface of slippers 
Also in Autocar, vol. 41, no. 1201, Oct. 26, 191S, pp. 409-410, 3 figa. 

LUBRICATION 

Cranes, Electric. Electric Crane Lubrication, Geo. R. Rowland. Lubrication, 
vol. 5, no. 12. Oct. 1918, pp. 2-10, 10 figs. Ring oiling system which consists 
of oil reservoir and brass rmg attached to and revolving with shaft. 

Cutting Tools, Cutting lubricants and Cooling Liquids. Shipbuilding & Shipping 
Rec, vol. 12, no. 19, Nov. 7, 1918, pp. 445-446. Enumeration of factors 
upon which selection of suitable cutting lubricant or cooling liquid depends 
and suggestions in regard to their manipulation. From report issued by 
AdWsory Council of Department of Scientific & Indus. Research. 

Economy. Lubricant Economy, D. Street. Can. Machy., vol. 20, no. 22, Nov. 28, 
1918, p. 617. Necessity for practicing economy and suggestions for reducing 
waste. 

Steam Cylinders. Problems of Steam Cylinder Lubrication (III), W. F. Osborne. 
Blast Furnace, vol. 6, no. 10, Oct. 1918, pp. 414-416. Factors affecting opera- 
tion and lubrication of compound engines. 

MACHINE ELEMENTS AND DESIGN 

Bearings. S.iving Power by Efficient Bearings, F. H. Lenox. Textile World Jl., 
vol.54, no. 23, Dec. 7, 1918, pp. 91-95, 4 figs. Equipment method and results 
of experiments to determine power required to overcome friction of shaft 
bearings. 

Bolts .\nd Screws. S. A. E. Standard Screws and Bolts. Jl. Soc, Automotive Engrs., 
vol. 3, no. 5, Nov. 1918, pp. 333-335, 1 fig. Brief account of development of 
standards and comparison of standard screw-thread pitches used in fave-inch- 
sj stems most generally adopted in American and British practice. — B. W. S.. 
B. S. F-, U. S. S., S. A. E. Reg., S. A. E. Fine. 

Crankshafts. Problems of Crankshaft Design, Otto M. Burkhardt. Aerial Age, 
vol. 8, no. 7, Oct. 28, 1918, pp. 376-379, 15 figs. Mathematical analysis of 
three groups of forces necessary to induce and maintain speeds of 3000 r.p.m. 
or more; pressures due to gaseous mixture, inertia forces and centrifugal forces. 
Paper before Eng. Soc. of Buffalo. 

Gears, The Internal Gear. Pamphlet published by Fellows Gear Shaper Co., 92 
pp., 55 figs. Popular presentation of the comparative tooth action of internal 
and external gear teeth, together with directions for cutting, and samples of 
applications . 

MACHINE SHOP 

Tool M.aking. Tooling Up Single Spindle Automatics and Lathes. Can. Machy. 
vol. 20. no. 19, Nov. 7, 1918, pp. 536-537, G figs. Operations for British 1Ô1 
fuse body. 

Grinding. Grinding; Its Utility in the Modern Shop, D. Street. Can. Machy., 
vol. 20. no. 22. Nov. 28, 1918, p. 623. Convenience of substituting grinding 
for tooling in certain machine operations. 

Belting. Belting Speeds; Saw Speeds; Bearing Alloys, G. F. Cosgove. - Wood- 
Worker, vol. 37, no. 9, Nov. 1918, pp. 28-29. Account of experiments made 
with gang ripping machines with saws located above stock to be ripped, 
feed being by means of a grooved traveling bed which carries the stock beneath 
saws. 



52 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Wo, 



Dkill SHABPENTNfl. Central Plant for Shnrponing Drill Steels Saves Money in 
Quarrjing. EnR. News-Hec. vol. »1. no. 21, Nov. 21. 1918. pD. 929-930. 
3 fies. SharpenÎDiî 8hop with two men replaces five emithies; steel conveyor, 
oii-fired furnaces and concrete (lUcnchinR vat. 

Gages. Making Thread Gages, T. H. Fcnner. Can. Maehy., vo.. 20, no. 19, Nov. 7, 
1918, pp. 529-532, 7 figa. Description of plant and methods of a Canadian 
firm. 

MiLUNO. Continuous Milling, A. Thomas. Automobile Engr., vol. 8, no. 119, 
Oct. 1918. pp. 296-29S, 12 figa. Notes on operation of Becker machine. 

Operation. Scientific Organization of the Machine Shop (Organisation Scientifique 
de l'usinage). P. Denis. G<'-uie Civil, vol. 7'.), no». 12, 13 and 14, Sept. 21. 
28 and Oct. 5, 1918. pp. 227-2:îO, 210-251 and 2ti8-271. 23 figa. Methodical 
execution of turning, countersinking and drilling. Sept. 21: selectin of nin.st 
economical cutting speed by construction of individual tool curves showing 
cutting ypcfd against volume of material removed by tool at that speed before 
it needs rcsharpening. Sept. 28: further study of tool curves and their 
utilization in deteriuining the most effective thermal treatment for tools used 
in cutting operations. Oct. 5: numerical illustrations and résiuné of conclu- 
sions reached. 

PONCH Press. Safe Punch Press Operation, W. W. Roach. Safety Eng., vol. 30, 
no. 4, Oct. 1918. pp. 231-233. Discusses installation and use of mechanical 

fuards. introduction of safe practices and education of press operators. From 
'roc. Seventh .Vnnual Safety Congress. 

Square Holes. Generating a Square Hole with a Gear Shaper Cutter, Douglas T. 
Hamilton. Am. Mach., vol. 49, no. 21, Nov. 21, 1918. pp. 949-950. 2 figs. 

Tool Dep.krtment. Supervising a Large Tool Department. C. W. Starker. Indus. 
Management, vol. 5G, no. 0, Dee. 1918. pn. 4S1-4S0. Step toward greater 
economy in tool department. Methods developed in tool department to 
coordinate requirements and minimize tool expense. 

MACHINERY, METAL WORKING 

Boring Bar. Making Boring Bars for Big Guns, M. E. Hoag. Am. Maeh.. vol. 49, 
no. 22, Nov. 28, 1918, pp. 987-988, 4 figs. Describing boring of hole 42 feet 
long 1 yi inches in diameter. 

Grxkder. Heald Cylinder Grinder. Am. Mach., vol. 49, no. 23. Dec. 5, 1918, 
1053-1054. 2 figs. Description of machine built by Heald Machine Co., 
Vorcester, Mass., with principal dimensions. 

Lathe. Amalgamated Shell-Turning Lathe. Am. Mach., vol. 49. no. 19, Nov. 17 
1918, p. 8G9, 1 fig. Short description with principal dimensions. 

Slottino Machine. A New Slotting Machine of the Milling Type, J. V. Hunt«r. 
Am. Mach-, vol. 49. no. 21, 1918. pp. 953- 56, 9 figs. Description with prin- 
cipal data of new machine tool brought out by Racine Tool and Machine Co., 
Racine, Wis. 

MACHINERY. SPECIAL 

Clocks. Studies in Clocks and Time- Keeping: No. 1. Theory of the Maintenance 
of Motion, R. A. Sampson. Proc. Roy. Soc. of Edinburgh, vol. 38. part 1 
and 2. session 1917-1918. pp. 75-114, 11 figs., and 159-128. Practical details 
of three clocks, Riefler, sj-nchronome. and Cottingham ; theoretical dis- 
cussions on maintenance of motion, air resistance, barometric error, escape- 
ment error, temperature compensation, and other points connected with 
exact timekeeping. No. 2: Taoles of the Circular Equation. 

Evaporators. Lillie Multiple Evaporator. Steam, vol. 22, no. 5, Nov. 1918, 
pp. 142-143, 3 figs. Evapo rator in which liquid is spread over heating surfaces 
m thin films. 

HoxsTiNO Jacks. Hydraulic Car Lift Gives Increased Output to Shops, Homer 
MacNutt. Elec. Ry. Jl.. vol. 52. no. 21, Nov. 23. 1918. pp. 927-928. 4 figs 
Description with illustrations of hydraulic hoisting jack. 

QuARBTiNa Machines. Labor-Saving Methods and Machines in Limestone 
Quarrying. Eng. & Contracting, vol. 50. no. 21. Nov. 20. 1918, pp. 478-479. 
From pamphlet by 01i\ er Bowles issued by U. S. Bureau of Mines. 

Quenching Machine. A Quenching Machine for Hardening Small Drawing Dies. 
Am. Mach., vol 49, no. 23, Dec. 5, 1918, pp. 1045-1016, 4 figs. Description 
of machine de^ eloped by S. A. Potter Tool a nd Machine Works, 70 East 130th 
St., New York. 

Road Finisher. Road Finisher Produces Denser Concrete. Cement & Eng. News, 
vol. .30, no. 1, Nov. 1918, p. 34, 2 figs. Machine which subjects mixture to 
continuous agitation by tamper. 

Scales. Modem 150-Ton Track Scale Now in Use, Frank C. Perkins. Can. Machy., 
vol. 20. no. 19. Nov. 7, 1918, pp. 544-547. 9 figs. Mechanism of design 
in which plat«-stcel fulcrums arc used. 

Screens, Gravel. Comparative Analysis of Gravel Screens, Raymond \V. Dull. 
Cement &Eng. News, vol.30, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 21-23, 10 figs. Considers 
gravity, cylinder, overhung conical and inclined conical types. 

Tood-Setter. Alignment^Tester and Microscopic Tool-Setter. Engineering, vol. 
106, no. 2754, Oct. 11. 1918. pp. 398-399. 7 figs. Description of an instrument 
constructed by Cambridge Scientific Instnmicnt Conipany, Limited 
Cambridge. 

MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF MATERIALS 

Asphalt. Standardization of Required Consistency for .\spbalt, J. R. Draney. 
Contract Rec, vol. 32, no. 46, Nov. 13. 1918. p. 910, Quotes present varia- 
tions and suggests possible specifications. 



Boiler Plate. Materials of Steam Boiler Construction, A. J. Dixon. Boiler Maker, 
vol. 18, no. 11, Nov. 1018, pp. 317-319. Action of carbon in boiler plate; 
dangers of free use of cast iron; laminar structure of wrought iron. From 
Power. 

Cracks. Prevention of Season and Corrosion Cracks. W. B. Price. Am. Machy., 
vol. 49, no. 19, Nov. 7, 1918, pp. 848-850, 7 figs. Paper before Am. Soc. for 
Testing Materials, Atlantic City, June 1918. 

MoNEL Metal. Note on Moncl Metal, John Amott. Engineering, vol. 106, no. 
27.56, Oct. 25, 1918, p. 451, 3 fi^. Composition, microstructurc. strength or 
rolled materials, eflfcct of annealing, strength at high temperature, use. 

Silica Brick. Silica Brick Tests. Eng. & Cement World, vol. 13, no. 10, Nov. 
15, 1918, p. 62. Brief report of experiments conducted in France which 
revealed that notable quantities of iron oxide do not sensibly lower fusing point 
of silica, even when lime is present. 

MEASUREMENTS AND MEASURING APPARATUS 

Depth Gauoe. A Micrometer Depth Gauge, C. H. Copland. Model Engr., vol. 39, 
no. 914, Oct. 31, 1918, pp. 239-240, 6 figs. General arrangement and details 
of gage intended for use on munition or other fine work. 

Hardness. The Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Engineering, vol. 106, no. 
275G. Oct. 25, 1918, pp. 469-472, 5 figs. Discussion of three papers on hardness 
testing, "A Law Governing the Resistance to Penetration of Metals When 
Tested with a 10-mm. Steel Ball; and a New Hardness Scale in Energy Units, 
by Prof. C. A. Edwards, " The Value of the Indentation Method in the 
Determination of Hardness," by H. G. C. Batson. and *' The Ludwick Hard- 
ness Test," by W. C. Unwin, all read at meeting of Inst., Oct. 1918. 

The Ludwik Hardness Test, W. C. Unwin. Engineering, vol. 106, 
no. 2756. Oct. 25, 1918, p. 47S. Paper before Inst, of Mech. Engrs., Oct. 1918. 

The Resistance of Metals to Penetration Under Impact. C. A. Edwards, 
Engineering, vol. 126, no. 3276, Oct. II, 1918, pp. 314. Abstract of paper 
before Inst, of Mech. Engrs., June 1918. 

Value of the Indentation Method in the Determination of Hardness i 
R. G. C. Batson. Engineering, vol. 106, no. 2756, Oct. 25, 1918, pp. 475-477, 
6 figs. Paper before Inst, of Mech. Engrs., Oct. 1918. 

He Ai^ Measurement. Hei»t- Measuring Instruments. C. E. Clewell. Am. Mach., 
vol. 49, no. 23, Dec. 5, 1918. pp. 1021-1025, 12 figs. Principal types of p^To- 
meters; features connected with their use; typical uses; cases of practical 
installations of pyrometers illustrated. 

Indicators. Indicator Cord Connections, R. T. Strohm, Southern Engr., vol. 30, 
no. 4, Dee. 1918. pp. 40-41, 7 fi^. Collection of methods used by engineers 
to connect cord to reducing motion. 

MiNiMETER. The Millimeter for Fine Measuring, Frank C. Perkins. Can. Machy., 
vol. 20, no. 21, Nov. 21. 1918, pp. 592-593. 5 figs. Principle and forms of 
Hirth apparatus for measuring threads, balls, cylindrical parts and grooves, 
also for inside measuring of various diameters. 

Permeability. Determination of Permeability of Balloon Fabrics, Junius David 
Edwards. Aeronautics, vol. 15. no. 261. Oct. 16.1918. pp. 358-364. 7 figs. 
Theory of process; volume-loss methods; penetration methods; experimental 
apparatus; effect of experimental conditions on apparent permeability; operat- 
ing directions and calculations. From Aviation & Aeronautical Eng. 

Variance. Variance of Measuring Instruments and Its Relation to Accuracy and 
Sensiti\-ity, Frederick J. Schlink. Jl. Franklin Inst., vol. 186, no. 6, Dec. 
1918, pp. 743-747. Abstract of notes from U. S. Bureau of Standards. 

Viscosity. On the Measurement of the Viscosity of Liquids (Sur la mesure de la 
viscosité des huiles). C. Chéneveau. Journal de Physique, vol. 7, May- 
June 1917, pp. 109-114. 1 fig. Apparatus for measuring absolute viscosity 
by application of Poiseuille*s law. 

MECHANICS 

Beams. Curved Beams. James J. Guest. Proc. Roy. Soc., vol. 95, no. A665. Sept. 
2, 1918, pp. 1-21, 6 figs. Determination of stresses produced by bendmg 
moment m uniform curved beams of several special sections; method of 
estimating maximum stress applicable to sections considered and approxi- 
mately to any other section not ha-ving extraordinary features. 

The Buckling of Deep Beams, J. Prescctt. Lond., Edinburgh & Dublin 
Phil. Mag;, vol. 36, no. 214. Oct. 1918. pp. 297-314. 7 figs. Attempt to 
develop mathematical theory of side buckling of beam having a depth much 
greater than its breadth by assuming buckling has actually occurred and 
finding value of couples at end which will maintain buckled state of beam. . 

Elasticity. Elastic Solids Under Body Forces, D. N. Mallik. I>ond , Edinburgh 
& Dublin Phil. Mag., vol. 36, no. 214, Oct. 1918. pp. .321-326 Derives from 
equation of equilibrium of isotropic solid under body forces mathematical 
expression for its displacement. 

Theory of Elastic Phenomena Taking Place in Punching and Drawing 
of Plastic Blocks (Théorie du poinçonnage et de l'écoulement des blocs plas- 
tiques; phase êlastiqvie de ces phénomènes), J. Bouss'nesq. Comptes rendus 
des séances de TAcadémie des Sciences, vol. 167, no. 15, Oct. 7, 1918, pp. 505- 
510. Studies general case of cylindrical block. Supplement to four previous 
communications (Comptes rendus, vol. 167, July 29, Aug. 5. 12. 19. pp 
186, 221, 253, 285) on the verification of Trosca's formula». 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



53 



SrniNGS A New Theory of Pl.ite Springs. David Landivii anil Percy H. Parr. JI. 
Franklin Inst., vol. 18U, no. 6. Dec. 1918, pp. 099-721, S figs. Mathematical 
study of effect of tapering ends of leaves on strength of spring. Continued 
from vol. 185, April 1918. p. 481. (To be continued.) 

Tubes Contribution to Our Knowledge on Calculation of Stresses in Tubes (Bidrag 
till Kiinnedom om tubers beriikning). Folke L:son Grange. Teknisk Tid- 
skrift, VâK — och Vattcn-Iiyggimdskonsl, year 48, no. 10, Oct. 191.S, pp. 
145-147, 4 figs. 

MOTOR CAR ENGINEERING 

Design. Aeronautical Experience Will Profoundly Affect Motor Car Practice, A. A. 
Remington. Automotive Ind., vol. 39, no. 18, Oct. 31, 1918, p. 776. Empha- 
sizes necessity for greater standardization and more research work. Presi- 
dential address before British Instn. Automobile Engrs. 

Post-War Chassis. Automobile Engr., vol. 8, no. 119, Oct. 1918, pp. 
279-280. Possible effects of aircraft engine experience and other factors 
bearing upon design. (To be continued.) 

Engines Gasoune. The " American", Sleeve- Valve Motor. Auto, vol. 23, no. 44, 
Nov. 1, 1918, pp. 820-822, 6 tigs. How sleeves are operated; suggestion to 
overcome tendency not to get rid of exhaust, by offsetting forward sleeve 
exhaust port from its present direct opposition to inlet and narrowing and 
deepening both it and others corresponding in cylinder wall and in head. 

Engines, Kerosene. Beaver Kerosene Tractor Engines. Automotive Industries, 
vol. 39, no, 20, Nov. 14, 1918, pp. 839 and 862, 2 figs. Horsepower and 
torque curves of 4^i x 6-in. engine and record of 5-hr. endurance test on full- 
open throttle at 900 r.p.m. 

Fuel Consumption. Tests for Reducing Fuel Consumption on Motor Vehicles 
(Forsog paa Bespnrelse af Briendselsolie ved Automobilkorsel), Paul Bergsoe. 
Ingenioren, year 27, no. 85, Oct. 23, 1918, pp. 557-558. 

Gas FuEt,. Coal Gas for Motor Vehicles. Times Eng. Supp., no. 527, Sept., 1918, 
p. 187. Modifications for running under compressea charges introduced by 
London General Omnibus Co. 

Kerosene Burning (see Engines, KERoaENE). Kerosene Vaporization, L. E. 
French. Automotive Industries, vol. 39, no. 20, Nov. 14, 1918, p. 845, 
2 figs. Apparatus embodying tube and hot-spot systems of vaporizing 
heavy fuel for internal-combustion engines, the two effects being automatically 
balanced. 

The Bellem-Bregeras Kerosene Atomizer, Auto. vol. 23, no. 45, Nov. 8 
1918, p. 845, 2 figs. Theoretical value and practical performance results. 

Lubrication. Lubrication and Fuel Tests, P. J. Dasey. Automotive Ind., vol. 39, 
no. 21, Nov. 21, 1918, pp. 875-877, 4 figs. Deals with tests made on a 
Buda tractor-type engine. Devorik's new synthetic gasoline. Paper 
before section of Soc. Automotive Engra. 

Single-Feed System Oils Car from Seat. Automotivelnd., vol. 39, no. 17, 
Oct. 24, 1918, p. 719. Multiple-plunger hand pump and reservoir constructed 
to supply oil under pressure to all points on chassis. 

Steam Vehicles. Solid Fuels for Steam Vehicles. Motor Traction, vol. 27, no. 709, 
Oct. 2, 1918, pp. 24.3-244. Review of tests conducted by coal controller to 
prove that other fuels than Welsh coal could be used. 

Tbactobs. Heider Friction Drive Tractor. Automotive Industries, vol. 39, no. 20. 
Nov. 14, 1918, pp. 831-832, 4 figs. Friction drive which enables a con- 
siderable number of tractor speeds and belt speeds to be obtained without use 
of shifting gears. 

Wheels. Front Wheel Wobble, Walter Bovle. Motor Traction, vol. 27, no. 712, 
Oct. 23, 1918, pp. 305-300, 2 figs. Sketch of method to give trailing effort 
to front wheels Dy tilting steering heads. 

PIPE 

Tile. Tile Pipe Versus Iron Pipe for Drains, Osborne Smith. Contract Rec., vol. 
32, no. 44, Oct. 30, 1819, p. 873. Brief account of author's experience and 
suggestions in regard to jointing. 

POWER GENERATION 

Canada. Utilizing Canada's Water Powers, J. B. ChalUes. Can. Mfr., vol. 38, 
no. 8, Aug. 1918, pp. 25-27. Future possibilities and requirements for their 
realization. From paper before Can. Soc. Civil Engrs. 

POWER PLANTS 

Boiler Inspection. Ontario Boiler Inspection Office. Power, vol. 48, no. 20. 
Nov. 12, 1918, pp. 698-099, 13 figs. Examples of dangerous conditions found 
in boilers described and illustrated. 

Boiler Operation. Boiler Room Efficiency, A. H. Blackburn. Power Plant Eng., 
vol. 22, no. 22, Nov. 15, 1918, pp. 919-920. Analysis of fuel; losses in boiler 
room; instruments; coal handling. Abstract of paper before Annual Con- 
vention of Smoke Prevention Assn. 

Economic Operation of Steam Turbo-Electric Stations, C. T. Hirshfeld 
and C. L. Karr. Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines, Tech. Paper 
204, 29 pp., 5 figs. Analysis of methods used in boiler from for producing 
eteam required and distributing load between main units available. Dis- 
cussion of economic source for auxiliary power and conclusion that auxiliary 
power in excess of that obtainable with exhaust steam absorption can be 
procured from main generators in electrical form at lower thermal cost 
than in any other way. 

Economical Working of Boiler Plant, P. D. Kirkman. Machy. Market 
no. 942, Nov. 22,_ 1918, p. 18. List of modern efficiency apparatus and of 
items to be studied in connection with waste and efficiency. Address to 
Manchester Branch of British Assn. of Textile Mgrs. 



Economy in Boiler Operation, Thomas M. Gray. Southern Knfr., 
vol. 30, no. 4, Dec. 1918, pp. 42-43, 1 fig. Ad\antaBe3 and disadvantag. , 
of high furnace temperatures; conditions produced by forcing boilers consider- 
ably beyond their rating; sampling and analyzing of flue gases. 

Boiler Settings. Boiler Setting Radiation and Air I,eakage, E. S. Hight. Elcc 
World, vol. 72, no. 21, Nov. 23, 1918, pp. 974-975, 1 fig. Results of experi- 
ments to determine best method of covering boiler settings to bring about 
reduction in radiation and escape of air; type of covering which saves $10011 
per 50Ohp. battery per year. 

Central Stations. A Kilowatt Hour and the Coal Required to Produce It, B. H, 
Blaisdell. Elec. Eng., vol. 52, no. 2, Aug. 1918, pp. 26-28. Waste inherent 
in piesent system of generating power and remarks on some of the losses due 
to imperfect manipulation. Paper before Manila Section o( Nat. Eleo. 
Light Assn. 

Increasing the Economy of Central Station Operation, J. W. Andrée. 
Elec. World, vol. 72, no. 19, Nov. 9, 1918, pp. 881-882. Overhauling water 
conduits and prime movers; burning natural gas to save fuel oil; other proved 
methods. 

Coke Oven Plants. Power Plants at By-Product Coke-Ovens. F. E. Harris. 
Jr. & CI. Trds. Rev., vol. 96, no. 26117, April 20, 1918, pp. 450-452, 2 figs. 
Discusses requirements and how to obtain satisfactory results. 

Condensers. Condensers and Condenser Engineering Practice, D. D. Pendleton. 
Power, vol. 48, no. 20 and 21, Nov. 12 and 19, 1918, pp. 720-722 and 756-7.57. 
Abstract of paper presented at twelfth annual convention of Assn. of Iron 
and Steel Elec. En ., Baltimore, Sept. 1918. 



Cost 



Improving Factory Steam Plants (V), H. A. Wilcox. Power Plant Eng. 
vol. 22, no. 22, Nov. 15, 1918, pp. 915-918, 2 figs. Test to determine proper 
division of costs; schedule of operation for power department. 

Economizers. Exact Data on the Running of Steam Boiler Plants, D. Brownlie. 
Engineering, vol. 106, no. 2757, Nov. 1, 1918, pp. 481-482. Economizers. 
First article. 

EprlciENCY. Steam Plant Efficiency. Coal Trade Jl., year 50, no. 49, Deo. 4, 1918 
pp. 1433-1434. Suggestions addressed operating officers, superintendents, 
chief engineers, motive power department officials and men in charge of 
stationary power, heating and pumping plants by U. S. Railroad Adminis- 
tration. 

Exhaust Steam, Maintenance of a Proper Heat Balance, R. N. Ehrhart. Power, 
vol. 48, no. 20, Nov. 12, 1918, pp. 692-094, 4 figs. Describing hand and 
automatic control of exhaust steam from auxiliaries so that quantity of 
exhaust steam available for feed heating may at all times be proportioned to. 
load on main units, thus preventing waste of exhaust at light loads. 

High Pressure Steam. The Use of High-Pressure and High-Temperature Steam 
in Large Power Stations, J. H. Shaw. Inst. E. E., Nov. 1918, pp. 1;10 
5 figs From the point of view of the engineer interested in the generation 
of electricity. Also in Machy. Market, no. 942, Nov. 22, 1918, pp. 19-20. 

Individual Plants. New General Electric Steam Turbine Shop, F. L. Prentiss. 
Iron Ag , vol. 102, no. 20, Nov. 14, 1918, pp. 119.5-1199, 6 figs. Construction 
and other features in large plant designed for heavy machine work; production 
methods followed. 

Plant Arrangement and Cost of Construction. Elec. World, vol. 72, 
no. 19, Nov. 9, 1918, pp. 8S8-890, 3 figs. Features of latest station of Turners 
Fails Power & Electric Co., may -become one of most important steam 
plants in New England. (Second article.) 

Power Industry. Conditions in the Power Industry, Ludwig W. Schmidt. Power 
vol. 48, no. 23, Dec. 3, 1918, pp. 798-800. Digest of reports of U. S. consuls 
on power situation in various parts of world and influence of war upon this 
industry. 

The Power Plant Problem in South China, Harold B. Wilson. Power, 
vol. 48, no. 21, Nov. 19, 1918, pp. 747-748. Only pioneer work has been done 
and there is opportunity for America in this field. 

Scale. Heat Loss Due to Scale. Can. Mfr., vol. 38, no. 8, Aug. 1918, p. 31, 1 fig 
Chart showing approximate annual loss with coal at different prices. 

Screens Water. Screening Condensing Water Efficiently and Economically, Henry 
J. Edsall. Steam, vol. 22, no. 5, Nov. 1918, pp. 133-137, 7 figs. Describds 
traveling screens with automatic cleaning features. 

Stack Losses. Steam Plant Efficiency, Henry Kreisinger. Coal Trade JI., year 
50, no. 47, Nov. 20, 1918, pp. 1392-1393. Causes of high ash loss; methods of 
determining stack losses; causes of large excess of air and remedy. (To be 
concluded.) 

Temperature Regulation. Automatic Temperature Regulation as a Fuel Con- 
servation Measure. Heat. & Vent. Mag., vol. 15, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 
4(>-43, .\dvance report of a Committee on Automatic Heat Control, as 
furnished to Fuel Administration. For presentation at annual meeting of 
Am Soc. of Heating and Vent. Engrs., New York, Jan. 1918. 

Water Softening. Home-Made Water Softening Plant, H. D. Odell. Power, vol. 
48, no. 21, Nov. 19, 1918, pp. 728-731, 3 figs Description of home-made 
water-softening plant and experiences with it. 

Wire Making Plants. Power Generation for Wire Making. Power Plant Eng., 
vol. 22, no. 22, Nov, 15, 1918, pp. 907-914, IS figs. Description of planti 
of John A. RoebUng Sons Co., 'Trenton, N. J. 



54 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



POWER TRANSMISSION 

GBAB9. Sa\inR Coal at the Gear and Wheel Tread, C. W. Squicr. Elec. Rv. Jl., 
vol. 52, no. 20. Nov. IG, 1918, pp. 876-878, 7 6gs. DiBCXission of losses in 
Kcaring; showing; how correct gear ratio with low armature apoed will save 
power; comparing gearlcds and geared motors and two and four motor 
equipments. 

PRODUCER GAS 

Machine Shop for Gas Producer Work. Iron Age, vol. 102, no. 23. 
Dec. 5, 1918. pp. 1373-1378, 14 figs. Features of new plant of Smith Gas 
Engineering Co., Dayton, Ohio. Producer operation for poewr purposes. 

REFRIGER.\TION 

AuuONiA Compression. Impro\-inE a Refrigerating Plant, E. W. Miller. 
Refrigerating World, vol. 53, no. 9. Sept. 1918, pp. 25-2(), 1 fiç. Account to 
work done in installation consisting of a 50-ton horizontal double-acting 
compressor, a 150-up. combination fire- and water-tube boiler, pumps and 
a 50-kw. generating unit. 

The Ammonia Compression Refrigerating System (XXII), W. S. Doan. 
Refrigerating World, vol. 53. no. 9 and 10, Sept. and Oct. 1918. pp. 31-32, 
3 figs. Troubles likely to develop in piston-rod stuffing box and manner ol 
overcoming them. 

AuuONiA Le.\kage, Finding " Lost '* Ammonia in Refrigerating Plants, E. W. 
Miller. Power, vol. 48, no. 21, Nov. 19. 191S, pp. 734-735. Common causes 
for leakage of ammonia. 

Ice Plants. Ice Plant Troubles, E. W. Miller. Southern Engr., vol. 30, no. 4, Dec. 
1918, pp. 48-50. Outline of conditions in actual case and suggestions on 
economical operation. 

OPER4.TION. Making a Neglected Refrigerating Plant Give Capacity, E. W. Miller. 
Power, vol. 48, no. 23. Dec. 3, 191S, pp. SlO-Sll, 1 fig. \Vhat was done to 
make comparatively new plant give rated capacity. 

Small Machine. Small Refrigerating Machines. John E. Starr. Refrigerating 
World, vol. 53, no. 9, Sept. 1918, pp. 11-12. Difficulties presented by small 
machines in addition to the difficulties existing in all machinca. 

RESEARCH 

The National Engineering Societies and the National Research Council, 
Geo. Ellery Hale, Proc. Am. Inst. Elec. Engrs., vol. 37, no. 10, Oct. 1918, 
pp. 1223-1236. War duties; _present organization of research information 
service; international cooperation in research. 

STANDARDS AND STANDARDIZATION 

Metric System. The Metric System, Harry AJlcock. Sur\-eyor, vol. 54, no. 1399, 
Nov. 8, 1918. p. 227. Criticism of arguments presented by Committee on 
Commercial and Industrial Policy After the War in their report against 
early introduction of metric system. 

l^se of the Metric System in the United States. Sci., vol, 48, no. 1248, 
Nov. 29, 1918, pp. 540-541. Resolution adopted by United States Section 
of International High Commission regarding use of metric system in U. S. 
in order to foster Pan-.\naerican commercial relations. 

ScBEW Threads. Inaugural Presidential Address to the Manchester Association 
of En^eera. Steamship, vol. 20, no. 353, Nov. 1918. pp. 112-115. Con- 
nderation of various aspects of problem of standardizing screw threads and 
other industrial products. 

STEAM ENGINEERING 

Boilers. Safe Working Pressure for Steam Boilers, H. F. Gaiiss. Power, vol. 48, 
no. 22, Nov. 26, 1918, pp. 772-774. Simple treatment dealing with efficiency 
of riveted -joints, bursting and safe worKing pressures for boilers, and per- 
mUsible pressure on stayed surfaces. 

Exhaust Steam. Commercial Value of Exhaust Steam, Frederick C. Ruck. Nat. 
Engr., vol. 22, no. 10. Oct. 1918, pp. 498-.^07. Data from actual obseirations 
and practical experience covering a period of several years. Paper before 
Nat. Assn. of Stationary Engrs. 

Turbine Gives Additional Line Shaft Power. Blast Furnace, vol. G, 
no. 10, Oct. 1918, pp. 430-432, 1 fig. Possiblitiea for expansion by use of 
exhaust steam in low-pressure turbines; efficiency of reduction gears. 

Straight-Flow Engises. Details of Construction of Straight-Flow Steam Engines 
(Constructie-de tails van gelykstroom-stoommachines), D. A. De Fremery 
De Ingénieur, year 33, no. 42, Oct. 19, 1918, pp. 807-817. 23 figs. 

TORBîNES. Avoiding Distortion in Turbine Operation, Webster Tallmadge. Power. 
vol. 48, no. 22, Nov. 26, 1918, pp. 762-765, S figs. Explaining some of 
careless treatments afforded steam turbines through ignorance and thought- 
lessness and how to avoid them. 

Care in the Operation of Small Turbines. J. A. MacMurchy. Power, 
vol. 48. no. 21, Nov. 19, 191S, pp. 744-745. Parts of small steam turbine 
which should receive particular attention. 

The Steam Turbine (IX). Southern Engr., vol. 30, no. 4, Dec. 1918, 
pp. 52-53, 3 figs. Installation, operation and maintenance of Terry steam 
turbine. (To be continued.) 

THERMODYNAMICS 

Heat Transmission Tables. New Heat Transmission Tables (ID, William U. 
Jones. Heat. & Vent. Mag., vol. 15, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 24-29. Compila- 
tion of factors as given by leading authorities covering latest types of con- 
struction. 



Specific He.vts. The General Character of Specific Heats at High Temperatures. 
Walter P. White. Proc. Nat. Academy of Sci.. vol. 4, no. U. Nov. 1918, 
pp. 343-346. Experimental determination of specific heats of three forms of 
silica and two silicates for temperatures up to 1300. 

WELDING 

Electhic Welding. A New Type of Portable Arc Welder. Eng. & Cement World, 
vol. 13, no. 10, Nov. 15, 1918, p. 64, 2 figs. Arrangement consisting of 
Lincoln 150-arapere arc-welding generator direct-connected to Wington 
G. L. 5 ga.<K)line engine and intended for mounting on automobile truck. 

Boiter and Other Repairs by Electric Welding. Can. Machy., vol. 20, 
no. 21, Nov. 21, 1918, pp. 596-599, 4 figs. Development of art and con- 
clitioDS necessary to insure satisfactory results. Paper before Inst, of Marine 
Engre. 

Electric Arc Welding. Robert E. Kinkead, Power, vol. 48, no. 22, Nov. 
26, 1918, pp. 791-792. General descriptive article. Paper before Cleveland 
Eng. Soc. 

Electric Welding — A New Industry, H. A. Horner. Proc. Am. Inst. 
Klec. Engrs., vol. 37, no. 10, Oct. 1918, pp. 11S5-1195, 29 figs. Brief review 
of uses of electric spot and arc welding in the United States prior to formation 
of Electric Welding Committee of Emergency Fleet Corporation; develop- 
ments in apparatus in last six -months, activities of Welding ComnMttec in 
applying electric welding process to shipbuilding industry. 

Electric Welding for Shipbuilding Purpose'^. W. S. Abell. Shipbuilding 
& Shipping Rec, vol. 12, no. 20, Nov. 14, 1918, pp. 471-474. Summary of 
investigations undertaken and of development of industry. Paper before 
North-East Coast Insta. Engrs. & Shipbuilders. 

Electric Welding for Ships. Times Eng. Supp., no. 529, Nov. 1918, 
p. 239. Results of tests in regard to strength, elasticity, alternating stress 
and other factors affecting reliability of welded joints. 

Electric Welding Nomenclature and Symbols. Ry. Rev,, vol. 63, no. 
20, Nov. 16, 1918, pp. 702-707, 34 figs. Scheme developed for Emeri^ency 
Fleet Corporation to indicate types of welds in ship construction. 

Electric Welding on the Rock Island Lines, E. Wanamaker. Boiler 
Maker, vol. 18, no. 11, Nov. 1918. pp. 308-310. Gives actual results which 
show reduction in maintenance cost. Before Western Ry. Club. 

Inspection of Steel .\rc Welds, O. S. Escholtz. Iron Age, vol. 102, no. 
23, Dec. 5, 191S, pp. 1390-1391, 2 figs. Factors determining their character; 
penetration and electrical tests; analysis of welds and their heat treatment. 

Nomenclature for Electric Welding, H. G. Knox. Engineering, vol. 
103,-no. 275S, Nov. 8, 1918, pp. 522-526, 27 figs. From paper before Engrs.' 
Club of Philadelphia, June 26, 1918 

The Welding of Steel. B. K. Smith. Am. Mach., vol. 49, no. 23, Dec. 5, 
1918. pp. 1025-1026. From paper before Northwestern Welder's Assn., 
Minneapolis, Oct. 1918. 

Heat Treatment. Treatment of Metals After Welding. Can. Mfr., vol. 38, no 8, 
Aug. 1918. pp. 29-30. Practical guide as to correct temperature to which 
metal should be heated and order of procedure. Prepared by l'Air Liquide 
Society, Toronto. 

Oxtacettlene WELniNG. Defective Osy-Acetylene Welds, D. Richardson. Flight, 
vol. 10, no. 42, Oct. 17, 1918. pp. 1175-U76. Brief considerations on six 
causes of defective welds; impure acetylene, irregular deUvery of gases. 
faulty manipulation of blowpipe, faulty filling materials, faulty preparation 
and adjustment, and faulty after treatment of welds. Paper before British 
Acetylene Assn. 

Oxy-Acetylene Pipe Welding and Cutting. Gas Age, vol. 42, no. 11, 
Dec. 2. 1913, pp. 471-474, 7 figs. Résumé of standard practice. (To be 
continued.) 

The Oxy-Acetylene Flame and Blowpipe Efficiency, Arthur Stephenson. 
Acetylene & Welding Jl.. vol. 15. no. 181, Oct. 191S, pp. 174-179. 2 figs. 
Volumes of air, oxygen and nitrogen required in flame; factor governing 
heating value per unit volume consumed; conditions which limit tempera- 
ture of flame. (To be continued.) 

The Steel Ship and Oxy-Acetylene Welding, J. F. Sprmger. Inst. 
Mar. Eng.. vol. 23, no. 12, Dec. 191S, pp. 699-701. Behavior of steel when 
heated. Restorative measures. 

VARIA 

Alinement Charts. Construction of Alinement Charts. Ralph E. Turner. Power 
Plant. Eng.. vol. 22. no. 23. Dec. 1, 1018, pp. 956-961, 7 figs. Working 
formulas of three variables into simple alinement charts. 



China China a Market for the American Machine Tool, L. W. Schmidt. Am. Mach.. 
vol. 49. no. 20. Nov. 14, 1918, pp. 893-896. Electric power and industrial 
development; possibilities for American trade; difficulties to overcome. 

Enqiseers' Act on Status op. Draft of Proposed Act for Engineers. Jl. Eng. 
Inst. Can., vol. 1, no. 7, Nov. 1918, pp. 331-332. Wording of Act proposed in 
province of Saskatchewan defining status of engineer. 

MECHANICAL PROCESSES 

Boiler How to Design and Lay Out a Boiler (1). Wm. C. Strott. Boiler Maker, 
vol. IS, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 311-313. 4 figs. Formula for safe working 
pressure; maximum ultimate tensile strength for steel; factor» of safety. 
(To be continued.) 

Chains, Cast Steel. Manufacturing a Shorthand Machine. M. E. Hoag. Am. 
Mach., vol. 49, nos. 19, 20 and 21, Nov. 7, 14 and 21. 1918, pp. 853-854, 
8 figs.. 902-904, S figs, and 946-947, 8 figs. Describing mechanical features 
of machine, some tools and dies. (First article ) 

Rapid Development of Electric Cast Steel Anchor Chain Induatrj-, 
W. L. Merrill. Int. Mar. Eng., vol. 23. no. 11, Nov. 1918. pp 630-634. 6 
figs. Electric welding versus hand welding; tests and results. AbsUaot Ol 
article in Gen. Elec. Rev. 

Handles. The Uses of Wood (VII). Hu HaxweU. Am. Forestry-, vol.24, no. 2W 
Nov. 1918. pp. 670-687, 15 fflgs. Woods used in manufaoturc of n a nnlM . 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



55 



LoaoiKQ. Fining the Allies' Rush Order for Airplane Spruce, Nathan A. Bowers. 
Eng. News-Roc., vol. 81. no. 2.-i, Deo. 5. 191S. pp. 1023-1031, U Ses. Best 
talent of country assembled to develop methods new to loBRing and sawmill 
practice; 13 r.ailroads built and 100,000 workers coordinated. 

1'LiEii.s. MaaufacturinE Drop-Forged Pliers, Ellsworth Sheldon. Am. Mach., vol. 
49. no. 20, Nov. 14. 1918. pp. 889-893, 14 figs. Describmg operations in- 
volved in manufacture of drop-forged pliers. 

QuAnRTlNO. Quarry Economics, Oliver Bowles. En?. & Cement World, vol. 13, 
no 10, Nov. 15. 191.S, pp. 49-50. Labor reciuiromenls of various drills; waste 
of labor through inefficient blasting; effect of physical character of rook. 

ROLUNQ MiLUS. Blooming Mill Now Rolling Plates. Iron Trade "«X-. vo'' i"''" 
no. 23, Dec. 5, 1918, pp. 12S5-128S, 4 figs. Transformation at Baldt Works, 
New Castle, Del. How the plan was worked out. 

Electric Rolling Mill Plant. Engineer, vol. 121), no. 3276, Oct. 11, 1918; 
pp. 312-314, 17 figs. Principles of speed control. 

The Predetermination of Power Demands of Rolling Mills (Om bestam- 
ning och fôrutherâkning av energiatgangen vid valsverk). Frithiol Holmgren. 
Bihand till Jern-Kontorets .\nnaler. year 19, no. 10, Oct. 15, 1918, pp. 489- 
515, G figs. 

ScRKENTNO. Economical Production of Washed Sand and Gravel. Eng. & Cement 
World, vol. 13, no, 10, Nov. 15, 1918, pp. 52-54, 2 figs. Description of Gilbert 
screen. 

Tractor. Manufacturing the Caterpillar Tractor, Frank A. Stanley, Am. Mach.. 
vol. 49, nos. 20. 22 and 2'!, Nov. 14, 28 and Dec. 5, 1918, pp. 897-901, 14 figs.; 
977-980, 9 figs, and 1040-1042, 12 figs.; Nov. 28: Making connectmg rods; 
Dec. 5: Small parts. Milling work. 

The Manufacture of Diamond Transmission Chain, J. V. Hunter. Am. 
Mach., vol. 49, nos. 19 and 23, Nov. 7 and Deo. 5, 1918, pp. 845-848, 9 figs., 
and 1027-1031, 16 figs. Making rollers; Dec. 5: Making block chain. 

METALLURGY 

ALUMINUM 

Aluminum and Its Alloys, Dr. Rosenhain. Aeronautics, vol. 15, no. 259, 
Oct. 2, 191S. pp. 321-322. Uses and possibilities in aircraft. Lecture at 
British Sci. Products Exhibition. 

Aluminum and Its Light Alloys — VI. Bibliography. Paul D. Merian. 
Chem. & Metallurgical Eng.. vol. 19, no. 10, Nov. 15, 1918, pp. 729-732. 
Composition; applications; electrical: vessels: deoxidation; aluminothermy; 
chemical properties; corrosion; alterability: physical properties: electrical 
conductivity; thermoelectromotive force characteristics; conductivity; effort 
of temperature on properties. (To be continued.) 

BL.4.ST FURNACE 

Fuel Economy in Blast Furnace Practice, T. C. Hutchinson. Blast Fur- 
nace, vol. 6, no. 10, Oct. 1918, pp. 419-420. 3 figs. Discussion concerning 
results obtained with working furnace model built for determination of efficient 
distribution of charge. Paper before British Iron & Steel Inst. (Concluded.) 

COPPER 

Bronzes. The Constitution of the Tin Bronzes, Samuel L. Hoyt. A.I.M.E., Bui., 
no. 144. Dec. 1918. pp. 1721-1727. 14 figs. Notes on progress made in estab- 
lishing what happens over the upper heat effect. 

Le.vd in Copper. The Spectroscopic Determination of Le.ad in Copper, C. W. Hill 
and G. P. Luckey. Bui. Am. Inst. Min. Engrs., no. 142, Oct. 1918, pp. 
1581-1592, 4 figs. Details of apparatus and its standardization, and com- 
parison of accuracy of quantitative spectroscopic method for determining 
small amounts of lead with that of standard electrolytic determination. 
Variations and other applications of method are found in Proc. Am. Electro- 
chem. Soo. (1918), 32, 191, and in Met. & Chem. Engr. (1917), 17, 659. 

Utah Copper Plant. The Utah Copper Enterprise. T. A. Rickard. Mia. & Sci. 
Press, vol. 117, no. 22, Nov. 30, 1918, pp. 713-724, 16 figs. Flow sheet of 
mill; plan and section of Richards-Janney classifier as used in mill; flow sheet 
of primary and secondary crushing plants. (To be continued.) 

FLOTATION 

Mill Practice at Flotation Plant of Utah Leasing Co., H.H.Adams. 
Salt Lake Min. Rev., vol. 20, no. 15, Nov. 15, 1918, pp. 21-25, 4 figs. Work 
of reclaiming metal contents from old tailing dumps. 

IRON AND STEEL 

Cast Iron. The Prevention of Growth in Gray Cast Iron, J. E. Hurst. Iron ,\ge, 
vol. 102, no. 19, Nov. 7, 1918, pp. 1144-1145, 3 figs. Causes of phenomenon; 
effect of entrance of oxidizing gases and formation of case; application of 
dies and permanent molds. Paper before Iron and steel Institute, London, 
September, 1918. Also in Engineering, vol. 106, no. 2754, Oct. 11, 1918. p. 
415, 3 figs. 

Electrical Hardness. Electrical Resistance of Hardened Steel, E. D. Campbell. 
Engineering, vol. 103, no. 2737, Nov. 1, 1918. pp. 509, 2 figs. On rate of 
change at 100 dcT. cent., and of ordinary temperatures in electrical resistance 
of hardenel steel. Paper before Iron and Steel Inst. 



Inoots. Making Sand-Cast Forging Ingots, W. L. Booth. Iron Age, vol. 102, no. 
19, Nov. 7, 1918, pp. 1130-1140, 2 figs. Development of practice on Pacific 
Coast: replacing Eastern ingots; advantages claimed for sand mold. From 
article in October issue of Metal Trades. 

Internal Stresses. Internal Stresses Developed in Metald and -Mjoys by Sudden 
Cooling (Efforts internes développés dans les métaux et alliages par l'effet 
d'un refroidissement rapide). M. Portevin. Comptes rendus des séances 
de r.Académie des Sciences, vol. 107, no. 15. Oct. 7, 1918. pp. 531-533. 
Measurements of dimensional variations in steel specimens. Also in Revue 
Générale do l'Electricité, vol. 4, no. 18, Nov. 2, 1918, p. 052. 

Open-Hearth Furnaces. The Principles of Open-Hearth Furnace Design, Charles 
H. F. Bagley. Engineering, vol. 106, no. 2754, Oct. 11, 1918. pp. 400- 
401, 2 figs. From paper before Iron and Steel Inst., Sept. 1918. 

Steel Hardening. Further Experiments on Spontaneous Generation of Heat in 
Recently Hardened Steel, Charles F. Brush, Robert A. Hadfield and S. A. 
Main. Proc. Roy. Soc, vol. 95, no. Afi06, Oct. 7, 1918, pp. 120-138, 7 figs. 
Recapitulation of previous investigations: account of recent experimental 
work which was confined mainly to variations of heat treatment of one partic- 
ular nickel-chromium steel: presentation of empirical law which seems to 
regulate approximately gradual diminution of evolution of heat. 

OCCLUDED GASES 

Gases in Metals. Times Eng. Supp., no. 529, Nov. 1918. p. 243. 
Influence on mechanical properties: opinions of scientists, industrial research 
workers and manufacturers. Conference of Faraday Soo. 

WASTE RECUPERATION 

Recuperation and Utilization of Waste or Copper, Zinc, Lead, Tin, 
Aluminum and Their Alloys (La récupération et 1 utilisation des déchets 
de cuivre, zinc, plomb, étain. aluminium et de leurs alliages), Paul Raous. 
Génie Civil, vol. 73, no. 13, Sept. 28, 1918, pp. 251-255, 5 figs. Electrolytic 
processes for recuperation of tin : recuperation of aluminum ; electrolytic separa- 
tion of metals entering in an alloy. (Concluded.) 

MINING ENGINEERING 

ALLOYS, FERROUS 

Electric Furnace. Two-Ton Electric Furnace Makes Alloys. Can. Machy., 
vol. 20, no. 20, Nov. 14, 1918, pp. 563-565, 10 figs. Equipment of plant using 
Héroult furnaces for non-ferrous alloys. 

BASE MATERIALS 

Serpentine. The Origin of Serpentine, an Historical and Comparative Study, W. N. 
Benson. Am. Jl.. of Sci.. vol. 46, Deo. 1918, pp. 693-731, 4 figs. Concludes 
from examination of geological data that ultrabasic masses in chrysolite 
or antigorite-serpentine are alteration product or originally intrusive peridotite 
often more or less pyroxenic, and that in some cases the hydration was brought 
about by agency of waters emanating from same magna that produced 
periodite, the change h.aving been completed by end of one erogenic period of 
vulcanity. 

COAL AND COKE 

Anthracite. Anthracite Production and Resources of the United States, Eli T. 
Connor. Can Min. Inst., bul. no. 80, Dec. 1918, pp. 1001-1005. Map. 
Excerpts from address at 20th annual meeting of the Institute. Progress 
of the anthracite industry since 1895. 

Breakers and Washehies. Hazards and Safeguards in Anthracite Breakers and 
Washeries, D, K. Glover. Safety Eng , vol. 36, no. 4, Oct. 1918, pp. 234-236. 
Recommends clearance of 7 fit. from center of track on each side. From Proc. 
Seventh Annual Safety Congress. 

Coke Ovens. Economic Considerations in Coke-Oven Practice, W. Colquhoun. 
Ir. & CI. Trds. Rev., vol. 97, no. 2646, Nov. 15, 1918, pp. 541-543. Advan- 
tages of by-product coke-ovens. Abstract of paper and discussion read before 
Midland Inst, of Min., Civ. & Mech. Engrs. 

Instantaneous Combustion. Instantaneous Combustion of Coal and Gas at Bedford 
Collieries, Leigh, F. N. Siddall. Trans. Manchester Geol. & Min. Soc., vol. 
35, part 10, Aug. 1918, pp. 318-325, 3 figs., and (discussion) pp. 325-327. 
Account of conditions in shaft before and after occurrence of an outburst. 

Kenthckt. The Hazard Coal Field, P. M. Sherwin. CI. Age. vol. 14. no. 23, Dec. 
5, 1918. pp. 1031-1034. 11 figs. Known chiefly for its hardness and low aeb 
content. Describes region. 

Shoveling Machines. Shoveling Machines for Coal Mines. Coal Industry, vol. 
1, no. 10, Oct. 1918, pp. .382-384, 4 figs. Development of mines; method of 
operating shoveling machines; tests under different conditions. 

EXPLOSIVES 

Permissible Explosives for Mine Use, J. H. Squires. Coal Industry, vol 
1, no. 10, Oct. 1918, pp. 375-379, 9 figs. Definition of permissible explosives- 
and description of tests and appliances-necessary to determine claBsificntion. 

IRON 

.\l3ace-Lorraink. Iron Ore Supplies of Alsace-Lorraine, Sidney Paige. Iron Age, 
vol. 102. no. 19, Nov. 7. 1918. pp. 1149-1150. From symposium on "Certain 
Ore Resources of the World " prepared for meeting of Iron and Steel section. 
.\m, Inst, of Min. Engrs., Milwaukee, October 1918. 



56 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



BjiQtTETTiNO. Present Knowledee and Practice in Briquetting Iron Ores (V). Guy 
Barrett and T. B. RoKcreon. Automotive Eng.. vol. 3, no. 9, Oct. 191S, 
p. 425. Ttic Greenwalt. West and other general proceasea; general obser- 
vations on britiuetting, its applications, cost under various proccsscâ, disad- 
vantagcâ and possiblities. (Concluded.) 

I.EAD 

Flotation. The Development of Galena Flotation at the Central Mine, Broken Hill, 
R. J. Har\-ey. Inatn. Min. A Met., bul. 170. Nov. 14, 191S, pp. M7. 7 figa. 
Experimental work and results. 

MAJOR INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS 

Manganese. Mangonese Deposits in the Colorado River Region. Salt Lake Min. 
Rev., vol. 20, no. 15, Nov. lô, 1918, p. 30. Replacement deposits; methods 
and cost of mining. (Concluded.) 

SuLPBCB. Sulphur Deposits of the Trans Pecos Region in Texas, Kirby Thomas. 
Eng. & Min. Jl., vol. 106, no. 23, Dec. 7, 191S. pp. 979-981, 3 figs. Origin, 
character of deposits, methods of mining, etc. 

MINES AND MINING 

Bounces. An Unsual Bounce Condition. A. C. Watts. CI. Age. vol. 14, no. 23. Dec. 
5, 1918, pp. 1028-1030, 4 figs. Bounces occurred with annoying frequences. 
A fault was driven through and analysis made of existing conditions. 

CsHSNTiNG OF WELLS. Ccmcnt Plugging for Exclusion of Bottom Water in the 
Augusta Field, Kansas. Bul. Am. Inst. Min. En^s., no. 142, Oct. 1918, pp. 
1613-lti20, t> figs. Results obtained from preliminary cementing of wells in 
effort to cut off bottom water. 

Field Tests. Field Tests for the Common Metals in Minerals. Univ. Ariz., but. 
no. 93, Min. Tech. Series, no. 21, pp. 1-20. Compiled to be used as a 
text for lectures on " Prospector's Mineralogy.'* 

Gas Detector. Improved Mine-Gas Detector. Min. & Eng. Rec, vol. 23. nos. 
17 & IS. Sept. 30, 1918, pp. 180-181. 1 fig. Apparatus, developed by 
Bureau of Mines, for determining presence of inflammable gases and pro- 
portion of gas present. 

Mine Timbers. Preservative Treatment of Mine Timbers as a Conservation Measure 
Kurt C. Barth. CI. Age. vol. 14, no. 23, Dec. 5, 1918, pp. 1025-1027. Three 
methods of application available. 

Minerals Coxtrol Act. Will the Government Fulfill Its Obligations to Those 

Who Undertook Mineral Developments at Its Request? Mfrs. Rec, vol. 

74, no. 23. Dec. 5, 1918. pp. 73-74. Discusses the Minerals Control Act 

and necessary protection to make the United States more self-sustained as a 

nation. 
Rbscge Apparatus. New Form of Oxygen Mine Rescue Apparatus, H. V. Manning. 

Min. & Eng. Rec, vol. 23. nos. 17 & IS. Sept. 30. 1918. pp. 179-180. 2 figs. 

Apparatus, developed by Bureau of Mines, for use poisonous or irrespirable 

atmospheres in mmcs after fires or explosions. 

Stone Dhst Remov,\l. Spraver for Stone-Dusting in Mines. A. Rushton. Tran. 
Manchester Geol. & Min. Soc. vol. 35. part 10, Aug. 1918. pp. 327-329. 
Features of ejector which blows stone dust into atmosphere of mine by-means 
of compressed air. Stone dust is carried from atmosphere of mine in the same 
way as coal dust. 

Température Meastiremexts. Measurement of Temperature at Great Depths 
(Mesure de la température dans les sondages à toute profondeur!. M. 
Verzat. L'Echo des Mines et de la Métallureie, no. 2582. July 14. 1918. p. 
343. Account of the measurement of temperature at a depth of 1616 meters 
made by the Cic. des Mines du Sud de la Mure. 

Timbering. Safe and Efficient Mine Timbering. Robert Z. Virgin. Coal Industry, 
vol. l,no. 10. Oct. 1918, pp. 369-372, 12 figs. Explains and illustrates different 
methods and analyzes each with regard to safety and efficiency. 

Transfer Chutes. Driving and Timbering Transfer Chutes. C. T. Rice. Eng. & 
Min. Jl.. vol. 106, no. 23, Dec. 7, 1918. pp. 991-993. 3 figs. Method employed 
the Coeur d'Alene district. 

MINOR INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS 

Antimont, Strontium, etc. Antimony. Graphite, Nickel. Potash. Strontium, Tin, 
E. S. Boalich and W- O. Castêllo, Cal. State Min. Bur., report no. 5, Mar. 
1918, 44 pp. Properties, occurrence and uses of these substances. 

Tungsten. Tungsten, Molybdenum and Vanadium. E. S. Boalich and W. O. Castello. 
Cal. State Min. Bur., report no. 4, Mar. 1918, 34 pp. Properties, ores, occur- 
rence and uses of these minerals- 
Wolfram Ore and Tungsten. Chem. News, vol. 117, no. 3059, Oct. 25, 
1918, pp. 337-338. Report of Departmental Committee on the Eng. Trades 
after the War. From Jl. Roy Soc. of Arts. vol. 66, no. 343G. 

OIL 

Water Troubles. Water Troubles in the Mid-Continent Oil Fields and Their 
Remedies. Dorsev Hager and G. W. McPherson. Bul. Am. Inst. Min. 
Engrs.. no. 142. Oct. 191S. pp. 1620-1627. 2 figs. Classification of troubles 
and account of results obtained by shutting off water. 

PRECIOUS MINERALS 

Kaloooriie. Katgoorlie Goldfield. Aust. Min. Std., vol. 60. no. 1564. Oct. 31, 1918. 
pp. 705 and 707. Report of J. B. Jaquet on circumstances connected with 
certain earth tremors, presence of methane gas, systems of working, etc. 



RARE MINERALS 

Wilsonium. Wilsonium. Henry Bonaparte. Min. Jl: Eng. Rec, vol. 23. nos. 17 and 
18, Sept. 30, 1918, pp. 176-177. Chemical and physical nature and occur- 
rence of new mineral named in honor of President Wilson by its discoverer 
Franklin Heath. 

TIN 

Metallorgv. Effect of Heating and Heating and Quenching Cornish Tin Ores 
Before Crushing Arthur Yates. Inst. Min. of Met., bul. 170, Nov. 14, 
14, 1913, pp. 1-3. Summary of investigation made in the laboratories of the 
Royal School of Mines. 

Ore Handling. Installation for Mechanical Handling of Tin Ore at Boebocs Valley 
on the Banka (Installaties voor machinale ontginning van tinerta in de 
Boeboea-vallei op Banka). A. Van. der Ham, Do Ingénieur, vol. 33, no. 41, 
Oct. 12, 191S, pp. 789-802. 19 figs. 

Tin Conservation. A Symposium on the Conservation of Tin. A.I.M.E. bul. 
no. 144, Dec 1918. pp. 1729-1764. Eight short papers. 

Conserving Tin in Different Solder Mixtures, Milton L. I-issberger. 
Foundry, vol. 46, no. 310. Dec. 1918, pp. 579-580. Experiments indicate that 
the ideal alloy should contain . . per cent tin and 51 per cent lead; preventing 
tin waste. From paper before Milwaukee mcetmg of Inst, of Metals 
Division of Am. Inst, of Min. Engrs. 

TRANSPORTATION 

Dump Cars. Dumps and Dump Hoppers. C. L. Miller. Coal Industry, vol. 1, 
no. 10. Oct. 1918, pp. 373-374. 2 figs. Suggestions for making layouts 
addressed to mining engineers haWng no other data at hand than details of 
mine car. 

MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 

Dilution. Sewage Disposal by Dilution. Times Eng. Supp.. no. 527, Sept. 1918, 
p. 188. Experimental investigation of Royal Commission on Sewage Disposal 
into self-purifying capacity of rivers. 

Direct Oxid.vtion. Sewage Treatment in Easton. Mun. Jl.. vol. 45, no. 20, Nov. 
16, 1918, pp. 386-388, 4 figs. Details and method of operation of plant of 
1.000,000 gal. capacity of " direct oxidation " type. 

Sewer Pipe. Incrustation in Vancouver Sewer Pipe, A. G. Dalzell. Can. Engr., 
vol. 35. no. 19, Nov. 7. 1918. pp. 403-406. 3 figc. Objectionable features which 
have developed in machine-made concrete pipe, 8 to 30 in. in diameter. 

Sludge Dewatering. Two important Sludge Problems, .\rthur J. Martin. Contract 
Rec, vol. 32, no. 48, Nov. 27, 1918. pp. 941-942. Suggestions in regard to 
use of compressed air and removal of water contained in sludge. 

Town Pl.^nning. The Problem of City Development, An Economic Survey, A. G. 
Dalzell. Jl. Eng. Inst. Can., vol. 1, no. 7. Nov. 1918. pp. 319-330, 16 figs. 
Comparison of rectangular and diagonal systems of city outline and study 
of conditions in Vancouver. 

Town Planning in Halifax and Vicinitv. H. L. Seymour. Jl. Eng. Inst. 
Can., vol. 1. no. 6. Oct. 1918. pp. 262-268, 3 figs. Schemes indicating width 
of streets, open spaces, building lines and character of buildings. 



MUNITIONS AND MILITARY ENGINEERING 

Balustics. a Field Ballistic Problem. Meade Wildriek. Jl. U. S. Artillerj', vol. 
49, no. 3. May-Aug. 1918. pp. 159-186. 9 figs. Numerical illustration of (1) 
construction of range table. (2) construction of range correction curves, 
(3) construction of deflection correction chart, (4) correction for variation in 
muzzle velocity due to a variation in weight of projectile, and (5) correction 
for variation in temperature of powdered charge. 

Effect of the Earth's Rotation Upon the Point of Fall, Fred M. Green 
and C. W. Green. Jl. U. S. Artillery, vol. 49, no. 3. May-Aug. 1918. pp. 192- 
204. 10 figs. Derives from consideratina of effect of differenre in velocity of 
gim and target due to earth's rotation, approximate expressions for cor- 
rections required in trajectory of projectile fired at long range. 

Notes on Inclined Trajectories. F. M. Green and C. W. Green. Jl. 
U. S. Artillery, vol. 49. no. 3. May-Aug. 1918, pp. 187-191, 1 fig. 

Simpson's Resection. Stanley H. Simpson. Jl. U. S. Artiller>'. vol. 49. 
no. 3. May-Aug. 1918. pp. 208-214, 3 figs. Explains method in which, angles 
being measured in mils, instead of plotting actual arcs, short chords of these 
arcs are plotted on a scale large enough to make chords practically coincident 
with arcs. 

The Elliptic Trajectory Over the Earth. G. Greenhill. Engineering, 
vol. 106, no. 2754, Oct. 11, 1918. A mathematical article. 

Bullets. Explosive, Expansive and Perforating Bullets. Claude Pemelle. Soi. 
Am Supp-, vol. 86. no. 2238, Nov. 23, 1918, pp. 332-333. 5 figs. Types used 
by German and .\ustrian armies. Translated from La Nature. 

Howitzers. How the 15.5-Mm. Howitzer is Made. J. V. Hunter. .\m. Mach., vol. 
49. nos. 21 and 22. Nov. 21 and 28. 1918. pp. 941-945. 17 figs., and 9S3-986. 
14 figs. Work on howitzer jacket after jt has been rough -machined and 
heat-treated. Nov. 28: Making the tube. 

Mobile Batteries. Railroad Men Man Mobile Battery for Navy Ry. Age, 
vol. 65. no. 22, Nov. 29. 1918. pp. 967-969, 4 figs. Description of 14-inch 
naval guns on railway mounts which worked destruction oehind Germar 
lines. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



57 



Ordnance Manufacture. Finding the "Choke Points" of Ordnance, John H. 
Van Doventer. Am. Mach., vol. 49. no. 22, Nov. 2S, 1918, pp. 9ti7-971, (i figa. 
One of series of articles on work of Ordnance Dept. 

Munitions i'rodnetiori by British Railways. Ry. Rev., vol. 03, no. 10, 
Nov. y, 1ÎU.S. pp. 071-072. Account of reorganization of railway shops in 
Great Uritain to hccome one of I'ingland's chief sources of supply for munitions 
of war. Adapted from Board of Trade Journal, London. 

The Manufacture of Gims (i^a faljrication des canons). Ch. Dantin. 
Génie Civil, vol. 73, no. 1S75, July 20, lOls, pp. 41-47, 21 figs. Considerations 
governing choice of metal and description of manufacturing process. 

What Ordnance Is and Dno.s, John II. Van Deventer. Am. Mach., 
vol. 49, no. 20, Nov. 14, 1918, pp. S70-S81. 7 figs. Organization of Ordnance 
Department and what it docs. First article. 

OanNANCE Plant. A War-Time American Ordnance Plant. Iron Age, vol. 102, 
no. 22, Nov. 28, 1918, pp. 1320-1328, 5 figs. Description of new plant of 
Tacony Ordnance Corporation. 

Shells. The Manufacture of Semi-Steel Sheets. Iron Age, vol. 102, no. 22, Nov- 
28, 1918, pp. 1317-1321, 32 tiga. Pr.actice as recommended by Ordnance 
Department; chemical metallurgical, molding and machining details. 

Spotting Board. Spotting Board, (Î. R. Meyer. Jl. U. S. Artillery, vol. 49, no. 3, 
May-Aug. 19 IS, pp. 20Ô-207, 1 fig. Constructed to furnish battery com- 
mander with information as to longtitudinal deviation of his shots. 



Santa Fb Heavy. A. T. & S. F. 4-8-2 Type of Locomotives. Ry. Mech. Engr. 
vol. 92, no. 12. Dec. lOlS, pp. G49-G52, 3 figs. Heaviest of type yet bnilt. 
Prmcipal dimensions and data. 

Sant.^ Fe Passenger. Mountain Tvpc Locomotive for the Santa Fc. Ry. Rev., 
vol. 63, no. 20, Nov. 10, 1918, pp. 097-098, 3 figs. Description and j>rincipal 
data of heavy fast passenger locomotive. Also in Ry. Age, vol. Go, no. 22, 
Nov. 29, 1918, pp. 9Ô7-9Ô9, 1 fig. 

St.vnoard. Data for Standard Locomotives. Ry. Mech. Eng. vol. 92, no. 11. 
Nov. 1918, pp. G07-G10, 12 figs. Tonnage rating charts and clearance and 
weight diagrams for govermnent locomotives now built. 

Standard Switcher. Standard Six-Wheel Switcher. Ry. Mech. Eng., vol. 92. 
no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 593-590, 5 figs. Principal data and description 
with drawings. 

Superheating. Superheater Locomotive Performance. Ry. Mech. Engr., vol. 92, 
no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 052-655, 1 fig. Abstract of committee report pre- 
sented at the 1918 Convention of the Traveling Engrs. Assn., with discussion, 

Virginian Heavy Grade Pusher. Virginian 2-10-10-2 Locomotives. Ry. Mech 
Eng., vol. 92, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 000-004, figs. Principal data and 
description with drawings. Built for heavy grade pusher service. 



. RAILROAD ENGINEERING 

BRITISH 

British Railways. British Railways Under War Conditions. Engineer, vol. 120, 
no. 3280, Nov. 8, 1918, pp. 390-391. What they cost the country. Eighth 
article. 

ELECTRIC RAILROADS 

(Not including Street and I n ter urban Lines) 

Argentine Railways. Electric Traction on the Central Argentine Railway. Ry. 
Gaz., vol. 29, no. 18, Nov. 1, 1918, pp. 406-409, 4 figs. Cables; substations. 
(Continuation of serial.) Also in Engineer, vol. 120, no. 3279, Nov. 1, 1918, 
pp. 307-370. 12 figs. 

Energy Consumption. Energy Consumption of Cars Is Affected by Temperature 
Changes, M. B. Ro-sevear. Eleo. Ry. Jl., vol. 52, no. 22, Nov. 30, 1918. 
pp. 958-960, 2 figs. That power required for car operation is affected by 
variations in schedule speed, number of passengers carried and temperature ir 
shown by extended study-made by Public Service Railway, Newark, N.J. 

Substations. Automatic Substations and Direct-Current Railway Systems (Les 
sous-stations automatiques et les réseaux de traction à courant continu) . 
Revue Générale de l'Electricité, vol. 4, no. 11, Sept. 14, 1918, pp. 380-392, 
7 figs. Details of operation; scheme of connections for 600-volt systems; 
tables of results obtained in actual installations. 

ELECTRIFICATION 

Montreal Tunnel. Montreal Tunnel Zone Electrification, William G. Gordon. 
Elec. Ry. Jl., vol. 52, no. 22, Nov. 30, 1918, pp. 902-965, 5 figs. Summary 
of details of rolling stock, overhead and substation equipment; design and 
construction problems. Abstract of paper before Am. Inst, of Elec. Engrs. 
Toronto, Nov. 1918. 

EQUIPMENT 

Ditcher. Electrically Operated Ditcher Effects Big Saving, Charles W. Ford. 
Elec. Ry. Jl., vol. 52, no. 22, Nov. 30, 1918, pp. 960-961. 5 fig.s. This is first 
elect rio-machinc built for ditching purposes; operates at 1200 or 1500 volts with 
30-hp. motor. 

LABOR 

British Railways. British Railways Under War Conditions. Engineer, vol. 126, 
no. 3279, Nov. 1, 1918, pp. 371-372. Railwaymen'a war bonus. Seventh 
article. 

MAINTENANCE 

Maintenance of Way Records and Reports. Ry. Rev., vol. 63, no. 19, 
Nov. 9, 1918, pp. 067-668. Methods being worked out by Railroad Admini-s- 
tration for establishing accurate records; will standardize reports. 

Pacific Electric's New Car Storage and Repair Facilities, Clifford A. 
Elliott. Elec. Ry. Jl., vol. 52, no. 21, Nov. 23, 1918, pp. 914-917. 11 figs 
Description of three divisional storage track layouts with car houses and repair 



LOCOMOTIVE 

Boiler for Mallet Locomotive. Large Boiler for New Mallet Locomotive. Boiler 
Maker, vol. 18, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 303-301, 4 figs. Sections and elevations 
of boiler built for heavy grades, having firebox length of 181 1-16 in. and desined 
for 215-lb. working pressure. 

Feed Water Heating. Locomotive Feed Water Heating, H. S. Vincent. Ry 
Mech. Engr., vol. 92, no. 12, Dec. 1918, serial 1st part, pp. 64.5-649, 8 figs. 
Discussion of exhau.st steam and waste gas methods of preheating. 

French Compound. Recent Locomotives for the French State Railways, F. C. 
Coleman. Ry. Age, vol. 65, no. 20, Nov. 15, 1918, pp. 861-803, 4 figs. 
Principal data and decriptions of four-cylinder compound pacific type and 
simple consolidation type built in Great Britain. 

Bock Island Heavy. 2-10-2 Type Locomotive for the Rock Island Lines. Ry. Age, 
vol. 65, no. 23, Dec. 6, 1918, pp. 992-994, 6 figs. Novel and interesting 
features. 



NEW CONSTRUCTION 

American-Built Railroad Cutoff will Relieve Traffic Congestion in 
France, Robert K. Tomlin, Jr. Eng. News-Rec., vol. 81, no. 19, Nov, 7. 
1918, pp. 832-835, 14 figs. A 5^^ mile double-track line for Expeditionary 
forces; big embankment chief feature; bridge half a mile long. 

OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT 

British Operation. Presidential Address to the Institution of Civil Engineers, John 
A. F. Aspinall. Ry. Gaz., vol. 29, no. 19, Nov. 8, 1918, pp. 487-494. British 
railway engineering and operation; immediate problems to be faced. 

Fuel Conservation. Conservation of Fuel on the Railroads. Ry. Age, vol. 65, 
no. 21, Nov. 22, 1918, pp. 913-916. Abstracts of papers presented by railway 
men before New York Ry. Club. 

Work of the Fuel Conservation Section, E. C. Schmidt. Ry Rev 
vol. 63, no. 22, Nov. 30, 1918, pp. 769-772. Organization and work of this 
department of Railroad Administration. 

Supervision of Locomotives, British. District Supervision of Locomotives on 
British Railways, W. Patterson. Ry. Gaz., vol. 29, no. 18, Nov. 1, 1918, 
pp. 469-471. Review of work in a typical district with a staff of about 500 
persons and sheds to which are allotted 150 engines. 

Traffic Control. Controlling the Freight Traffic, North-Eastern Railway. 
Engineer, vol. 126, no. 3270, Oct. 11, 1918, pp. 305-306, 3 figs. Description 
of traffic control of North-Eastern Railway, and control board. 

PERMANENT WAY AND BUILDINGS 

Floor Slabs and Culverts. Railway Practice in Design of Concrete Floor Slabs 
and Flat Top Culverts. Eng. & Contracting, vol. 50, no. 21, Nov. 20, 
1918, pp. 511-512. Results of questionnaire by George H. Tinker. From 
Oct. Bulletin of Am. Ry. Eng. Assn. 

Relocation op Lines. New York Central Relocates Lines to Cross Barge Canal at 
the Tonawandas. Eng. New.s-Rec., vol. 81, no. 20, Nov. 14, 1918, pp. 
893-896, 2 figs. Detour two miles long around hearts of cities at once combines 
bridges over waterways and solves difficult problem of eliminating grade 
crossings and occupation of main business streets. 

RAILS 

TRANVEasE Fissures. Tranverse Fissures and Phosphorus Streaks in Rails, G. F. 
Comstock. Ry. Age, vol. 65, no. 22. Nov. 29, 1918, pp. 961-963, 2 figs. New 
evidence of influence of segregation and of advantage of reheating blooms. 
Abstract of paper before Am. Inst, of Min. Engrs. 

Transverse Fissures Cause Rail Failures. Ry. Age. vol. 65, no. 23, 
Dec. 6. 1918. pp. 1007-1009. Abstract of James E. Howard's report of the 
rail failure at Central Islip, N. Y. 

ROLLING STOCK 

Cleaning. Passenger Car Cleaning on the Canadian Pacific Railway, E. Eley. 
Can. Ry. Club, vol, 17, no. 6, Sept. 1918, pp. 19-22, and (discussion) pp. 23-31. 
Nature and amount of work required by different classes of cars. 

Coal Cars. Design of Seventy-Ton Coal Car with Tandem Hoppers. Ry. Mech. 
Eng., vol. 92, no. 11. Nov. 1918, pp. 611-613, 5 figs. Principal data with 
description and drawings. 

Flat Cars. Shipping Large Marine Boilers. Boiler Maker, vol. IS, no. 11, Nov. 
1918, p. 307, 1 fig. Describes special flat car for shipping Scotch boilers. 
From Marine Jl. 

Lighting. Standards of Passenger Car Lighting. Ry. Rev., vol. 63, no. 19, Nov. 
9, 1918, pp. 672-673. Specifications prepared by mechanical department of 
United States Radroad Administration for electric lighting of passengers 
equipment cars hereafter to be purchased by administration for use of. roads 
under its control. 

Refrioerator Cars. Standard U, S. R. A. Refrigerator. Ry. Mech. Engr., vol. 
92, no. 12, Dec. 191S, pp. 663-06S, 7 figs. Latest practices in design. Also 
in Ry. Age, vol. 05, no. 21. Nov. 22, 1918, pp. 906-910. 4 figs. 



58 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



SAFETY AND SIGNALLING SYSTEMS 

CoDPUNO AND Uncohplino. Prevention of Accidenta Due to Coupling nnd 
UncouplinK Care. E. M. Smtzcr. Safcty Ens., vol. J6. no. 4, Oct 191. 
pp. 202-264. From Proc. Seventh Annual Safety Congress. 

Intehiockino. Single Line Interlocking on the New South Wale.'! Railways. Uy. 
"^^^ Ga, , vol 29: no. 19. Nov. 8. 1918, pp. 495-597, 4 figs. Outline of system of 
interlocking and signalling line stations. 

Pi*ST RAiino.iD Hazards. Plant Railroad Hazards, C. K. Baltzell. Safety 
I LAST «^"■«O;;^ 3 „„ 4 ,)^t ]„,s, pp. 2.>2-2.5n 2 figs. Po».s,bi .ties of personi.l 

injuries in plants situated on main line trarks and manner of avoiding them. 

From Proc. Seventh Annual Safety Congress. 

SifiNAiUNO. Proceedings, Annual Meeting New Y^^, NY., Sept. 19-20 191S, 
Ry. Signal Assn., .11. 2.M year. No. 4, Dec. 191.S, pp. 31.J-4-0, 4 lig». 
Addrcs-ses, committee reports, etc. 

SHOPS 

l?oi..ER TCBF, FlTTlNO. Modern Locomotive Boiler Tube Practice at Doncaster 
Works Great Northern Railway. Ry. Gaz., vol. 29 no. 19 Nov. S, IJl.s, 
pp 499-500, 4 figs. Methods employed for fitting and expanding lioiler tubes 
and superheater flues. 



Car RBPAiRa. Car Department of the Milwaukee. Ry. Mech. Eng., vol. 92, no. 
11, Nov. 1918, pp. 615-020, 9 figs. Organization and methods of handling 
light and heavy car repairs with samples of forms used. 

Urin-diso. Grinding in I.,ocomotive Shops, M. IT. Williams. Ry. Mech. Eng., 
vol. 92, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 629-632, 4 figs. Usc.i to which internal, 
cylindrical and surface grinding machines may be put with success. 

Locomotive Repairs, .\ccuracy in Locomotive Repairs, M. H. Williams. Ry 
Mech. Engr.. vol. 92, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 67.3-077, 8 figs Methods of 
making and fitting -men and repair parts for locomotives with gages and 
micrometers. 

Repair Shops. American Railroad Repair Shops in France, Rol>ert K, Tomlin, Jr. 
Am. Mach., vol. 49, no. 21. Nov. 21, pp. 9:«-93S, 7 figs. How thes<> shop? 
were built by American engineers in France 

SPECIAL LINES 

LOGGIN'Q ROAUrt. Soldiers Ruild Logging Road.s in Spnice Forests, W. A, Welch 
Ry. Age, vol. O.-i, no, 19, Nov. 8, 1918, pp. 805-807, 6 figs. Description of 
construction of over 350 miles of new railway in Northwest for carrying 
airplane lumber tn mills. 



EMPLOYMENT BUREAU 



Situations Vacant 



Paper Mill Engineer 

Young man who is technical graduate and has had 
four or five years practical experience along paper mill 
lines. Address Box 25. 

Chief Draftsman 

Opening for an engineer to take charge of drafting 
room and also to do some outside work particularly m 
mill layouts and building construction of a mechanical 
nature. Address Box 24. 

Municipal Engineer. 

An engineering graduate of at least one or two years' 
experience in municipal work for junior roadway assistant. 
Membership of The Engineering Institute and men who 
have seen active service will be given preferable consider- 
ation. Apply E. R. Gray, City Engineer, Hamilton, Ont. 

Designing and Mechanical Engineer. 

Designing Mechanical Engineer, thoroughly exper- 
ienced in design of cranes, coal and ore handling bridges 
and towers, coal tipple equipments, conveying machinery, 
etc. High grade technical man wanted to take charge 
of design, state education and experience in detail, age, 
nationality, salary desired. Information confidential. 
Location, Canada. Apply Box 23. 

Hydromelric E7igi7ieer 

An Hydrometric Engineer in the Irrigation Branch at 
Calgary, Department of the Interior, at a salary of $1,500 
per annum. Candidates should be science graduates of 
a recognized university or hold grade in one of the organiz- 
ations mentioned below or have practical experience 
sufficient to guarantee a sound knowledge of engineering. 

The Engineering Institute of Canada. 

British Institute of Civil Engineers. 
American Society of Civil Engineers. 
Address: — Civil Servàce Commission, Wm. Foran, 
Secretary. 



An Analyst 

An Analyst on the staffs of the Laboratory at Halifax, 
Department of Trade and Commerce, Grade E of the 
First Division. Appointment is provisional at $1,400 
per annum. If satisfactory, permanent emplo>Tnent at 
$1,700 will be made, subject to passing successfully the 
examination prescribed by section 9 of The Adulteration 
Act. Applicants must be graduates of a recognized 
university with honours in chemistry, and must have 
had at least one year's subsequent experience in chemical 
analysis. 

Forest Ranger 

A Forest Ranger in charge of the Nisbet Reserve, 
Department of the Interior, at a salary of $1,400 per 
annum. Candidates must be between the ages of 21 
and 45 and must be physically fit. They must have a 
thorough knowledge of woods work, including scaling 
timber, elementary surveying, and road construction. 
They must have sufficient education and ability to carry 
on the business connected with the administration of 
the Forest Reserve, to keep office records and prepare 
reports. The appointee will be required to live in a house 
provided by the Department on the Forest Reserve and 
must provide himself with necessary equipment for 
travelling around the reserve. 

Puhlicitij Agent 

A Publicity Agent to take charge of the publicity 
work of the Department of Immigration and Colonization 
at a salary of $4,000 per annum. Candidates should 
possess the following qualifications:— ability to prepare 
and direct newspaper, magazine and farm journal adver- 
tising campaigns, both in Canada and elsewhere, setting 
forth the settlement opportunities in Canada; knowl- 
edge and experience with («) follow-up systems, (6) the 
production and circulation of motion pictures, and (c) 
the natural resources of Canada ; ability to direct lecture 
campaigns; a personal acquaintance with writers, publicists 
and organization now dealing with the opportunities and 
land settlement problems of Canada. 

All applications must be received not later than 
the 24th day of January. Apply Wm. Foran, Secretary, 
Civil Service Commission of Canada, Ottawa, Ont. 



THE JOURNAL OF 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 



A MONTHLY JOURNAL 

Published By 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

INCORPORATED IN 1887 AS 

THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 



Volume II 



FEBRUARY 1919 



Number 2 



REPORT OF COUNCIL FOR THE YEAR 1918 



In presenting its report for the year Nineteen Hundred 
and Eighteen, the Council of The Engineering Institute 
of Canada does so with a sense of satisfaction in the 
progress that has taken place in Institute affairs during 
the year just past, which, as in the history of the world, 
also marks an epoch in the affairs of the engineers of 
Canada. 

It is with a spirit of thankfulness that Council is 
able to record the termination of the devastating world 
struggle and with a conscious but permissible pride to 
pay a tribute to the gallant men of the engineering pro- 
fession of Canada who have taken such a notable part in 
the war and who have been a factor in contributing to 
its success. A large number of our overseas members, 
unfortunately, will not return but their memories will 
always be cherished A few are with us again and it is 
hoped that all shall have arrived in Canada before many 
months have passed. 

During the year the new By-Laws, proposed by the 
Committee on Society Affairs, were finally adopted and 
have become the official By-Laws of The Institute. 

The former name. The Canadian Society of Civil 
Engineers, has been changed by Act of Parliament to 
The Engineering Institute of Canada, and with the change 
has come a broader outlook and wider possibiHties for the 
organization. 

The inauguration of professional meetings and the 
successful convening of three during the year, one in 
Toronto, one in Saskatoon and one in Halifax, has given 
rise to a stronger bond of fellowship and has afforded an 
additional opportunity of enabling the members to 
become acquainted, so that these meetings, judging 
from the results of those held during the year, are bound to 
knit more closely together the fabric of The Institute. 



The President has been in attendance and has presided at 
all the professional meetings, which precedent it is hoped 
will be continued by succeeding Presidents. 

Four new Branches have been established, all of them 
in a flourishing condition, at Montreal, Hamilton, Halifax 
and St. John. Shortly after their formation, the Halifax 
and St. John Branches co-operated in arranging for a 
professional meeting, which has greatly stimulated 
engineering activities in the Maritime Provinces. In the 
Montreal Branch, mechanical, electrical, civil and indus- 
trial sections have been created, thus increasing the 
interest of the members in every branch of the profession 
and enabling all to take an active part in the meetings. 

As the result of an earnest desire to place the 
engineering profession on a higher plane and to give its 
members the recognition to which they are entitled, the 
question of legislation has become an active issue in the 
various Branches in the Dominion. A definite proposal 
to secure provincial legislation, originated with the western 
provinces and is being discussed by every Branch. 
Council has approved of the principle of securing legis- 
lation for raising the status of the profession and has 
encouraged discussion of the subject in order that the 
various Branches may come to an agreement whereby 
similar legislation would be sought in every province. 
While giving every encouragement, Council has felt that 
its great importance demands that no precipitate action 
be taken. 

With the inauguration of The Journal of The En- 
gineering Institute there has been established a medium 
of intercommunication which, from its first issue has 
received the hearty approval and commendation of the 
membership. It has been designed to include the en- 
gineering literature of Canada, which, naturally, largely 



60 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



originates from the membership of this Insiittde; the 
papers read at professional meetings or at Branches and 
any discussion thereon; all news of Branch activity; 
correspondence; monthly Report of Council; items of 
personal interest; an employment bureau to bring to the 
attention of the members positions available and an 
engineering index. This latter feature comprises a review 
of eleven hundred engineering and technical magazines 
every month by a group of experts on the staff of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, through whose 
courtesy the index has been made available to our members 
for a nominal sum. This service also includes the availa- 
bility of photostat copies of any of these articles through 
the Engineering Societies Library, whose director, 
Dr. Harrison W. Graver, has accorded our members the 
privileges of their magnificent library. 

As in 1917 a Tobacco Fund was created and over 
five hundred members overseas, whose addresses were 
available, have received Christmas greetings and 
cigarettes. 

Of no small importance to the members is the interest 
which the Council has taken in advancing the status of 
the individual. A committee of the Council interviewed 
the Civil Service Commission and was asked to make 
recommendations regarding salaries. This has been 
done, and if accepted, as has been promised, will be a 
powerful factor in raising the standard of engineers' 
salaries throughout the Dominion. 

A review of the past year would not be complete 
without recording the marked spirit of loyalty to The 
Indituk-, which is in evidence in every part of the 
Dominion, by the individual members and by our splendid 
Branch organizations and noting the general willingness 
of the members of every grade to closely co-operate in all 
matters relating to the affairs of the Institute or designed 
to promote the welfare of the profession. 



December 31st, 1918. 



H. H. Vaughan, President. 
Fraser S. Keith, Secretary. 



Roll of the Institute. 

Elections during the year resulted in the following 
additions to the Roll: thirty-eight Members; one hundred 
and two Associate Members; twenty-five Juniors; seven 
Students and three Associates. 

The following transfers were made: twenty-four 
Associate Members and one Associate to the class of 
Member; twenty-three Juniors and four Students to the 
class of Associate Member and eighteen Students to the 
class of Junior. 

There have been removed from the rolls by resignation 
or on account of non-payment of dues: eight Members; 
ten Associate Members; one Associate and two Students. 
A detailed list of resignations accepted is as follows: — 

Mcmhcr>:: 

Burpee, Tyler Coburn. Maunsell, George S. 

Grockard, F. H. Mayer, Joseph. 

Dupont, Victor H. Parent, Paul Etienne. 

Harris, William Dale. 
Kimball, H. S. 



Associate Members: 
Baker, Mason H. 
Bankson, E.E. 
Buell, W. E. 
Gorman, W. E. 
Glassco, A. P. S. 

Associate: 

Grant, William H. 

Students: 

Hooper, Ronald H. 



Grant, William F. 
Jacques, H. S. 
Mendelssohn, Joseph. 
Mulville, John C. 
Walker, N. de C. 



Mathews, J. E. 



The following deaths, fifty-three in number have been 
reported, of which number seventeen were killed in action. 



Members . 



Associate Members . 



Beullac, Marcel C. J. 
Breen, Thomas. 
Brophy, John Byrne. 
Bruce, A. H. N. 
Carre, Henry. 
Darey, Laurence A. 
Davis, William Mahlon. 
Donaldson, Morley. 
Earle, William Zobeski. 
Edwards, Prof. William Muir. 
Hill, Albert James. 
MacLeod, Henry A. F. 
Millidge, Edwin Gilpin. 
Murray, T. Aird. 
Schreiber, Sir Collingwood. 
Sidenius, Harry. 
Smith, Henry Badeley. 
Thibaudeau, W. 

. Bayfield, Henry Arthur. 
Bodwell, Howard L. 
Bromley-Smith, A. 
Clarke, Leonard Oswald. 
Cowan, William A. 
Cronk, Francis Joseph. 
Galbraith, William John. 
Greenwood, Walter Kendall. 
Hyde, Wm. Herbert. 
Kemp, Melville A. 
O'Donnell, Hugh. 
Rainboth, John. 
Wood, J. Russell. 

Grenier, Hector. 
Randall, Henrj' Edward. 

Boright, George K. 
Wilson, Calvin P. 



Killed in action, or died while on Active Service: 
Members Winslow, Rainsford-Hannay. 

Associate Members Booth, Patrick D. 

Henderson, Thomas D. 
Kent, Victor J. 
McQueen, Howard R. 
Meade, Alfred de Courcy. 
Richardson, Francis A. 
Sailman, Robert T. H. (L.) 
(1917). 



Juniors. . 
Students . 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



61 



Juniors Ferguson, L. L. 

Middleton, James R. (1917). 

Milot, J. Adelard (1917). 

Willson, F. J. (1917). 
Students MacLean, Donald Gordon. 

O'Rielly, Richard H. 

Peck, H. M. 

Scott, George M. 

Wilson, William James (1917). 

At present the membership stands as follows: 

Honorary Members 9 

Members 752 

Associate Members 1,548 

Juniors 373 

Students 488 

Associates 33 



Total 3,203 

The membership of the Branches as at December 
31st, 1918, is as follows: - 

Mem- Assoc. Asso- Affi- 

bers Members Juniors Students ciates liates 

Quebec 18 55 17 14 — 1 

Ottawa 65 124 35 29 — 2 

Toronto 66 144 34 69 — 5 

Manitoba 40 93 26 20 — 1 

Vancouver 47 72 7 4 — 

Kingston .• Activities discontinued until the close of 

the war. 

Victoria 22 30 3 — — 2 

Calgary 21 37 5 — — 1 

Edmonton... 11 31 7 8 — 

Saskatchewan. 9 67 3 5 1 6 

Montreal, H.M. 3 136 250 71 168 — 11 

Halifax 25 30 5 3 — 

St. John 13 21 8 - — 1 

Hamilton 4 18 7 8 — 

Meetings. 

(The Montreal Branch took over the meetings at Headquarters 
in February.) 
There have been nine meetings at which the following 
papers were read: — 

" Quebec Bridge," by G. H. Duggan, M. E. I. C. 
" Recent Advances in Canadian Metallurgy," by 
Dr. A. Stansfield. 

" Tests of the Chain Fenders in the Locks of the 
Panama Canal," by Henry Goldmark, M. E. I. C. 

" Datum Planes Related to the Tide," by Dr. W. 
Bell Dawson, M. E. L C. 

" Engineering Activities in Connection with the 
Navy," by Commander Skentelbery. 

" Nicu Steel." by Col. R. W. Leonard, M. E. I. C. 

" Kettle Rapids Bridge," by W. Chase Thomson, 
M. E. I. C. 

"Varnish Manufacture," by Norman Holland. 

" Champlain Dry Dock for Quebec Harbour," bv 
U. Valiquet, M. E. I. C. 

Address on Military matters by Lieut. Ashworth. 



Institute Committees for 1918. 

Executive Committee of Council : 

Vaughan, H. H., Chairman. 
Fairbairn, J. M. R. Francis, Walter J. 

Safford, H. R. Surveyer, Arthur. 

Ross, R. A. Brown, Ernest. 

Finance: 

Ross, R. .'\., Chairman. 
Duggan, G. H. Monsarrat, C. N. 

Marceau, Ernest. Robertson, J. M. 

Library and House : 

Safïord, H. R., Chairman. 
Surveyer, Arthur. Shearwood, F. P. 

Frigon,A. McGuigan, F. H., Jr. 

By-Laws : 

Safïord, H. R., Chairman. 
Francis, Walter J. Brown, Ernest. 

Papers {June 1918-1.9) : 

Francis, Walter J., Chairman. 
Matheson, E. G. Doucet, A. E. 

Duff, W. Arch'd. Macintyre, R. W. 

Gillespie, Peter. Elliot, L. B. 

Gale, G. Gordon. Mackie, G. D. 

Publications : 

Brown, Ernest, Chairman. 
Robertson, J. M. French, R. deL. 

Thomson, W. Chase. DeCew, J. A. 



Engineering Standards : 
Duggan, G. H. 



Herdt, L. A. 



Electro-Technical : 

Herdt, L. A., Chairman. 
Gill, L. W. Lambe, A. B. 

Barnes, H. T. Rosebrugh, T. R. 

Higman, O. Murphy, J. 

Kynoch, J. 

Board of Examiners and Education : 

MacKay, H. M., Chairman. 
Surveyer, A., Secretary. French, R. deL. ' 
Brown, Ernest. Lea, R. S. 

Robertson, J. M. Roberts, A. R. 

Board of Examiners — Quebec Act : 

Surveyer, Arthur, Chairman. 
Fairbairn, J. M. R. Brown, Frederick. B. 

MacKay, H. M., McGill University representative. 
Surveyer, Arthur, Laval University representative. 

Conunittee on Gzowski Medal and Students' Prizes : 

Duggan, G. H., Chairman. 
Ambrose, J. R. W. St. Laurent, A. 

Lewis, D. O. Wilson, R. M. 



Honor Roll : 

Monsarrat, C. N. 



Keith, Fraser S. 



62 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Nominating : 

Saskatchewan MacKcnzie, H. R. 

Victoria Marriott, E. G. 

Manitoba Chace, W. G. 

Toronto Harkness, A. H. 

Quebec Oliver, S. S. 

Ottawa Dion, A. A. 

Montreal Tye, W. F. 

Lefebvre, O. 

Vancouver Ker, Newton J. 

Calgary Porter,.Sam. G. 

Edmonton Gibb, R. J. 

Fuel Power: 

Murphy, John, Chairman. 
Ross, R. A. Dick, W. J. 

Francis, Walter J. Surveyer, Arthur. 

Challies, J. B. 

Sited Bridge Specifications : 

Motley, P. B., Chairman. 

Monsarrat, C. N. Thomson, W. Chase. 

Stuart, H. B. Bowden, W. A. 

Boden, H. P. LeGrand, J. G. 

Shearwood, F. P. Craig, George W. 

Duggan, G. H. Cole, F. T. 

Johnson, Allan E. Lyons, M. A. 

Montgomery, E. G. W. Harkness, A. H. 
Icke, H. A. 

Steam Boiler Specifications : 

Arkley, L. M., Chairman. 
Chace, W. G. Robb, D. W. 

Clark, F. G. Vaughan, H. H. 

Durley, R. J. Waterous, Logan M. 

Roads and Pavements: : 

McLean, W. A., Chairman. 

Brereton, W. P. MacPherson, A. J. 

Duchastel, J. Mercier, P. E. 

Griffith, J. E. Near, W. P. 

Henry, G. Powell, G. G. 

James, E. A. Rust, C. H. 

MaCallum, A. F. Doane, F. W. W. 

Legislation Committee 

Representing Council : 

Surveyer, Arthur, Chairman. 
Robertson, J. M. Francis, Walter J. 

Representing Branches: 

Toronto Haultain, H. E. T. 

Kerry, J. G. G. 

Oliver, E. W. 
Calgary Dawson, A. S. 

Peters, F. H. 

Porter, S. G. 
Victoria MacIntyTe, R. W. 

Lewis, D. O. 

Davis, E. 
Ottawa Dion, A. A. 

MaCallum, A. B. 

McRae, J. B. 



Manitoba Duff, W. Arch'd. 

Henry, M. G. 

Sauer, M. V. 
Saskatchewan Thornton, L. A. 

Makie, G. D. 

Stein, J. N. de. 
Quebec Decary, A. R. 

Doucet, A. E. 

Gibault, J. E. 
Edmonton Cote, J. L. 

Fraser, A. T. 

Thornton, N. M. 
Vancouver Kennedy, J. H. 

Ker. Newton, J. 

White, T. H. 

The following is a detailed statement of elections 
and tranfers which have taken place during the year. 
These are not included in the official membership roll 
until acceptances have been received. 

January 29th, 1918 
Members: 

Gore, Wm. 

Associate Members: 

Cooke, E. F. Murphv, T. R. H. 

Hamilton, G. M. Newhall, V. A. 

Meindl, J. A. Todd, E. D. 

Morris, D. Wilkinson, J. B. 

Transferred from the Class of Associate Member to that of 

Member: 

Goodspeed, F. G. Winslow, R. H. 

Powell, W. H. 

Transferred from the Class of Student to that of Junior: 
Flett, F. P. 

March 19th, 1918 

Associate Members: 

Gray, A. W. Lowden, N. 

Greene, J. F. Swain, R. J. 

Transferred froyn the Class of Associate Member to that of 
Member: 
Atkinson, M. B. Jones, L. M. 

Brereton, W. P. Meyers, A. J. 

Foreman, A. E. 

Transferred from the Class of Junior to that of Associate 
Member: 
Cowley, F. P. V. 

Transferred from the Class of Student to that of Junior: 
Easton, L. L Ross-Ross, D. deC. 

April 23rd, 1918 
Members: 

Bell, F. J. Johnson. C. 

Guy, G. L. Rindal, H. 

Haanel, B. F. C. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



63 



Smith, F. G. 
Townsend, F. W. 
Wotherspoon, W. 



Associate Members: 
Campbell, W. G. 
Gillies, W. C. 
Meade, J. C. 
Prévost, R. deM. 

Transferred from the Class of Associate Member to that of 
Member: 
Dick, W. J. Waddell, N. E. 

Miles, E. L. 

Transferred from the Class of Sudent to that of Associate 
Member: 
Erskine, J. 

May 21st, 1918 
Members: 

Collins, C. D. Jacobson, E. A. 

Crockard, F. H. Smaill, W. 

Faibairn, R. P. Stansfield, E. 

Associate Members: 
Adamson, E. K. 
Brown, D. M. 
Cvmimings, A. 
Hanson, E. C. A. 
King, J. A. S. 
Marshall, J. 



Transferred from the Class of Junior to that of Associate 
Member: 
Bonn, W.-E. Brickenden, F. M. 

Transferred from the Class of Student to that of Junior: 
Neilson, S. A. 

July 23rd, 1918 
Members: 

Ayars, W. S. Halford, A. 

Charlesworth, L. C. Wright, C. H. 



Pratt, G. R. 
Puntin, J. H. 
Rannie, J. L. 
Reilly, F. B. 
Smith, W. R. 
Warren, W. R. 



Associate Members: 
Brunton, R. 
Corbett, A. H. 
Davis, W. E. 
Dyer, A. F. 
Hackner, J. W. 
Horsfall, H. 
Hayward, C. 

Juniors: 

Dickinson, J. A. 
Gordon, J. M. 



MacKay, R. 
Mackenzie, C. G. 
McHugh, J. 
O'Kelly, E. G. 
Rogers, G. W. 
Wilshaw, J. H. 



Scott, C. R. 



Juniors: 

Allen, R. W. Collins, L. E. 

Bothwell, R. S. C. Kendall, R. 

Bridges, F. J. Wright, W. G. 

Cassidy, J. F. 

Transferred from the Class of Associate Member to that of 
Member: 
Hogarth, Geo. 

Transferred from the Class of Junior to that of Associate 
Member: 
Somers, N. L. 

Transferred from the Class of Student to that of Associate 
Member: 
McKenzie, J. E. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Junior: 
Bishop, J. M. 

June 25th, 1918 
Members: 

Alexander, K. Colvocoresses, G. M. 

Brown, J. E. Hamilton, C. B. 

Associate Members: 

Button, S. A. Markham, E. A. 

Kester, F. H. ' Walker, C. M. 

Longley, E. H. 

Junior: 

Mooney, J. P. 

Transferred from the Class of Associate Member to that of 
Member: 
Corriveau, R. deB. Stewart, R. B. 



Transferred from the Class of Junior to that of Associate 
Member: 

Ross, R. W. 

Transferred from the Class of Student to that of Junior: 
Bertrand, H. Greatrex, W. K. 

Browne, E. F. McCully, R. C. 

August 28th, 1918 
Members: 

Chambers, C. McArthur, J. J. 

Faulkner, F. R. Stockton, R. S. 

MacNab, I. P. 



Associate Members: 
Ayer, K. R. 
Ireland, W. J. 

Juniors: 

Ells, J. C. 



McKean, H. S. 
Yarrow, N. A. 



Penrose, J. M. 



Transferred from the Class of Associate Member to that of 
Member: 
Porter, J. W. Wilson, J. M. 

Transferred from the Class of Junior to that of Associate 
Member: 
Grove, H. S. 

Transferred from, the Class of Student to that of Junior: 
Slinn, W. H. 

October 22nd, 1918 
Members : 

Hart, P. E. Ross, Sir Charles, Bart. 

Hays, D. W. Waters, W. I^. 

Kipp, T. Jr. Winfield, J. H. 

Robb, A. G. 



64 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Associate Members: 
Armstrong, H. W. 
Bateman, E. F. 
Belliveau, J. E. 
Chown, R. C. F. 
Davies, G. V. 
DeWolf. A. H. 
Hein, O. J. 
Jack, R. T. G. 
Joyce, W. E. 
Lamarque, E. C. W. 



J uniur: 



Calvert, D. G. 
Crossing, W. B. 
McKenzie, R. J. 
Mifflen, S. C. 



Macdonald, G. C. 
Mackenzie, W. D. 
McColough, R. W. 
Peden, F. 
Rome, R. 
Rowlands, J. F. 
Smith. F. R. 
Wakefield, J. A. 
Wvand. D. 



Morrison, J. H. T. 
Nehin, F. O'B. 
Smith, W. W. 



Transferred from the Class of Associate Member to that of 
Member: 
Burnett, A. Dalziel, N. P. 

Freeman, J. R. French, R. deL. 

Transferred from the Class of Associate to that of Member: 
Stansfield, A. 

Transferred from the Class of Junior to that of Axsnciate 
Member: 

Bernier, J. A. Jette, J. C. H. 

Cox, O. S. Kendall, L. E. 

Dawson, S. G. Lamont, A. W. 

Fredette, J. F. Lavigne, E. J. T. 

Goldman, H. A. Wall, A. F. 

Jamieson, W. T. Young, R. B. 

Transferred from the Class of Studetit to that of Associate 
Member: 

Hemmerick, G. 
Transferred from the Class of Student to that of Junior: 

Cimon,'j. M. H. " Snider, A. M. 

Lake, N. J. Weldon, R. L. 

Milne, A. H. 

November 26th, 1918 
Members: 

Barnes, J. W. Roland, J. W. 

Misener, J. S. 

Associate Members: 

Booker, G. E. MacNab, S. D. 

Boyle, A. J. McDougall, J. J. 

Chisholm, K. G. Montague, J. R. 

Johnson, K. P. Rochetti, J. 

Kent, E. S. Warren, H. de laG. 
Leaver, C. B. 

Junior: 

Bowman, C. M. 
Student: 

Comeau, J. 

Associate: 

Carmichael, T. 
Transferred from the Class of Associate Member to that of 
Member: 

Doncaster, P. E. 



Transferred from the Class of Student to that of Associate 
Member : 
Massue, Huet. 

Transferred from the Class of Student to that of J unior: 

King, W. W. 

December 17th, 1918 
Members: 

Campbell, A. D. Moodie, W. T. 

Jeffrey, G. J. Russell, H. A. 

McLaren, W. F. Stairs, J. A. 

Associate Members: 

Berney, K. C. Lewis, D. 

Cameron, J. G. Markham, E. 

Cosser, W. F. J. Morse, E. H. 

Galletly, J. S. Newton, C. A. 

Harris, H. W. Palmer, R. F. 

Ker, F. I. Scholefield, F. W. B. 

Kerr, A. E. Stuart, W. J. 

Levvy, A. Tait, I. J. 

J unior s : 

Holland, H. D. Smart, H. 

Sissons, T. E. G. Swan, A. W. 

Students: 

Brown, W. J. Henderson, C. R. D. 

Donaldson, A. Kennedy, C. L. 

Fortin, G. L. Salamis, B. K. 

Transferred from the Class of Associate Member to that of 
Member: 

Carson, W. H. Mackie. G. D. 

Johnson, C. V. 
Transferred from the Clas.s of Junior to that of Associate 
Member: 

Crowell, S. W. McEwen, A. B. 

Mahon, H. W. Scott, P. 

Smith, B. O. 
Transferred from the Class of Student to that of Junior: 

Harkom, J. F. Rolland, J. O. 

List of Members on Honour Roll. 

The following is a statement in regard to the members 
of The Institute who have so far, as information has been 
received, enlisted for overseas service during the period 
of the war : — 

Honorary members 1 

Members 90 

Associate Members 379 

Juniors 167 

Students 231 

Associates 3 

Making a total of 871 

Of these there have been killed in action or died of 
wounds: — 

Members 1 

Associate Members 6 

Juniors 4 

Students 5 

In all 16 



I 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



65 



Report of the Library and House Committee 

Safford, H. R., Chairman. 
Survever, Arthur. Frigon, A. 

Shearwood, F. P. McGuiffan, F. H. Jr. 

To the Council 

of the Engineering Institute 
of Canada: 

I beg leave to present on behalf of the Committee 
on Library and House, our report for the year just ended. 

The following additions in the way of publications 
were received by the Secretary during the current year : — 

By H. H. Vaughan, M. E. I. C. 

Photographic Volume, Victoria Bridge (1860). 
ByE. D.Gray, A.M. E. L C. 

Petroleum in Canada, by Victor Ross. 
By John W. LeB. Ross, M. E. I. C. 

Statistical Report of Lake Commerce. 
By F. W. Cowie, M. E. L C. 

Annual Reports, Harbour Commissioners of 
Montreal, 1916-17. 
By Fraser S. Keith, A. M. E. I. C. 

The Honourable Peter White. 
By Charles F. Bristol, A. M. E. I. C. 

Electric Furnaces in the Iron and Steel 

Industry, by Rodenhauser, Shoenawa and 

Von Baur. 
By F. A. Bowman, M. E. I. C. 

The Monthly Bulletin of the Maritime Telephone 
and Telegraph Company Limited. 
By Walter J. Francis & Company. 

1 vol. Annual Report, 1915, Public Service 
Commission, Massachusetts. 

1 vol. Annual Report, 1916, Public Service 
Commission, Maryland. 

2 vols. Annual Report, 1914, 1915, Public 
Service Commission, Indiana. 

1 vol. Annual Report, 1915, Public Service 
Commission, New Hampshire. 

3 vols. Annual Report, 1914, Public Service 
Commission, New York, 1st District. 

1 vol. Annual Report, 1915, Public Service 
Commission, New York, 2nd District. 

3 vols. Annual Report, 1915-1916, Public UtiUties 
Commission, District of Columbia. 

1 vol. Annual Report, 1916, Public Utilities 
Commission, Connecticut. 

1 vol. Annual Report, 1916, Public Utilities 
Commission, Ohio. 

1 vol. Annual Report, 1914-1915, Public Utilities 
Commission, Idaho. 

1 vol. Annual Report, 1915, Public Utilities 
Commission, New Jersey. 

1 vol. Annual Report, 1916, PubUc Utilities 
Commission, Maine. 

1 vol. Annual Report, 1914, Public Utilities 
Commission, Illinois. 

2 vols. Annual Report, 1915, Railroad Com- 
mission, Wisconsin. 

1 vol. Annual Report, 1915, Railroad Com- 
mission, Iowa. 



1 vol. Annual Report, 1916, Railroad Com- 
mission, Nebraska. 

1 vol. Annual Report, 1915, Railroad Com- 
mission, Michigan. 

1 vol. Annual Report, 1915-1916, Railroad Com- 
mission, California. 

1 vol. Statistics of Railways in the United States, 
1914, Interstate Commerce Commission. 

1 vol. Statistics of Common Barriers, 1916, 
Interstate Commerce Commission. 

1 vol. Central Electric Light and Power Stations 
and Street and Electric Railways, United States, 
Department of Commerce, 1912. 
By Wm. Pearce, M. E. I. C. 

Blueprint Giving Coal Statistics on the Colon- 
ization and Development Branch for the Canadian 
Pacific Railway. 
By J. J. Salmond, A. E. I. C. 

Bound Volume of Canadian Engineer Vol. 34. 
By A. E. Doucet, M. E. I. C. 

Voyages en Egypte, Volume 1 and 2, and 
Planches de Voyages dans la Basse et la Haute 
Egypte, by V. Denon. 
By McGraw-Hill Book Company. 

Mechanical and Electrical Cost Data, by 
Gilette and Dana. 
By Noel Olgivie. M. E. I. C. 

Publication Number One of the Geodetic Survey 
of Canada, Precise Levelling. 

By Lawrence Burpee, Secretary International Joint 
Commission. 

The Application of the St. Lawrence River Power 
Company. 

Interim Order and Opinion, and Opinion, 
by Mr. Powell. 

The works which have been purchased are : 

Proceedings of the Twenty-ninth Convention, 
National Association of Railway Commissioners held 
at Washington, October, 1917. 

The Engineering Index Annual, 1917. 
The following additions were made in exchange of 
transactions: 

" Chimie & Industrie," Paris, France. 

" Le Génie Civil," Paris, France. 

" La Houille Blanche," Lyon, France. 

During the year the Committee undertook the pre- 
paration of an Engineering Index for the Library, and 
after consulting with the Librarian of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers in New York, the Librarian 
of the United Engineering Societies of New York, the 
index used by the American Railway Engineering Associa- 
tion, and others, decided to adopt a system quite similar 
in character to that used in the American Society Library, 
in New York. 

In reaching this conclusion the Committee was guided 
by two primary considerations : 

First, the application of a system which had been well 
developed after an intensive study in connection with 
conditions which were not dissimilar to our problem; 



66 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Second, the convenience which will result from a 
membership of so many engineers in both The Kinjinccring 
InMituic of CaiHuhi and the United EngineerinR Societies in 
the United States; and 

Third, the moderate expense which would accompany 
the installation of this system in The Engineering Isntilittc 
of Canada. 

Arrangements were made with the Librarian of McGill 
University for assistance to carry out this work, which 
was done here, the books being all indexed in accordance 
with the system adopted by the Committee. 

During the year an arrangement was made for pub- 
lishing from month to month, the titles of current en- 
gineering papers with name of author, source, and a brief 
extract of the more important, which is designed to give 
the members of The Institute a survey of all important 
articles relating to the profession. 

This arrangement, we are glad to say, was made in 
co-operation with the United Engineering Societies, and 
it is felt it will be extremely helpful to its members. 

Respectfully submitted, 

H. R. Safford, 

Chairman. 

Report of Publications Committee 

Brown, Ernest, Chairman. 
Robertson, J. M. French, R. deL. 

Thomson, W. Chase. De Cew, J. A. 

The past year has been one of transition in regard to 
publications. The publication of volumes of Transactions 
has been suspended temporarily by the Council, and 
attention focussed upon the monthly Journal, the first 
number of which appeared in May last. Some papers 
read at Montreal, and accepted for publication in the 
Transactions of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers 
before the re-organization of the Society took place, still 
await publication in final form. It is expected that the 
series of papers on the Quebec Bridge will be issued as a 
separate volume of Transactions. 

With the return of our membership from overseas' 
and the establishment of The Monthly Journal on a paying 
basis, the finances of The Institute will enable the publi- 
cation of Transactions to be resumed and brought up to 
date. Meanwhile, The Journal has been the medium 
through which papers have been issued to the membership, 
and the Publications Committee has assisted the Secretary 
in passing upon papers submitted for publication. The 
normal function of the Publications Committee in future 
will be to select from the large number of papers 
published in The Journal, such papers and discussions 
thereon as are worthy of being embodied in permanent 
form in the Transactions of The Engineering Instilute of 
Canada. 

E. Brown, 



Jan. 2nd, 1919. 



Chairman. 



Report of Board of Examiners and Education. 

MacKay, H. M., Chairman. 
Surveyer, Arthur, Secretary. French, R. de L. 
Brown, Ernest. Lea, R. S. 

Robertson, J. M. Roberts, A. R. 

The Board of Examiners and Education has as usual 
examined the educational qualifications of a large number 
of candidates for admission, and has transmitted its 
findings to Council. The number of candidates presenting 
themselves for the semi-annual examinations during the 
year was as follows: — 

Examined Passed 
Theory and Practice of Engineering 4 3 

Hydraulic Engineering 1 1 

Mechanical Engineering 1 1 

Railway Engineering 1 1 

Total 7 6 

With the approval of Council, examiners will in 
future be authorized to set two papers in the professional 
subjects embraced in schedule C. One of these is to be a 
paper on the underlying principles, the examination in 
which is to be conducted under the ordinary rules. For 
the second paper the candidate may avail himself of 
handbooks or other appropriate data. It is hoped that 
the proposed scheme will afford a fairer test of the capacity 
of applicants, particularly in the case of those who have 
been engaged in practice for some time, and at the same 
time make a higher standard of attainment practicable. 

The Board is also considering the question of recom- 
mending that the examination under Schedule B 
(Mechanics, Physics, Strength of Materials, etc.) should 
be set for candidates seeking Junior Membership, instead 
of reserving the test as a qualification for Associate 
Membership. While the necessity of a good grounding in 
these fundamentals will be universally admitted, sub- 
mission to examination in them becomes, in many cases, 
more irksome the longer it is deferred, and it is believed 
that a more satisfactory standard could be maintained by 
making the change suggested. 

Arthur Surveyer, H. M. Mackay, 

Secretary. Chairmein. 

Report of International Electrotechnical Committee 

Herdt, Dr. L. A., Chairman. 
Gill, L. W. Barnes, H. T. 

Higman, O. Kynoch, J. 

Lambe, A. B. Roseburgh, T. R. 

Murphy, J. 

This Committee begs to report that, due to war 
conditions, the work of the Commission during 1918 has 
of necessity been very greatly limited. Nevertheless, 
the central office in London lias succeeded in making 
considerable progress with several subjects, more parti- 
cularly the question of the Rating of Electrical Machinery. 
As previously reported, several conferences on this matter 
have been held in London between English, United States, 
and Canadian representatives, and it is expected that a 
report summarizing their deliberations and recommen- 
dations will be issued shortly. In the meantime the 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



67 



French Committee has issued a memorandum on Alumin- 
ium Tests, in an effort to formulate standards governing 
its use in electrical work, and the central office has in 
hand among other things the questions of Graphical 
Symbols, Nomenclature for Automatic Telephone Appara- 
tus, and Specifications for Instrument transformers. 

The central office has expressed to the Canadian 
Committee its great thanks for the continued financial 
support received from Canada, for which your Committee 
is in turn much indebted to the Dominion Government. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 



A. B. Lambe, 

Secretary. 



L. A. Herdt, 

Chairman. 



Report of Roads and Pavements Committee 

McLean, W. A., Chairman. 

Brereton, W. P. MacPherson, A. J. 

Duchastel, J. Mercier, P. E. 

Griffith, J. E. Near, W. P. 

Henry, G. Powell, G. G. 

James, E. A. Rust, C. H. 

Macallum, A. F. Doane, F. W. W. 

A portion of the work undertaken by the Committee 
on its formation consisted in the preparation of specifi- 
cations for road building materials. During 1916, speci- 
fication for crushed stone, sand and gravel were prepared 
and tentative specifications for asphaltic road oils were 
presented. 

During the past year the attention of the Committee 
has been confined to specifications for bituminous 
materials. Draft specifications were prepared and pre- 
sented to the members of the Committee for criticism or 
suggestion. The specifications were revised with con- 
sideration for the replies received and are presented here- 
with. Those for three grades of asphaltic road oils, 
which were previously presented to The Institute, have 
been revised and specifications for asphalt binder, pene- 
tration method, and for three grades of refined coal tar 
have been added. 

Light asphaltic road oil can be used where a dust 
preventative of more lasting character than the non- 
asphaltic road oils is desired. It can be applied without 
heating, in small quantities, and the application repeated 
if necessary. Medium asphaltic road oil is a heavier 
grade. It not only acts as a dust palliative but also as a 
surface preservative. Owing to the heavier body it is 
more lasting in effect and is adopted for use where the 
traffic on a macadam road causes a rapid destruction of the 
binding material. Under favourable circumstances it 
may be apphed cold, but better results are invariably 
obtained from a hot application. Heavy asphaltic road 
oil has been extensively used for carpet coats or bituminous 
mats. Where material of this grade is used it has been 
found best to apply it in very small quantities with a view 
to obtaining a penetration of the surface of the macadam 
and a thin, tough coating of the stone, rather than to 
securing a thick layer which has a tendency to roll and 
wave under traffic. Asphalt binder in general, is used 
where a bituminous surface penetrated to a depth of from 
two to four inches is desired. While the asphaltic oils 



can be used on old macadam surfaces, the binder is used 
where a new surface is constructed. It is applied hot, 
and under pressure from a tank wagon. 

The refined coal tars are used for the same purposes 
as the asphaltic oils. Light refined coal tar is for cold 
surface treatment. It acts as a dust preventative and 
when carefully applied penetrates the surface to some 
depth. As with the light asphaltic road oil, it is a more 
or less temporary treatment and the application should be 
repeated annually or more frequently as occasion may 
demand. Heavy refined coal tar, if applied in large 
quantities forms a bituminous mat, which is not desirable 
where mixed motor and horse-drawn traffic is to be served. 
If sparingly applied, however, it forms a thin surface 
dressing which is more lasting in character than the 
lighter grades of tar or oil. Refined coal tar binder is in 
general for use in the construction of bituminous surfaces 
by the penetration method. 

The tentative specifications for asphaltic road oils 
presented to The Institute and published in the Annual 
Report for 1916, have been used by a number of municipal 
engineers throughout the Dominion. When commencing 
work the Committee felt the need for such specifications 
and while these were presented in the nature of a progress 
report the extent to which they have been used strongly 
indicates the desire for such specifications on the part of 
municipal engineers. It is hoped by the Committee that 
the accompanying specifications will more completely fill 
this need and that they will be of assistance to engineers 
throughout the Dominion who are engaged in road and 
pavement construction. The specifications are presented 
herewith as an appendix to this report. 

W. A. McLean, 

Chairman. 

Appendix 

Light Asphaltic Road Oil. 

Light oil shall have the following characteristics: — 

1. It shall have a specific gravity at 25°C. (77°F.) 
of not less than 0.92. 

2. It shall have an open flash point of not less than 
55°C. (130°F.) 

3. It shall have a specific viscosity at 25°C. (77°F.) 
of not more than 70. 

4. When fifty grams of the oil are heated in an open 
vessel at a temperature between 250°C. (480°F.) and 
260°C. (500°F.) until the residue has a penetration (100 
grams, 5 seconds, 25°C.) of 100° the said residue shall 
amount to not less than 50 percent nor more than 60 
percent by weight of the original oil. 

5. Fifty grams of the oil when maintained for five 
hours at a temperature of 163°C. (325°F) in an open vessel 
5.5 millimetres in diameter and 3.5 millimetres deep shall 
lose not less than 10 percent nor more than 25 percent by 
weight. 

6. It shall be soluble in chemically pure carbon 
disulphide at room temperature to the extent of not less 
than 99 percent by weight. 

7. It shall contain not less than 6 percent by weight 
of material insoluble in 76° Baume paraffine petroleum 
naphtha at room temperature. 



68 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



8. It shall show not less than 4 percent nor more 
than 8 percent by weight of fixed carbon on ignition. 

Medium Asphaltic Road Oil. 

Medium oil shall have the following characteristics: - 

1. It shall have a specific gravity at 25°C. (77°F.) of 
not less than 0.94. 

2. It shall have an open flash point of not less than 
TO'C. (I58°F.) 

3. It shall have a specific viscosity at 65°C. (150°F. ) 
of not more than 50. 

4. When fifty grams of the oil are heated in an open 
vessel at a température between 250°C. (480°F.) and 
260°C. (500°F.) until the residue has a penetration (100 
grams, 5 seconds, 25°C.) of 100° the said residue shall 
amount to not less than 60 percent nor more than 70 
percent by weight of the original oil. 

5. Fifty grams of the oil when heated for five hours 
at a temperature of 163°C. (325°F.) in an open vessel 
5.5 millimetres in diameter and 3.5 millimetres deep shall 
not lose less than 8 percent nor more than 20 percent by 
weight. 

6. It shall be soluble in chemically pure carbon 
disulphide at room temperature to the extent of not less 
than 99 percent by weight. 

7. It shall contain not less than 10 percent nor more 
than 17 percent by weight of material insoluble in 76^ 
Baume paraffine petroleum naphtha at room temperature. 

8. It shall show not less than 7 percent nor more than 
12 percent by weight of fixed carbon on ignition. 

Heavy Asphaltic Road Oil. 

Heavy oil shall have the following characteristics: — . . 

1. It shall have a specific gravity at 25°C. (77°F.) 
of not less than 0.96. 

2. It shall have an open flash point of not less than 
ISCC. (320°F.j. 

3. It shall have a specific viscosity at 100°C. 
(212°F.) of not more than 50. 

4. When fiftv grams of the oil are heated in an open 
vessel at a temperature between 250°C. (480°F.) and 
260°C. (500°F.) until the residue has a penetration (100 
grams, 5 seconds, 25°C.) of 100°, the said residue shall 
amount to not less than 80 percent nor more than 90 
percent by weight of the original oil. 

5. Fifty grams of the oil when heated for five hours 
at a temperature of 163°C. (325°F.) in an open vessel 
5.5 millimetres in diameter and 3.5 millimetres deep shall 
lost not less than 2 percent nor more than 8 percent by 
weight. 

6. It shall be soluble in chemically pure carbon 
disulphide at room temperature to the extent of not less 
than 99 percent by weight. 

7. It shall contain not less than 12 percent nor more 
than 20 percent by weight of material insoluble in 76° 
Baume paraffine jjetroleum naphtha at room tempera- 
ture. 

8. It shall show not less than 8 percent nor more than 
15 percent by weight of fixed carbon on ignition. 



Specification for Asphalt Binder. 

I'ruclratioii Method. 

1. It shall be homogeneous and free from water, and 
shall not foam when heated to a temperature of 150°C. 
(302°F.). 

2. It shall have a specific gravity at 25°C. (77°F. ) of 
not less than 0.98. 

3. It shall have an open flash point of not less than 
190°C. (375°F.). 

4. It shall have a penetration (No. 2 needle, 100 
grams, 5 sees., 25°C. ) of not less than 130° nor more than 
180°. 

5. It shall have a ductility at 25°C. (77°F.) of not 
less than 75 centimetres. 

6. It shall be soluble at room temperature in 
chemically pure carbon disulphide to the extent of not 
less than 99.5 percent by weight in the case of oil asphalt, 
and native asphalts shall show a percentage of the 
products of the fields from which they come. 

7. Of the material soluble in carbon disulphide not 
less than 14 percent nor more than 30 percent by weight 
shall be insoluble at room temperature in 76° Baume 
paraffine petroleum naphtha distilling between 60°C. and 
88°C. (140°F. and 190°F.). 

8. It shall show not less than 10 percent nor more 
than 18 percent by weight of fixed carbon on ignition. 

9. When fifty grams of the material are heated in 
a cylindrical vessel 5.5 centimetres in diameter and 3.5 
centimetres deep, for 5 hours at a temperature of 163°C. 
(325°F.) the loss in weight shall not exceed 5 percent, nor 
shall the penetration of the residue (No. 2 needle, 100 
grams, 5 sees., 25°C.) be less than 50 percent of the original 
penetration. 

Specification for Refined and Blended Coal Tar 
Cold Application. 

1. It shall be homogeneous and free from water. 

2. It shall have a specific gravity at 25°C. (77°F.) 
of not less than 1.14 nor more than 1.18. 

3. It shall have a specific viscosity for 50 cubic 
centimetres at 40° C. (104°F.) of not less than 20 nor more 
than 30. 

4. On distillation the percentages by weight of 
distillate at the following temperatures shall be: -- 

To 170°C. (338°F.^ not more than 5 percent. 
•' 235°C. (455°F.) " " "18 
" 270°C. (518°F.) •' •■ " 25 
" 300°C. (572°F.) " " " 32 

(a) The residue from the foregoing distillation shall 
have a melting point of not more than 70°C. (158°F.). 

(b) The distillate from the foregoing distillation 
shall have a specific gravitv at 25°C. (77°C.) of not less 
than 1.01. 

5. It shall be insoluble in chemically pure carbon 
disulphide at room temperature to the extent of not more 
than 15 percent weight. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



69 



Hot ApjiUcadoii. 

1. It shall be homogeneous and free from water. 

2. It shall have a specific gravity at 25°C. (77°F.) of 
not less than 1.20 nor more than 1.27. 

3. It shall show a float test at 50°C. (122°F.) of not 
less than 65 seconds and not more than 85 seconds. 

4. On distillation the percentages by weight of 
distillate at the following temperatures shall be: — 

To 170°C. (338°F.) not more than 0.0 percent. 
" 235°C. (435°F.) ■ " " " 10 
" 270°C. (518°F.) " " " 17 
" 300°C. (572°F.) " " " 22 

(a) The residue from the foregoing distillation shall 
have a melting point of not more than 75°C. (167°F.). 

(b) The distillate from the foregoing distillation 
shall have a specific gravity at 25°C. (77°F.) of not less than 
1.03. 

5. It shall be insoluble in chemically pure carbon 
disulphide at room temperature to the extent of not more 
than 20 percent. 

Binder. 
Penetration Method. 

1. It shall be homogeneous and free from water. 

2. It shall have a specific gravity at 25°C. (77°F.) 
of not less than 1.20. 

3. It shall have a melting point of not less than 
28°C. (83°F.) nor more than 35°C. (95°F.). 

4. On distillation the percentages by weight of 
distillate at the following temperatures shall be: — 

To 170°C. (338°F.) not more than percent. 

" 235°C. (455°F.) " " " 3 

" 270°C. (518°F.) " " " 11 

" 300°C. (572°F.) " " " 15 



(a; The residue from the foregoing distillation shall 
have a melting point of not more than 75''C. (167°F.) . 

(b) The distillate from the foregoing distillation 
shall have a specific gravity of 25°C. (77°F.) of not less 
than 1.03. 

5. It shall be insoluble in chemically pure carbon 
disulphide at room temperature to the extent of not more 
than 22 percent by weight. 

Instrtictions for Taking and Shipping Samples 

1. Sampling. — Since tests, on a small sample of 
material, reveal the properties of the material in the sample 
only, it is necessary that the samples be procured in such 
a manner that they are representative of the whole ship- 
ment. Samples containing material taken from the top 
or bottom only of a tank car or drum, must be avoided. 

2. Size of Sarnples. — In order that sufficient material 
may be received at the laboratory for all the tests to be 
made it is necessary that all samples contain at least one 
imperial pint. 



3. Containers. — Vessels containing samples should 
be absolutely clean. Those which have been used to 
hold oils or greases should not be used. Glass jars should 
not be used except when there is nothing else available, 
an they should then be tightly packed with sawdust in 
stout wooden boxes. Samples which have become 
contaminated with packing material can not be tested. 

For fluid and viscous materials new oil tins with screw 
caps are suitable and for semi-solid and solid materials 
new paint tins with tightly fitting pry covers should be 
used. All containers should be packed in wooden boxes 
for shipment. 

4. Identifiention.— AW samples should bear proper 
identification tags containing the following information: 

1 . Date that sample was taken. 

2. Name of person, corporation, or municipality 
sending sample. 

3. Class of work for which material is to be used. 

4. A copy of the specification under which the 
sample has been submitted. 

5. Quantity of material represented by sample. 

6. Number of tank or car from which the sample 
was taken. 

7. If the shipment is being held pending the 
results of the tests. 

8. The name of the manufacturer. 

Report of Finance Committee 

Supplementing the Annual Statement of the Audi- 
tors, the Finance Committee submits a table showing 
receipts and expenditures for the last ten years, upon which 
the following comments are pertinent: — 

1st. — Arrears Collected: There is a large falling off 
in the arrears collected, due to the fact, that in the three 
previous years the cream has been extracted. 

2nd. — Current Fees Collected: This item now shows 
that the current fees collected are qual to those of the 
pre-war period, in spite of the fact that so many members 
are at the front. 

3rd. — Entrance Fees: These have again increased in a 
satisfactory way. 

4th — Salaries and Wages: These have increased, 
due to expansion of the activities of The Institute. 

5th. — Branch Societies: There is a large decrease in 
the amount paid to Branches, under the new by-laws. 

6th. — Journal Expenses: In Item No. 7, " Miscel- 
laneous Receipts," is included revenue from advertisements 
in The Journal, and List of Members, amounting to $6,008. 
To ofl:set this in item No. 10, " Printing and Stationery," 
the cost of The Journal is included at $6,032. 

7th. — General Results: General results indicate a 
live Institute rapidly expanding, and going through its 
most serious period as regards expenses, with the new 
Journal established, a new staff in control, and with 960 
members at the front who pay no fees. 

R. A. Ross, 

Chairman of Finance Committee. 

Montreal, January 27th, 1919. 



70 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



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JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



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72 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES-THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

Receipts. 

1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 

(1) Arrears Collected $2,023 $4.031 2,092 $2,887 $1.994 $3,298 $6,733 $6,512 $6,215 $3,243 

(2) Current Fees 7,963 9,491 11,893 13,897 15,037 15,616 12,438 13,176 15,359 15,538 

(3) Advance Fees ... 376 134 288 158 186 270 139 153 220 165 

(4) Entrance Fees 2,190 2,124 2,779 4,077 4,169 2,895 2,233 2,485 3,235 3,047 

(5) TOTAL $12.552 $15,780 $17,052 $21,019 $21,386 $22,079 $21,543 $22,326 $25,029 $21,993 

(6) Interest Received 211 252 187 1,393 894 315 450 429 556 516 

(7) Miscellaneous Receipts.. 188 79 174 341 225 172 87 972 113 6,050 

(8) TOTAL $12,951 $16,111 $17,413 $22,753 $22,505 $22,566 $22,080 $23,727 $25,698 $28,559 

Expenditures. 

(9) Interest Paid _ _ __ $854 $1,695 $1,201 $1,200 $1,200 $1,200 $1,267 

(10) Printing and Stationery. . $4,092 $6,268 $3,757 6,865 6,416 10,551 5,970 6,691 6,807 12.480 

(11) Salaries and Wages 4.042 3,845 4,714 5,195 4,906 5,652 4,909 5,180 7,873 8,519 

(12) Taxes and Water 244 244 247 848 1,466 1,448 1,280 1,300 1,025 1,406 

(13) General Expense 2,760 2,670 4,198 4,307 5,257 4,812 4,151 3,260 4,612 5,265 

(14) Branch Societies 374 648 1,118 2,810 2,121 2,296 2,266 2,454 3,693 1,707 

(15) TOTAL $12,322 $13,675 $14,034 $20,879 $21,861 $25,960 $19,776 $20,085 $25,210 $30,644 

(16) Excess Receipts 629 2,436 3,378 1,874 646 - 2,304 3,642 488 — 

(17) Excess Expenditures ... . ^ _ _ — _ 3,394 ^ _ _ 2,085 



Calgary Branch 

During the year 1918 there have been held three 
general meetings and ten Executive Committee Meetings. 

The following were the speakers at the general 
meeting: — 

January 30th, A. Ingraham, M.A., Soc. M. E. 
■■ Flour Mill Engineering." 

March 18th, Mr. Pearce, M.E.I.C. and Mr. Peters, 
" General Matters." 

May 8th, Lewis Stockett, M.E.I.C, " Coal." 
May 29th, Mr. G. F. Porter, M.E.I.C, " The 
Quebec Bridge." 

Lecture, illustrated by lantern slides, given in the 
Public Library Auditorium to which the public were 
invited, the hall proving much too small to hold the 
number who wished to attend. 

The most important meeting of the year to the 
Western Branches was the Second Professional Meeting 
of The Insdtulc held at the Saskatchewan University at 
Saskatoon, August 8, 9 and 10, 1918. 

This was attended by about 65 members and was a 
great success both from the standpoint of the success of 
the meetings from a professional point of view and from 
the quality of the entertainment provided. 

During the year the new membership joining the 
Branch is as follows: — 



Reports of Branches 

And applications received and recommended by Committee 
on Applications as follows: — 



4 



Associate Member . . . 
Associates of Branch . 



A total of thirteen new members. 

Transfers have been made as follows :- 



From Associate Member to Member 1 

From Student to Associate Member 1 

Old members joining or rejoining the Branch: — 

Members 2 

Associate Member 1 

The present membership of the Branch Totals 72, 
divided as follows: — 

Members 20 

Associate Members : . . . . 34 

Junior Members 5 

Afîiliates 1 

Affiliates of the Branch 12 



Members 

Associate Members . . 
Associates of Branch . 



3 
4 
3 



72 

With 3 Associate Members and 1 Associate of Branch to 
be voted upon to-day makes a total membership at 
present of 76. 

This includes 17 members with the Allied Armies. 

As you are all aware, good progress has been made in 
the matter of proposed Legislation and Committees from 
the Calgary and Edmonton Branches are preparing to 
submit an Act to the coming session of the Alberta Legis- 
lature. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



73 



[■'hiancial Slalcmcnt for the Yair Ending, NoreniherSO, 1917. 

Receipts 

Balance in Bank. December 1, 1917 $426.31 

F"ees from Members 21 . 75 

Rebates from parent InMHalc 135.80 

Interest.on Bank Account 5 . 14 

Interest on Victory Bond ($300) 16 . 50 

$605.50 
ExpendHurc 

Stationery, Printing and General Expense .... $75 09 

Books and Magazines 6 . 35 

Balance payment on ($300) Victory Bond .... 267 . 33 

Miscellaneous 56 . 10 

Balance in Bank, November 30, 1918 200.63 



Montreal Branch 



$605 50 



To the Members of Council, 

' The Engineering Institute of Canada, 
176 Mansfield Street, 
Montreal. 
Gentlemen : — 

We have the honour to present herewith the first 
annual report of the Montreal Branch of The Engineering 
Institute of Canada. 

On January 23rd, 1918, a petition was presented to 
Council asking for the formation of a Montreal Branch of 
the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. This appli- 
cation was as follows : — ■ 

" To the President and Members of the Council of 
the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. 
We, the undersigned Corporate Members of the 
Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, resident within 
twenty-five miles of headquarters, respectfully re- 
quest that the Council may grant permission to 
establish '' The Montreal Branch of the Canadian 
Society of Civil Engineers." 
Montreal, January 23rd, 1918." 
(Signed) : 



R. M. Hannaford. 
R. S. Lea. 

Frederick B. Brown. 
J. A. Burnett. 
Geo. K. McDougall. 
Onisphore H. Cote. 
A. W. K. Massey. 
A. J. Matheson. 



Alex. Bertram. 
Ls. G. Papineau. 
J. A. Duchastel. 
W. Chase Thomson. 
H. P. Borden. 
M. Brodie Atkinson. 
R. deL. French. 
H. G. Hunter. 



To the Members of Council E. I. C. 

At a meeting of Council held on the same day this 
application was presented and permission by Council was 
granted for the formation of the Branch, and residents 
of District No. 1 were authorized to proceed with arrange- 
ments for organizing into a Montreal Branch. 

On February 7th, 1918, the signers of the original 
petition of January 23rd sent out a circular to all members 
resident in District No. 1, calling a meeting for the 14th of 
February to discuss details in connection with the form- 
ation of the Branch. 



On February 14th a largely attended meeting took 
place at the headquarters of the Society, 176 Mansfield 
Street. A committee was named for the purpose of 
nominating candidates to fill the executive ofïices of the 
new Branch and the election by letter ballot was arranged 
to be declared on March 14th. The Executive of the 
Branch was discussed and it was decided to have it com- 
posed of a Chairman, a Vice-Chairman, a Secretary- 
Treasurer, these to be elected for one year, and six 
Committee men, the three receiving the greatest number 
of votes to serve for two years and the three others for one 
year, thereafter the Committee men to be elected for two 
years, three at each election. 

A Nominating Committee was selected composed 
of R. M. Hannaford, Frederick B. Brown, L. G. 
Papineau, J. A. Duchastel, W. Chase Thomson, M. Brodie 
Atkinson and H. G. Hunter, and, according to the 
instructions they received by resolution of the meeting, 
they were to nominate at least two candidates for each 
executive office and to add other candidates to the list of 
nominees provided they had received the certified support 
of five Corporate Members of the Society. 

The Nominating Committee proceeded to carry out 
their work and on March 14th the following gentlemen 
were elected to office: — 

Chairman Walter J. Francis. 

Vice Chairman Arthur Surveyer. 

Secretary-Treasurer Frederick B. Brown. 

Members of the Executive Committe. 

F. P. Shearwood, W. Chase Thomson, H. G. 
Hunter, for two years; and L. G. Papineau, 0.0. Lefebvre, 
K. B. Thornton, for one year. 

The first meeting of the newly elected Executive took 
place at the rooms of the Society on March 21st, 1918, 
and the organization of the Branch was commenced. 
A Committee consisting of Messrs. Francis, Safford, 
Ernest Brown, Surveyer, Lefebvre and Hunter was 
constituted the Committee on Branch By-Laws to draw 
up suitable by-laws, working in co-operation with the 
general By-laws Committee of the Society, namely, 
Messrs. Francis, Safford and Ernest Brown. 

A Papers and Meetings Committee was appointed 
consisting of R. M. Hannaford, Chairman, together 
with the Chairmen and Vice-Chairmen of such sections 
of the Branch as may hereafter be formed. Four sug- 
gested Sections of the Branch were named as follows: — 



Civil. 



Mechanical . 



.J. A. Duchastel, Chairman. 
H. M. Lamb,.. Vice-Chairman. 

J. A. Burnett,... Chairman. 

J. T. Farmer,... Vice-Chairman. 



Electrical J. A. Shaw Chairman. 

A. Frigon, Vice-Chairman. 

Industrial or 

Manufacturing.S. F. Rutherford. .Chairman. 

H. G. Hunter. ...Vice-Chairman. 



74 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Following this meeting the work of organization was 
continued and the four Sections of the Branch were duly 
constituted under the leadership of the members of the 
Papers and Meetings Committee already outlined. 

The programme for the balance of the spring season of 
1918 being already arranged under the auspices of the 
Society as a whole, it was decided to continue these as 
found best from to time until the close of the spring pro- 
gramme, and this arrangement was accordingly carried out. 

On May 29th, the Executive of the Branch had the 
honour of holding the first meeting under the official new 
name of the Society, the signature of the Governor-General 
having just been attached to the papers authorizing the 
change of name to The Enginecrirnj Instiliilc of Canada. 

During the summer considerable progress was made 
in the drafting of by-laws, discussions on legislation, and 
suggested formation of a Provincial Division in Quebec. 
This work was carried on by members of the Committee, 
and regular meetings of the Committee were resumed early 
in September. The programme for the fall session was 
drawn up, and it was decided to hold a discussion on 
legislation at the first regular meeting of the Branch 
during the autumn season, commencing on October 10th. 
The epidemic of influenza, which was at that time com- 
mencing to be very severe, caused the Board of Health to 
issue an order prohibiting all public gatherings in Montreal. 
This necessitated the postponement of the discussion on 
legislation until November 28th. 

On November 28th the Branch met and commenced 
the discussion on legislation, about seventy-five members 
being present. The discussion proved so interesting that 
it was decided to continue the discussion on legislation, 
and further meetings were held on December 12th and 
December 19th. At the meeting on December 19th, 
following a great deal of discussion, two resolutions were 
passed by the Branch, one asking Council to appoint a 
committee to consider the question of legislation through- 
out Canada, and the other instructing the officers of the 
Branch to co-operate with the officers of the Quebec 
Branch in obtaining information regarding legislation 
from members resident in the Province of Quebec. The 
text of the two resolutions is as follows: — 

Moved by Mr. Tye, Seconded by Mr. Duggan, 
and carried, that 

Whereas it seems advisable that legislation 
should be sought defining the status of engineers 
throughout Canada, And 

Whereas the widespread activities of the 
Engineering profession, the great difference in the 
interests and occupations of the individuals, the neces- 
sity of getting satisfactory legislation in the different 
Provinces, the unsatisfactory result of such legislation 
as has already been obtained and the dangers and 
difficulties certain to be encountered by The Institute 
as a whole during the time period of passing of 
Canadian engineering from an open to a closed or a 
partially closed profession, make it inadvisable and 
inexpedient to ask for any further legislation in any 
Province until the whole question has been thoroughly 
studied, reported upon and submitted in concrete 
form to the full corporate membership of The Institute. 



Be It Resolved: 

That the Executive of the Montreal Branch be 
instructed to ask the Council to arrange for the 
appointment of a Committee representing all pro- 
vinces and all branches of the profession to inquire 
into, study and report upon the whole question of 
legislation, including a report upon the best method 
of getting such legislation as will insure a satisfactory 
and uniform status of engineers throughout Canada, 
also to draw up such sample legislation as it may 
deem necessary and advisable in order that the 
members of The Institute in the different provinces 
may seek legislation on some uniform basis. 

That before the final adoption of any proposed 

act it shall be the duty of the Committee to co-operate 
as far as possible with similar incorporated technical 
bodies with a view to harmonizing clauses which 
might contain points of contention. 

That the Secretary of the Montreal Branch be 
instructed to forward a copy of this Resolution to 
the Secretary of The Institute and to the Secretaries 
of the Provincial Divisions and the Branches, and to 
request the Executive of the Provincial Divisions and 
the Branches to assist the Council in securing the 
appointment of a strong and representative com- 
mittee." 

Proposed by Mr. Surveyer, seconded by Mr. 
Brown, and carried, 

That the Executive of the Montreal Branch 
take immediate steps to obtain, in co-operation with 
the Quebec Branch, and by letter ballot, the views of 
the members of The Institute, residing in the Pro- 
vince of Quebec, on the question of licensing engineers. 

And that the following questions for this letter 
ballot be suggested to the Executives of the Montreal 
and Quebec Branches for their consideration : 

Question 1. — Are you in favour of a closed cor- 
poration for engineers having responsible charge of 
engineering works ? 

Question 2. — If so, do you favour legislation 
embracing all engineering works, or only public 
works ? 

Question S.^In the event of the majority of 
the members of The Institute residing in Quebec, 
declaring in favour of a closed corporation, what are 
your opinions on the following questions ? 

(a) Do you consider that the only method of 
entrance into the engineering profession should be 
through the engineering colleges ? 

(b) If not, do you think that candidates who do 
not follow college engineering courses should be 
obliged to pass an examination for admission to study 
somewhat along the lines of the matriculation exam- 
ination required for university entrance ? 

(c) Do you think that candidates should be 
required to pass an examination for admission to 
practise, similar to the examinations required by the 
Bar and Medical Associations ? 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



75 



(d) Should candidates be obliged to serve a 
period of apprenticeship or employment under an 
engineer, before being allowed to take the final 
examinations for admission to practise ? (The word 
practise is understood to mean taking responsible 
charge of engineering works). 

(e) If in favour of examination, do you consider 
that these should be held by the corporation only or 
by a joint board of the members of the corporation 
and representatives of the McGill and Laval faculties 
of applied science ? 

(f) Do you consider that graduates of engineering 
schools should be exempted from any or all the 
examinations ? 

(g) If so, from what examinations should they 
be exempted ? 

(h) Do you think that graduates of engineering 
schools should be required to prove that they have 
had experience under some engineer before being 
admitted to take charge of engineering work ? 

And that the results of this letter ballot be 
passed on to the committee appointed under Mr. 
Tye's motion for their information irrespective of any 
action the members of The Ii}.stituic in Quebec may 
wish to take." 
The whole subject of legislation is apparently very 

much alive throughout The Instilute and the Montreal 

Branch is taking a keen interest in it. 

A programme for the winter and spring season of 1919 

has been drawn up by the Branch in accordance with the 

attached printed list. 

Branch Officers, 1918-1919: Walter J. Francis, Chair- 
man; Arthur Surveyer, Vice-Chairman; Frederick B. 

Brown, Secretary-Treasurer. 

Executive Committee: F. P. Shearwood, H. G. 

Hunter, O. O. Lefebvre, W. Chase Thomson, L. G. 

Papineau and K. B. Thornton. 

Papers and Meetings Committee: R. M. Hannaford, 
Chairman. 

S. F. Rutherford, H. G. Hunter, Industrial Section; 
J. A. Shaw, A. Frigon, Electrical Section; J. T. Farmer, 
J. A. Burnett, Mechanical Section; J. Duchastel, H. M. 
Lamb, Civil Section. 

Programme of Alcctiiujs, Januanj to April, 1019. 

Always at 8.15 p.m. sharp. 

Always on Thursday evening, with the exception 
of February 13th, which is the date of the Annual-Pro- 
fessional Meeting in Ottawa. 



Jan. 9 — Fire Prevention. Inspection as a Means of 
Fire Prevention, by George H. Greenfield. Chairman — 
Mr. Francis. 

Jan. 16 — Design and Construction of Reinforced 
Concrete Viaducts at Mileages 0.9 and 1.8, North Toronto 
Sub-division, Canadian Pacific Railway, by B. O. Eriksen, 
A.M.E.I.C, and S. H. Deubelbeiss, A.M.E.I.C. Some 
Problems of National Reconstruction, by. W. F. Chipman, 
K.C. Chairman — Mr. Surveyer. 



Jan. 23— Coaling Plant for Locomotives, by J. A. 
Burnett, A.M.E.I.C. Industrial Illumination, by George 
K. McDougall, A.M.E.I.C. Chairman— Mr. Hannaford. 

Jan. 30 — Modern Boiler Practice, by F. A. Combe, 
A.M.E.I.C. Coal is King (A motion picture), by R. E. 
Cleaton Company. Chairman -Mr. liuiherjord. 

Feb. 6 — Some Problems in Ocean Transportation, by 
A. W. Robinson, M.E.I.C. Manufacture of Nitro-Benzol 
and Aniline Oils, by G. J. Caron, J.E.I.C. Chairman 
— Mr. Farmer. 

Feb. 20 Construction of Canadian Northern Railway 
Tunnel, Montreal, by J. L. Busfield, A.M.E.I.C. Chair- 
man — Mr. Duchastel. 

Feb. 27 — The Effect of Ice on Hydro-Electric Plants, 
by R. M. Wilson, M.E.I.C. Chairman— Mr. Francis. 

March 6— Air Drills, by N. M. Campbell, A.M.E.I.C. 
The Halifax Explosion from a Chemist's and Physicist's 
Viewpoint, by Dr. Howard Bronson, F. R. S. C. Burroughs 
Adding Machines (A motion picture), by Burroughs 
Adding Machine Company. Chairman — Mr. Hunter. 

March 13— Electrical Welding, by C. V. Holslag. 
Patents and Engineering, by Hanbury A Budden, 
A.E.I.C. Chairman— Mr. Shaiv. 

March 20— Ball Bearing Jacks, by W. H. C. Mussen, 
A.E.I.C. Peat, by Ernest V. Moore, A.M.E.I.C. Chair- 
man — Mr. Rutherford. 

March 27 — Some Notes on the Design and Construc- 
tion of Reinforced Concrete Covered Reservoirs, by R. 
deL. French, M.E.I.C. Chairman — Mr. Surveyer. 

April 3 — The Operation of Railways as an Engineering 
Problem, by V. I. Smart, M.E.I.C. Chairman — Mr. 
Frigon. 

April 10 — Waterproof Paper Productions and their 
Industrial Possibilities, by J. A. DeCew, A.M.E.I.C. 
Chairman — Mr. Lamb. 

April 17 — Quebec Bridge, by Phelps Johnson, 
M.E.I.C, G. H. Duggan, M.E.I.C, George F. Porter, 
M.E.I.C. Chairman — Mr. Francis. 

April 24 — Continuation of Paper of April 17th. 
Chairman — Mr. Francis. 

The meetings so far held have been very successful 
and much appreciated by those present. 

The Executive Committee of the Montreal Branch 
feels that a great advance has been made by forming the 
members resident within twenty-five miles of Head- 
quarters into a separate entity having a Branch standing. 
In this connection, however, it is felt that certain amend- 
ments to the By-laws of The Institute are desirable in order 
to improve certain of the operating conditions of the 
Montreal Branch and to place the Branch on a footing 
corresponding to that of the other Branches. At the 
present time the Montreal Branch members pay much 
larger fees to The Institute than any of the other members 
of The Institute, but the regulations make no provisions 
for financing the Branch. Being without the funds 
derived from rebates which constitute the principal revenue 
of the other Branches, it has been necessary to accept 
favours of the private members, or to appeal to Head- 
quarters for assistance that does not appear to be provided 
for in the By-laws of The Institute. Up to the present the 
Council of The Institute has kindly undertaken to pay the 



76 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



principal expenses of the Branch, but the Executive 
Committee of the Branch feels that the Branch should be 
placed in a position to finance its own expenditures and to 
make provision for its programme and activities. The 
Secretary of The Iiislitutc has also rendered valuable and 
much appreciated services to the Branch, but the Executive 
considers that it has no right to thus impose on the Head- 
quarters staff. 

The whole question is one of some difficulty and 
committees are now working in order to prepare amend- 
ments to the existing By-laws of The InslititU-, which 
amendments it is proposed to present at the next annual 
meeting in order to produce the desired result. 

The whole respectfully submitted on behalf of the 
Montreal Branch. 

Walter J. Francis, 

Chairman. 

Frederick B. Brown, 

Secretary-Treasurer. 

Quebec Branch 

Quebec, January 12th, 1919. 

To the President and Council and Members, 
of the Engineering Institute of Canada. 

Gentlemen: — • 

On behalf of the Quebec Branch of The Engineerintj 
Inalititte of Canada, we herewith submit our Annual Report 
for the year 1918. 

At the Annual Meeting of the Branch held on the 
fourteenth of December last, the following officers were 
elected by ballot for the ensuing year : A. R. Decary, 
Chairman; J. A. Buteau, Secretary-Treasurer; F. T. Cole, 
J. E. Gibault, W. Lefebvre, members of Committee. 

At this meeting the Secretary-Treasurer's report 
for the Branch year was read and approved. 

The Branch had only five meetings which were fairly 
well attended. There were no lectures during the season. 

During the last Provincial Session, our Legislation 
Committee took great pains in watching all bills pre- 
sented to the Legislative Assembly for sanction, so that 
there would be no infringement on our rights, and have 
succeeded, together with the influence brought by some 
of our prominent members, in blocking and having 
amended certain bills, which formerly had clauses detri- 
mental to the Institute by-laws and regulations. 

One of the most important subjects at the meetings 
was the discussion on ways and means of obtaining 
Provincial Legislation with clear and well defined charters. 
Resolution to that effect was sent to the central com- 
mittee and all the other Branches of The Institute for 
action. 

The Branch takes this opportunity of drawing the 
attention of the central Council to the resolution for- 
warded to them on the seventh of December last, to the 
effect that our profession was not having proper repre- 
sentation on various Commissions which have been 
established to undertake work or problems connected with 
engineering, earnestly requests that the Executive 
Council will take immediate action and bring its influence 



to bear on the Government or Commissions, for the exclu- 
sive appointment of corporate members of The lin- 
gincerinij Inst /lute, or graduates from recognized engineer- 
ing universities to fill all engineering positions, thus 
protecting the public and raising the standing of The 
Institute and the profession. 

The financial standing of the Branch is satisfactory, 
the report showing a balance in bank of $613.93 dollars. 

The kindness of the Mayor of Quebec in providing 
the Branch with free quarters in the City Hall, has largely 
contributed to this satisfactory financial standing. 

The membership of the Branch is as follows: — 

Members 18 

Associate Members 55 

Juniors 17 

Students 14 

Branch Associate 1 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. E. DOUCET, 
Chairman. 

W. Lefebvre, 
Secretary. 

Hamilton Branch 

In response to a request from a number of engineers in 
Hamilton, Fraser S. Keith, Secretary of The 
Engineering Institute of Canada, came to the city on June 
14th, 1918, to discuss the question of forming a Branch. 
Over forty engineers attended the meeting to meet Mr. 
Keith, and after a discussion it was decided to start a 
Branch olThe Engineering Institute of Canada in Hamilton. 
The necessary application was signed and sent in to 
Council. The meeting adjourned to an informal dinner. 

On July 26th a meeting was held at which Nominating, 
By-Laws, and Membership Committees were appointed. 
According to their instructions the Nominating Committee 
sent out a letter ballot by which the following executive 
were elected: E. R. Gray, Chairman; H. B. D wight, 
Secretary-Treasurer; E. H. Darling and J. A. McFarlane. 

The first regular meeting of the Branch was held in 
the Royal Connaught Hotel on Sept. 21st, 1918, 
P. M. Lincoln, Past-President of the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers, gave a comprehensive and enjoy- 
able lecture on " The Development of Electric Power 
Transmission." This was followed by a good discussion 
of the subject by the engineers present. 

On Sept. 30th, a meeting was held in the Royal Con- 
naught Hotel. E. R. Gray, the Chairman of the 
Branch, gave an address on the duties and opportunities 
of engineers in connection with their professional organi- 
zation. A set of by-laws for the Branch was then pre- 
sented by the By-laws Committee, and was amended in 
some particulars and then forwarded to the Council of The 
Engineering Institute of Canada. 

Further meetings for the autumn of 1918 were pre- 
vented by the influenza epidemic, although complete 
arrangements had been made for a joint meeting to be held 
in Hamilton with the Toronto Section of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, to be addressed by 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



77 



G. E. Stoltz of Pittsburgh, on "Steel Mill Electrifi- 
cation." Another lecture which had to be postponed, was 
the illustrated lecture by Geo. F. Porter on " The 
Quebec Bridge," which has been given with much success 
before several other branches. 

A meeting of the Branch was held on Jan. 17th, 1919, 
to discuss the subject of legislation. A Legislation Com- 
mittee of five members was appointed and it was decided 
to continue the discussion at a future meeting. 

It is planned to hold several meetings this winter, one 
to be addressed by E. L. Cousins, chief engineer of 
the Toronto Harbor Commission, on " Harbor Improve- 
ments," and one to be addressed by Dr. F. B. Jewett, 
chief engineer of the Western Electric Co., on "Research." 

Since the Hamilton Branch was organized, at least 
twelve applications have been sent in for corporate 
membership, and fifteen affiliates have joined the Branch. 
A financial statement is attached. 

H. B. DWIGHT, 

Secretary-Treasu rer . 



1918 
Aug. 23 



Oct. 


10 


" 


17 


Nov. 


5 


** 


21 


" 


26 


1919 




Jan. 


14 



1918 



Sept. 


30 


" 


30 


Oct. 


9 


«( 


9 


n 


9 


*' 


9 


Nov. 


14 


'* 


14 


" 


14 


Dec. 


17 


n 


17 


1919 




Jan. 


3 


It 


14 


It 


14 



Receipts. 

Advance Rebate from The 
Engineering Institute of 

Canada $50.00 

Fees from Affiliates 9 . 00 

' 9.00 

" " " 9.00 

" " " 15.00 

" " " 3.00 

Rebate from The Engineer- 
ing Institute of Canada 

for 1918 29.40 

$124.40 

Total 

Expenses. 

Postage 1 .44 

Typewriting Letter Ballot.. 3 . 70 

Paper and Envelopes 3 . 50 

Philip Davis Printing Co . . 2 . 50 

Connaught Hotel Co 10.00 

Postcards 3.15 

Moore Printery 5.10 

Flowers for Funeral of 

M. A. Kemp 5 . 00 

Postcards 2.80 

The Moore Printery 2 . 50 

Postcards 3.00 

Expenses of Geo. F. Porter 3 . 45 

Total 46.14 

Balance in Bank 78.26 



$124.40 



Victoria Brand» 

To the President and Council, Montreal:— 

We have pleasure in submitting the following annual 
report of this Branch for the year 1918: — 

One of the main characteristics of the past year has 
been the demand for the services of engineers, which has 
prevented as good attendances at headquarters as possible, 
but the average has been a considerable improvement on 
the previous year, and altogether there has been a much 
greater interest taken in the affairs of both the Branch and 
The Instilute; the question of obtaining proper recognition 
for the profession is occupying chief place at the present 
time. 

Our Legislation Committee deserves special thanks 
for the time and labour spent in opposing a charter sought 
from the Provincial House by a nimiber of men (including 
a few members of our Institute) who wished to become 
certified engineers by Provincial Legislation. They were, 
however, unable to prove their case or substantiate their 
claim to legal recognition, and the bill failed to pass through 
committee. Our thanks are tendered to the parent 
Council for their advice and financial assistance in con- 
nection with this matter. 

Ten general meetings were held during the year, the 
influenza ban preventing all meetings for several weeks 
in the fall. 

Papers were given by D. O. Lewis on the History and 
Development of Railways, and by A. E. Foreman, on 
the Dewey Decimal System of Filing; and discussions 
were held as follows: — 

Two on W. F. Tye's paper Canada's Railway 
Problem and its Solution." 

One on Dr. Haanel's paper Fuels of Canada. 

One on The Sooke Lake Water supply system. 

One on Proposed Saskatchewan Legislation. 

One on Reclaiming and Developing Land Areas 
for Returned Soldiers. 

G. F. Porter gave his illustrated lecture on the 
Quebec Bridge on June 12th. 

Several volumes have been donated by members to 
the Branch library the greater part of the library being 
loaned by F. C. Gamble, Past President of the Society. 

During the year W. K. Gwyer was transferred to the 
Okanagan and his place on the executive was filled by the 
election of W. Young. 

The membership resident within Branch limits at the 
close of the year was : — 

Members 22 

Associate Members 30 

Juniors 3 

Branch Associates 2 

Total 57 

The return of those who are overseas is expected to 
bring increased numbers and greater activity in the near 
future. 



78 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Our Annual Branch meeting was held on December 
11th, and the following officers were elected for 1919: 
W. Young, Chairman; R. A. Bainbridge, Vice-Chairman; 
E. Davis, Treasurer; J. B. Holdcroft, Secretary; The 
above with W. Everall and A. Yarrow, Executive; 
D. O. Lewis and R. W. Maclntyre, Past Chairmen, are 
ex officio members of the Executive; A. F. Mitchell and 
W. M. Stokes, Auditors. 

The financial statement for 1918 is attached. 

Respectfully submitted, 



E. G. Marriott, 

Secretary. 



R. W. Macintye, 

Chairman. 



Balance Sheet 1st December. 1917, 
to 1st December, 191S. 

Balance in Bank 1st Dec, 1917 $269 . 75 
Cash in Hand 18.32 



$288.07 



Receipts. 

Fees due prior to 31st Dec, 

1917 $32.00 

Fees due for 1918 138.50 

Entrance Fees 4 . 00 

Rebates from Engineering Ins- 
titute, Montreal 113.40 

Sale of Table 25.00 

Sale of Keys of Room .75 

Interest on War Bond 5 . 50 

Stamp on Cheque .02 



$319.17 



Disbursetnents. 

Rent of Club Room, 1st Dec, 

1917, to 30th Nov., 1918. . . $180.00 

Telephone 33.40 

Telegrams 4 . 07 

Postage Stamps, Sec. and Treas. 1 1 . 36 

Typewriting 12.91 

Stationery 30.50 

Binding Books 5.20 

Technical Papers 14 . 32 

Quebec Bridge Lecture : 

Car hire $ 5.00 

Room Hire... 3.00 
Advertising. . . 14 . 28 

22.28 

Altering Sign on Room Door . . 1 . 75 

Keys 1.75 



$317.54 
$ 1 63 



Liquid Assets. 

Victory Bond $ 99. 11 

Bank Balance 181 61 

Cash Balance 8.98 



$289.70 

The books, vouchers and balance sheet have been 
examined and found correct. 



E. Davis, 



Treasurer. 



Clakenck Hoard, 
F. C. Green, 

Auditors. 



Saskatchewan Branch 

The second Annual Report of the Saskatchewan 
Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada, is hereby 
respectfully submitted: — 

At the outset we would like to mention the fact, that 
it is only four years now, that eight members of the 
Canadian Society of Civil Engineers gathered in the house 
of one of the local members and decided to request the 
approval of the Parent Institute for the formation of a 
Regina Branch. At present after four years, we have a 
membership of ninety-one members, sixteen of whom 
are overseas. The membership is composed as follows: 
9 Members, 67 Associate Members, 3 Juniors, 5 Students, 
1 Associate and 6 Afifiliates and means an increase of 
twenty- two over last report. 

As there are at present seven applications from our 
Province in the hands of the Council of the Parent Institute 
we are certain to arrive at a membership of one hundred 
early during the coming year. 

The past year has been one of considerable activity 
in the Branch. The dividing of the entire membership 
into two groups, one on " Power," the other one on 
" Good Roads," with two Main Committees in charge of 
proceedings and papers, bore good results and all the 
meetings during last winter were taken up by papers 
dealing with some of the phases of the two subjects. 
Especially the question of " Good Roads " has been 
thoroughly discussed and our Committee hopes shortly to 
submit a resume in form of a Progress Report. 

Then came our First Western Professional Meeting at 
Saskatoon under the auspices of our Branch, with its 
three days deliberations on technical and professional 
matters, and the first " getting together " on the subject of 
" legislation," which we hope sincerely will materialize 
during this year. Another tangible result of our Western 
Meeting is a permanent " Concrete " and " Good Roads 
Committee." 

We do not want to overlook to mention the visit of 
G. F. Porter with his interesting paper on the "Quebec 
Bridge." 



Excess of Receipts over Disbursements $ 1 .63 After the Professional Meeting all our sessions were 

devoted nearly exclusively to " legislation," and a fairly 

$289.70 good draft of a proposed Act had been prepared. We 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



79 



intended to submit the same at the present session of our 
Legislative Assembly here, but decided to withold action 
in deference to a request of the parent Council. 

Altogether 6 Executive, 10 regular and 6 special 
Meetings were held in addition to a considerable number of 
Committee Meetings. 

The following papers have been read: 

R. W. E. Loucks, A.M.E.I.C. " General Prin- 
ciples affecting the Location of Good Roads." 

E. W. Murray, A.M.E.LC— " Construction and 
Maintenance of Earth Roads." 

H. R. Mackenzie, A.M.E.LC— " The Necessity 
of Engineering Supervision on Construction and 
Maintenance of Earth Roads." 

J. D. Peters, Electrical Superintendent, City of 
Moose Jaw. — " Load Factor and Diversity Factor 
and their Effect on the Cost of Production of Power." 

W. T. Thompson, M.E.I.C.— " Notes on Loca- 
tion and Construction of Trunk and Feeder Roads 
with Special Reference to their Grades and Width 
in Relation to Traffic." 

A. A. Murphy, A.M.E.I.C.—" Relative Merits 
of Various Types of Prime Movers Producing 
Electrical Energy." 

E. H. Phillips, A.M.E.I.C— "A Consideration 
Affecting the Location of Roads with Respect to 
Population, Existing Railroads and Road Building 
Materials." 



C. P. Richards, A.M.E.I.C. 
pretation of the Quebec Act." 



" Legal Inter- 



J. N. deStein, M.E.I.C— " Remarks Regarding 
Rural Roads. 

The financial situation has been rendered rather 
difficult through the new By-Laws of The Institute, 
cutting the Branch revenue practically in two. A special 
levy had to be made upon our members, which brought our 
income of only $132.40 from the parent Institute up to 
$359.97, with an expenditure of $340.07. It will be 
necessary again to make a special assessment amongst our 
Branch Members. 

At the Annual Meeting of our Branch held on January 
9th, the following were elected officers for the ensuing year : 
H. S. Carpenter, Regina, Chairman; C. J. Yorath, Saska- 
toon, Vice-Chairman; J. N. deStein. Sec-Treasurer; 
H. R. Mackenzie, Regina, W. R. Warren, Regina, J. R. 
C. Macredie, Moose Jaw, Prof. A. R. Greig, Saskatoon, 
H. Mclvor Weir, Saskatoon, Executive Committee; 
L. A. Thornton, Regina, G. D. Mackie, Moose Jaw, 
ex-officio. 

For the Saskatchewan Branch, 

Institute of Canada, 



The Engineering 



J.N. deStein, 

Sec-Treasurer. 



H. S. Carpenter, 

Acting Chairman. 



St. John Branch 

Fraser S. Keith, Secretary of The Engincerimi 
Institute of Canada, addressed a meeting in the Royal 
Hotel, on March 17th, last, on the advisability of forming 
a local Branch of The Institute. The twelve members 
present agreed to this proposal, elected A. Gray, 
temporary chairman, and A. R. Crookshank, temporary 
secretary, and make formal application to the Council of 
The Institute for permission to establish the St. John 
Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada. 

The Council authorized this on March 19th, and at a 
meeting of the members of The Institute, calledbythe 
temporary chairman, on April 4th, the Branch was estab- 
lished, by-laws adopted, officers nominated, and general 
plans for the ensuing season made. 

On May 7th, the officers for the year were elected and 
the by-laws amended. At a meeting of the Executive on 
May 13th, A. Gray was appointed Chairman of Member- 
ship Committee, with the rest of the Executive as mem- 
bers. 

J. A. Grant was appointed chairman of Publicity 
Committee and was authorized to appoint two Branch 
members, outside of the Executive, to act with him. 
G. G. Murdoch, was appointed Chairman of the Proceed- 
ings Committee, with J. A. Grant and C. C. Kirby 
as members of Committee. Lots were drawn by the 
three elected Committee men, as called for by the by-laws, 
and the lot fell to J. A. Grant to serve the one year 
term ; the other two men to serve for two years. 

During the year, there was one preliminary and five 
regular meetings, held with an average attendance of ten 
members and two visitors, one of these was a joint meeting 
with the Board of Trade, on Oct. 7th, at which Mr. Gray 
read his paper on St. John Harbor. 

A general professional meeting was held in Halifax, 
Sept. 11, 12 and 13, under the joint auspices of the St. 
John and Halifax Branches. Attendance of St. John 
Branch members was ten with seven other New Brunswick 
visitors. The report of this meeting is contained in the 
October number of The Journal. 

One trip was made to points of interest, when on 
May 18th, eight members and ten visitors visited 
Grant & Home's shipyard and saw the " War Fundy " 
under process of construction. 

The Executive Committee met nine times with an 
average attendance of five and transacted a large amount 
of business. 

The plans for a programme of interesting meetings 
last fall were upset and the work disorganized by the 
Influenza epidemic with its consequent ban on public 
meetings. 

Subscriptions were asked for The Institute' s overseas 
tobacco fund, and $22.00 was forwarded to the General 
Secretary on Nov. 1st by the Secretary, as contribu- 
tions from twenty-two Branch members. 

Considerable corresponding has been carried on during 
the year, as is shown by the attached statement. The 
financial and membership reports are also attached. 
Respectfully submitted, 

A. R. Crookshank, 

Secretary-treasurer. 



80 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Financial Stalemeiit. 

1918 

Rereiptx. 

Advance on account of 20*^ é rebate of 1918 dues of 
Branch members from The Engineering 

InHlitute of Canada $50.00 

Tobacco Fund for Members Over-seas 22 . 00 

Affiliates' Fee for Season 1919 4.00 

$76.00 

Expendiluref^. 

The Euiiinierintj luMiliilc of Canada 

Overseas Tobacco Fund . ' $22 . 00 

Postage on Notices and Correspondence 

and Exchange 11.18 

Stationery and Printing 6.55 

Stenography 1 . 00 

One half of Hahfax General Professional 

Meeting — General Expenses 12.50 

Halifax Photo Group 1 .00 

Balance in Royal Bank of Canada 12 . 77 

$76.00 $76.00 

Statement of Membership. 

Resi- Non- Over- Total 
dent Resident seas 

Members 10 2 1 13 

Associate Members... 14 3 4 21 

Juniors 3 - 5 8 

Students 

Branch Affiliate .... 1 - - 1 

Total 28 5 10 43 

Membership in Province, outside of Branch .... 52 

Total membership in Province 95 

Applications pending election: 

Associate 
Members Members Juniors Affiliates Total 

2 1115 



Change in Membership during the year 191 ft. 

Decrease — Killed on " Field of Honour." Associate 
Member, 1. 

Increase — Newly New Non- 

elected residents residents 

Member - 1 1 2 

Associate Member. .1 1 3 5 

Junior 1 - - 1 

Affiliate 1 - - 1 

Totals 3 2 4 9 

Net increase for \ear 8 

Corre.'!pondence. 

Re- Sent Membership 
ceived out Elections Total 

Non-members 5 3 - 8 

Members 18 13 - 31 

Halifax Branch 12 11 - 23 

Other Branches 5 1 - 6 

Headquarters, E.I.C. 43 30 4 77 

Letters re forms 3 1 - 4 

86 59 4 149 

Notice of meetings (only) 6 sets, about 50 sent out. 

Circulars and notices of meetings, including circulars, 
1 1 sets, about 410 sent out. 

Ballots, 4 sets, about 110 sent out. 

Total, 570 sent out. 

Grand total of pieces of mail matter handled, 719. 

Meetings. 

General Professional 1 

Preliminary to Organization 1 

Regular 5 

Industrial Trip 1 

Total 8 

Executive Meetings 9 

Total Meetings 17 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



81 



Programme of Ottawa Meetings 



.Arrangements have been completed for the Annual 
General Meeting and the General Professional Meeting 
at the Chateau Laurier in Ottawa on Tuesday, Wednesday 
and Thursday, February 11th, 12th and 13th. The 
programme is as follows: 



Morning, 

10.00 A.M. 

Luncheon, 
1.00 P.M. 



Afternoon, 
4.00 P.M. 

Evening, 
7.30 P.M. 



Morning 



Luncheon, 
1.00 P.M. 



Afternoon 
2.15 P.M. 



Tuesday. 

Business Session. 

Followed by. 

Short Address, by His Excellency the 
Governor-General . 

Short Address, by C. A. Adams, Presi- 
dent, A. I. E. E. 

Address — International Affiliation of En- 
gineers, by A. D. Flinn, Secretary of the 
LTnited Engineering Council. 

Business Session. 

President's Address (invitations). 



Informal Dinner and Smoker. 

Wednesday. 

Unfinished Business of Annual 

Meeting. 

Standards in Engineering, by Capt. 

R. J. Durley, M.E.I.C, Chief of Division 

of Gauges and Standards, Imperial 

Ministry of Munitions. 

Soldiers' Re-establishment, by Major 

Anthes, of the Department of Soldiers' 

Civil Re-establisliment. 

The Development and Future of 

Aviation in Canada, by M. R. Riddell, 

Chief Engineer of Canadian Aeroplanes 

Ltd. 

Followed by, 

Short Address, by Dr. Ira Hollis, Dean, 

Worcester Polytechnic, representing 

A.S.M.E. 

National Highways and Good Roads, 
by J. Duchastel, M.E.I.C, Hon. Presi- 
dent, Good Roads Association. 
Frazil, by R. M. Wilson, M.E.F.C, 
Chief Engineer, Montreal Light, Heat & 
Power, Ltd. 

Mean Sea Level Datum for Canada, 
by W. Bell Dawson, M.E.I.C, Supt. of 



Evening 
9.00 P.M. 



Morning 



Luncheon, 
1.00 P.M. 



Afternoon, 
4.30 P.M. 



Tidal Survey, Department of Naval 

Service. 

The Montreal Tunnel, by J. L. Busfield, 

A.M.E.I.C (Illustrated). 

Formal Gathering. 

Reception by President : Ladies, Music, 

Refreshments, Dancing. 

Thursday. 
Topical Discussion on the Economics 
of Railway Electrification, opened by 
John Murphy, M.E.I.C, Department of 
Railways and Canals, and Railway Com- 
mission; followed by discussions by F. H. 
Shepard, A.A.I.E.E. New York, Director 
of Heavy Traction, Westinghouse Electric 
&Mfg. Co. ; and W. G. Gordon, F.A.I.E.E. 
Toronto, Transportation Engineer, Can- 
adian General Electric Co., Ltd. 
Mining and Metallurgy of Cobalt 
Silver-Ores, by Lt.-Col. R. W. Leonard, 
M.E.I.C, President, Coniagas Mines. 

Followed by. 

Short Address, by Hon. F. B. Carvell, 
Minister of Public Works, to be followed 
by a visit to the New Parliament Build- 
ings, Ladies. 

Motion Pictures. 



Luncheon — Tuesday, 11.00 to 1.00 p.m., at Chateau 
Laurier. 

Complimentary tickets to visiting members. 
Informal Dinner and Smoker — 

Tickets $2.50, to be obtained on registering. 
Luncheon — Wednesday and Thursday, February 12th and 
13th, 1.00 p.m., at Chateau Laurier. Tickets $1.00 
to be obtained on registering. 

Since the last Annual Meeting many changes have 
taken place in the organization indicative of progressive 
development and the new spirit that has been aroused in 
the affairs of the engineering profession. It is already 
indicated that this will be one of the most largely attended 
Annual Meetings ever held. Members of the Ottawa 
Reception Committee, wearing badges, will meet incoming 
trains and will furnish information regarding accommoda- 
tion and registration. The registration will take place 
on the ground floor in the assembly room at the rear of 
the rotunda. 



82 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Mean Sea Level As A General Datum for Canada* 

By W. Bell Daxcson, M.A., D.Sc, M.E.I.C, M.Insl.C.E., F.R.S.C. 



In regard to a general datum for levels in Canada, 
there can scarcely be a question that the right datum to 
adopt is Mean Sea level; since this is used in all civilized 
countries as the general plane of reference for levels. There 
are some important purposes however, for which other 
zero levels are preferred; notably the Low-water datum 
for navigation and harbour works. Another plane of 
reference that may have some possible claim for con- 
sideration, is the level of High water, which some railway 
companies and some coast cities have adopted. In some 
cases also, this is made the reference level for the height of 
mountains. But apart from these, a great number of 
independent and discordant datums are in use for reference 
on railways or in our different cities, which are indefensible 
in the sense that they do not correctly represent any 
physical plane of reference. 

The object of the present Paper is to outline briefly 
the situation in Canada at the present time; as it is now 
possible to aim at the use of one general datum, and 
gradually to do away with all the undesirable ones. The 
Railway Commission views favorably the adoption of a 
general datum of this character, wherever it is practicable 
to connect with it. The Superintendent of the U. S. Coast 
and Geodetic Survey, in a Paper entitled " The use of 
Mean Sea level," published in 1917, gives the opinions of 
a number of Engineers and others throughout the United 
States on the datum to which elevations should be referred. 
All are agreed that Mean Sea level should be chosen, and 
that it should be adopted without further delay. The 
Engineering Insiilidc should therefore discourage the 
reprehensible practice of Engineers in beginning almost 
every new undertaking with a fresh and independent 
datum, without even inquiring what is already in use in 
the locality. This practice appears to continue to the 
present time. 

In explaining the advantages of Mean Sea level as 
a datum, we will avoid technicalities; but the way it is 
arrived at and its degree of accuracy are matters of 
interest from an engineering standpoint. 

On all shores of the Ocean there is a tide which rises 
and falls twice a day; and the determination of the mean, 
or true level of the sea, is necessarily a tidal problem. 
When this has to be done from the beginning, there are 
several successive steps required ; as a zero level from which 
heights are to be measured must be established ; and also 
a local Bench-mark for reference, to maintain the levels 
at a uniform elevation from year to year. The best zero 
level to adopt, is a Low-water datum, which can be decided 
upon definitely as soon as the first few months of tidal 
observations are obtained. 

This Low-water datum differs essentially from Mean 
Sea level in not representing a constant or absolute eleva- 
tion. It is a plane of reference at half the range of the tide 
below the mean level of the sea; and the range of the tide 
varies from 4 feet to 50 feet in different regions. The only 
justification for the Low-water datum is its great conven- 
ience to the mariner, in showing the least amount of water 
available in bays and channels under the influence of the 

*To be read at the General Professional Meeting, Ottawa, 
February 12th. 



tide. It is therefore universally used in Hydrographie 
Surveys as the datum for marine charts; and by using the 
same datum as the zero level in tide tables, the extra 
depth due to the rise of the tide is made evident. To 
this practice, Holland may be mentioned as an exception ; 
for although a Low-water datum is used for their charts, 
it is not accepted for the tide tables, which are everywhere 
referred to Mean Sea Level at Amsterdam. This gives 
all High waters a plus value and all Low waters a minus 
value ; which carries the use of this datum to its theoretical 
limit. 

At a fully equipped tidal station the tide is obtained 
by a recording instrument, as a continuous curve day and 
night, simimer and winter. The equipment necessary 
to secure such observations, especially in our climate, 
need not be detailed; but it is evident that the levels at 
the tidal station must be maintained accurately from 
year to year with reference to the Bench-mark; the 
individual observations being to the nearest hundreth of 
a foot. 

The ordinates of the tide curve above the Low-water 
datum are then measured at each hour throughout the 
year, and the average of these is accepted as the best 
value for Mean Sea level. It is necessary to deal with a 
complete year at a time, to allow for all the astronomical 
variations in the tide itself. The resulting value being 
thus the average of 8,760 individual heights, is already 
reliable when derived from one year. It is clear that from 
the tidal point of view, the value of Mean Sea level is 
the final outcome of the observ'ations. 

This method, geometrically speaking, makes Mean 
Sea level the axis line of the tide curve, which bisects its 
area horizontally. The only other method is to take 
" Half tide " as the mean level of the sea; that is, half the 
difference in height between the average levels of High 
water and Low water. This is less accurate, chiefly 
because Mean Sea level may not be truly midway between 
High water and Low water, unless the tide curve itself is 
perfectly symmetrical; there being regions in which 
there is an inequality that interferes seriously with its 
symmetry. 

The value of Mean Sea level from the hourly ordinates 
of the tide on an open coast, at a point unaffected by river 
outflow, is reliable to the third decimal of a foot in any one 
year. There is a slight variation from one year to another 
of perhaps an inch or two from the mean value; for some 
reason which is not well understood. For example in a 
series of 15 years at St. Paul Island the extreme values in 
individual years are from 0.17 to 0.14 of a foot above or 
below the average value. The average of the determina- 
tions in three or four complete years however, must be 
regarded as correct in the absolute; because the probable 
error in about 100 miles of land levelling is greater than 
the residual error in the determination of Mean Sea level. 
When a long land line connects two well-situated tidal 
stations, any outstanding error must therefore be adjusted 
to correspond with Mean Sea level at its two ends. This 
is recognized in the extended levelling operations through- 






JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



83 



out India and the United States. In Great Britain, special 
tidal stations on the open coast have been established in 
recent years, to avoid river influence; as all the more 
important harbors are in the estuaries of rivers. 

In Canada our determinations of Mean Sea level have 
been kept well ahead of levelling requirements. The 
Survey of Tides and Currents was organized in 1893; its 
primary purpose being for the benefit of navigation in 
olDtaining data for tide tables, and in the investigation of 
marine currents, and it was thus made a branch of the 
Marine department. It soon became evident that tide 
levels were valuable for construction purposes or dredging, 
even if only locally determined in individual harbours; 
and also that Mean Sea level would be of importance at 
some future time, as a basis for extended levelling. The 
extra work necessary to maintain accurate levels was, 
therefore, undertaken from the outset by the Tidal Survey; 
as it is obviously a very different matter to keep the levels 
correct to the nearest 0.01 of a foot, as compared with 
working to the nearest half or quarter foot as required for 
chart soundings and navigation generally. 

By 1903, reliable results became available; and values 
for Mean Sea level were given, with other tide levels, in 
a Paper by the Superintendent, published by the Canadian 
Society of Civil Engineers. These values were based on 
4 to 6 complete years of observation. Similar data for 
harbors on the Pacific coast were published in 1905. 
About that time also (in the year 1904) the Academy of 
Sciences of France offered one of its prizes for the best 
determinations of Mean Sea level in any country bordering 
on the North Atlantic ocean; the special object being 
physical, in establishing a basis for detecting any 
depression or elevation of the coast relatively to the Ocean 
level. Somewhat to their surprise, Canada took the first 
place in the competition; as the Tidal Survey had deter- 
minations of Mean Sea level covering eight degrees of 
latitude from southern Nova Scotia to Labrador, and in 
longitude from Cape Breton to the lower St. Lawrence. 
Notwithstanding this recognition from France, it was not 
until five or six years later that our systems of Geodetic 
or precise levelling were connected with the Canadian 
tidal stations, at which the determinations of Mean Sea 
level available in 1903, had been made known by publi- 
cation to Engineers. 

The first accurate levelling which began in the region 
of Montreal, along the St. Lawrence, the Richelieu and the 
Ottawa, was based on Bench-marks on the frontier of the 
United States, connected with sea level at New York by 
the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. The most 
noteworthy of these Bench-marks is at Rouses Point at 
the north end of Lake Champlain. It appears to be at 
the end of a line of secondary importance in the United 
States system; as its original altitude was diminished in 
1900 by 1.08 feet, and its elevation was finally revised in 
1903 from 110.06 to 107.95, an alteration of 2.11 feet; with 
possibly a further small correction in 1907. This shows the 
disadvantage of having to rely on United States levels; 
when a line of levels from Montreal to a satisfactory tidal 
station of our own (at Father Point on the Lower St. 
Lawrence) is no longer than the line connecting Montreal 
with New York. 



The first precise levelling in the Maritime Provinces , 
was also started from a frontier Bench-mark in the State 
of Maine, which is nearly twice as far from New York as 
from our tidal station at Halifax. 

These points are mentioned to show that there is no 
need to make Canada a mere adjunct of the United States, 
when our Canadian work may be quite as good; and it 
would be equally unfortunate at the present juncture to 
miss the opportunity of correlating all existing levels, to 
place them on a satisfactory basis. 

What has already been accomplished in accurate 
levelling may be mentioned in the briefest way to indicate 
the present situation; with the endeavor also to state fairly 
the amount accomplished by each Survey or Department 
engaged. There was indeed some excellent levelling along 
our railways, especially in the early days; no such work 
being better done than on the old European and North 
American Railway from St. John to Shediac in 1859. 
We may also recall the careful instructions on levelling 
for the Intercolonial Railway given by Sir Sanford Fleming 
about 1870. But ail this is now lost, because unrecorded 
by Bench-marks ; and this often happened on our railways 
built later, through the hurry during construction. Some 
early levels have been preserved however, on various canal 
surveys, though more limited in extent. 

The first work done under the name of Geodetic 
levelling, was in 1883 to 1888, from Quebec to Cornwall 
and southward to connect with Rouses Point; under the 
direction of Mr. R. Steckel of the Public Works depart- 
ment; the St. Lawrence section from Quebec to Montreal 
being published in 1891. In 1904 to 1907 these levels were 
carried through to Lake Huron by the Georgian Bay 
Canal Survey. In 1906, precise levelling was begun by 
the Dominion Observatory, their first results being pub- 
lished in the report of the Chief Astronomer for 1910. 
The lines run in the first years were in western and southern 
New Brunswick; and from Sherbrooke to Colborne, 
Ontario. The whole of the work in these regions was 
based upon Bench-marks on the frontiers of the United 
States, and chiefly upon Rouses Point ; but most of it had 
the advantage of the revised elevation of 1903 for that 
Bench-mark; which was carefully correlated with others 
in the State of New York by the Georgian Bay Canal 
Survey before the final reduction of their levels in 1907. 

It was not until 1910, that the Geodetic levelling in 
the Public Works department was continued eastward 
beyond Father Point, and through New Brunswick and 
Nova Scotia to Halifax. It thus makes connection with 
two of the tidal stations at which Mean Sea level is 
accurately determined; and the final revision, based on 
both stations, was made in 1914. The precise levelling of 
the Dominion Observatory was also connected with the 
Halifax tidal station in 1913. This precise levelling has 
recently been organized as the Geodetic Survey of Canada, 
in the Interior Department. This then brings us to 
the date at which the determinations of Mean Sea level 
made by the Tidal Survey, were first utilized as a basis for 
extended levelling. When required for levelling opera- 
tions, determinations were thus found ready to hand, which 
had gradually been perfected during a series of previous 
years. The same advantage was obtained afterwards 
in the two additional provinces of Prince Edward Island 
and British Columbia. 



84 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



At this juncture we may indicate concisely the 
system of principal stations which were established to 
command all Canadian waters, as reference stations for 
tides and currents; but most of which are also well situated 
for the purpose under consideration. There are eight 
principal tidal stations in Eastern Canada which are 
maintained summer and winter; but at two of these the 
value of Mean Sea level is not satisfactory. At Quebec 
there is still some river slope, and Mean Sea level, deter- 
mined locally by the method described, is nearly IJ^ feet 
above the true level in the Ocean. Even at St. John, 
N.B., the influence of the St. John river appears to be 
appreciable. The station at St. Paul Island in Cabot 
Strait, though invaluable for general tidal purposes, is 
inaccessible for connection with land levels. This leaves 
five, which are well distributed on our Eastern coasts: 
namely, Father Point, Halifax, Yarmouth, Charlottetown 
and a station in Belle Isle Strait at the extreme northeast 
of the country. At all these stations, the results are now 
highly accurate; and they are referred to local Bench- 
marks. 

The determination of Mean Sea level at Halifax is 
derived from nine complete years of tidal observation. 
The other determinations utilized in levelling are derived 
from ten complete years at Father Point, five years at 
Charlottetown, and one year at Yarmouth. The value 
of Mean Sea level at Charlottetown has been made the 
basis for levelling over the whole of the Railway system 
of the island, which was begun in 1915 by the Department 
of Railways. This will place the levels throughout this 
Province in a very satisfactory position. 

The principal line of Geodetic levelling of the Public 
Works department runs near to the Eastern coast of New 
Brunswick, and connects Halifax with Father Point. It 
thus constitutes a line running north and south for 400 
miles across three provinces, which is connected at both 
ends with sea level. The lines of the Geodetic Survey, 
running from Halifax to the St. Lawrence, lie further in the 
interior of New Brunswick ; and another line extends from 
Halifax to Yarmouth, being thus checked at both ends. 
The two systems of level lines have been laid out with care 
to avoid duplication, as far as this is practicable. By 
means of these lines the early levelling along the St. 
Lawrence and in the Montreal region, and the system of 
lines in the Maritime Provinces, are well connected and 
brought to a uniform basis. On all such lines, a series of 
Bench-marks is established for reference. 

It may be possible in localities to which precise level- 
ling has not yet reached, to make a determination of 
Mean Sea level from a few months of tidal observations, 
to meet some special requirement. In the Pictou and 
Sydney coal fields in Nova Scotia, contoured maps by the 
Geological Survey have been based on local determinations 
of sea level in those harbours, which afforded fairly good 
values, sufficiently close for the purpose. A basis for 
levels required also by this Survey in a mining region on 
Howe Sound, B.C., was obtained similarly from a special 
reduction of a few months of tidal observations there. 

The region of the Great Lakes is related by its situa- 
tion to sea level on the New England coast directly 
opposite; and the determination of Mean Sea level at 
New York thus afifords the natural basis for this region. 
The lines of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey 



form a net work by which the Lake levels are well estab- 
lished ; and it would appear that the elevations now arrived 
at, can be accepted without question of further revision. 
These have been carried across to the Canadian shores by 
the Hydrographie Survey. 

Passing to the Pacific coast, tidal observations were 
begun there in 1895 and 1902, which now afford accurate 
determinations of Mean Sea level at Vancouver and Port 
Simpson, at the north and south extremes of the coast of 
the mainland; as well as at Prince Rupert, from observa- 
tions there since it was founded. The Geodetic Survey 
had thus a sound basis for levelling, when it was begun in 
the region of the lower Fraser; and it will be possible to 
connect the land lines which run through the interior of 
British Columbia, with Mean Sea level at both Vancouver 
and Prince Rupert; two points on the coast nearly 500 
miles apart in a straight line. This is a further example 
of the advantage of such a double connection for long land 
lines, especially in so mountainous a country. 

There are also tidal records available from which 
Mean Sea level can be worked out at the heads of any of 
the long inlets on the coast, which may possibly become 
Railway terminals in the future. 

On Vancouver Island, there are three determinations 
of Mean Sea level at well situated points; at Victoria and 
Hardy Bay at the south and north ends, which are 260 
miles apart, and at Clayoquot near the middle of the 
west side. Land lines throughout the length and breadth 
of the island can be based on the determinations at these 
three tidal stations. Already the Geological Survey is 
utilizing the value of Mean Sea level at Victoria for a 
contoured map in that region. 

The Geodetic Survey has recently completed con- 
nections which give a through line of levels across the 
width of Canada from Halifax to Vancouver. These 
levels are also checked by LInited States Bench-marks 
near the boundary in the middle of the Continent. 
Towards the western side, a net-work of lines now extends 
from Vancouver to Regina, and from Edmonton to Leth- 
bridge. 

In these central regions, levels are also being carried 
along the meridians and other boundary lines which 
are laid out by the Surveyor General's department. 
This can be done by the same surveying parties, and it 
helps to extend the levels. This work is correlated with 
the elevations established by the Geodetic Survey and 
is kept in harmony with it. 

A valuable work of reference, entitled "Altitudes in 
Canada," has been compiled by Mr. James White, which 
gives the results obtained by all methods, including 
precise levelling, re-levelling on railways, and reconnais- 
sances. The earliest edition was pubhshed by the Geolo- 
gical Survey in 1901; and the later editions have been 
largely extended, under the Conservation Commission. 
The elevations throughout are referred to Mean Sea 
level, and a description of the priniar\' determinations by 
the Tidal Survey is given. This work is of great assistance 
in familiarizing Engineers with the use of a general datum 
throughout the country. 

To sum up the situation, we have at present a net- 
work of levelling in Eastern Canada, which has been built 
up by three systems of levelling operations since 1883, 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



85 



and is now correlated accurately with Mean Sea level. 
The levelling in the Public Works department, extending 
from Georgian Bay through the Montreal region, and now 
connected with the tidal stations on the Lower St. 
Lawrence and at Halifax, was finally revised in 1914. 
The lines of the Geodetic Survey in the Maritime Pro- 
vinces, connected with the tidal station at Halifax since 
1913, extend by other routes continuously to the region 
of the Great Lakes. On the Pacific coast, the lines of 
levels are also beginning to form a net-work; and the two 
sides of the country are united by a through line across the 
Continent finally connected in 1916 and 1917, by the 
comprehensive work of the Geodetic Survey. There is 
thus at present a system of Bench-marks throughout all 
the more inhabited parts of Canada for reference; and the 
dates mentioned show that this is quite recently accom- 



plished. It is obviously desirable therefore, that all 
Engineers should now utilize the uniform datum thus 
established, and that all railway profiles should be referred 
to it, to eliminate the confusion arising from the adoption 
of independent datums which is still in vogue. 

The only necessary exception to this rule is for marine 
charts and dredging, for which a Low-water datum must be 
used; as well as for the height of the tide in tide tables. 
It may be a question whether it is essential to use Low 
water or High water as the datum for harbour con- 
struction and dry docks; but if so, it should be possible 
to give a correlation with Mean Sea level. These two 
datums correspond with the land surface of the country 
which is out of water, and the harbours and maritime 
approaches to its shores which are below sea level. 




LIEUT.-COL. R. W. LEONARD, M.E.I.C. 
President, Coniagas Mines, President Elect., The Engineering Institute of Canada. 



86 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



The Mining and Metallurgy of Cobalt Silver-Ores* 

By Lieut-Col. H. W. Leonard, M. E. L C. 



In the Temiskaming & Northern Ontario Railway 
Commission's Report for 1916 on the Mining Industry in 
that part of Northern Ontario, served by the T. & N. O. 
Railway, Mr. Arthur A. Cole, Mining Engineer for the 
Commission, makes the following remarks: 

"Along the Temiskaming & Northern Ontario 
Railway from Cobalt to Porquis Junction, a distance 
of 125 miles, it was noticeable this year that there was 
hardly a station from which some mining operations 
were not being carried on. New districts were being 
reported from time to time, and the older districts 
were looking better as work proceeded. 

"Anyone who looked over the unbroken forests 
of Northern Ontario a dozen years ago and predicted 
that this district would soon be producing over twenty 
millions in gold and silver annually would have been 
put down as a fantastic dreamer; but that figure is 
surpassed today by three million dollars, and the 
output is continually increasing. 

"And yet only a small portion of the country has 
been prospected. Running north-east and north- 
west from Cobalt and extending to the Arctic 
Ocean is the great pre-Cambrian shield, the basement 
formation of the Continent. It contains thousands 
of square miles and offers to prospectors better chances 
of locating valuable mineral deposits than can be found 
in any other country in the world." 

The principal camps referred to by Mr. Cole are the 
Cobalt silver and the Porcupine gold areas, and if to this 
we add the world-famed copper-nickel deposits of the 
Sudbury district, lying about 160 miles south of Porcupine 
and 80 miles south-west of Cobalt, we have a very inter- 
esting group, of which two are the most wonderful mineral 
deposits in the world. 

In 1918, Sudbury is credited by the Deputy Minister 
of Mines, Ontario, with a production of Nickel valued, in 
matte form, at $26,800,000.00, and of Copper, valued in 
matte form, at $8,500,000.00, making a total of 
$35,300,000.00. The market value of the refined products 
would exceed these figures very materially, and in time 
the refining of these products in Canada will greatly 
stimulate the production of heavy chemicals, machinery 
and many other materials required in the process. 

In addition to the silver and gold produced in the 
Northern Ontario district covered by Mr. Cole's Report, 
we have the metal cobalt, existing in greater concentration 
than in any other known deposit, enabling Canada to 
supply for some years past practically the entire world's 
consumption of refined cobalt products. This metal 
cobalt, together with nickel and arsenic, are associated 
with silver in the Cobalt ores, and in this same district 
served by the T. & N. O. Railway are found copper, 



*To be read at the General Professional Meeting, Ottawa, 
February 12th. 



molybdenite, barite, fire-clay and potter>'-clay, all in 
notable commercial deposits. For the working of these 
deposits the district affords an abundance of wood, water- 
power and large areas of peat which have been favorably 
reported upon by A. Anrep, peat expert to the 
Dominion Government, suggesting its use in the form of 
peat powder, even for locomotive fuel. 

Before proceeding to a description of the mining and 
metallurgy' of silver, which is the principal mineral pro- 
duced in this district up to the present time, just a word 
in regard to the gold mines of the Porcupine Camp which 
were discovered in 1907. Since that year to December 
31st, 1918, the production of gold has reached a value of 
$46,000,000.00, and the working mines have paid dividends 
of $13,312,310.00. Gold has also been discovered in 
notable deposits in many other parts of this district 
served by the T. & N. O. Railway, and a number of these 
occurrences are of a very promising nature. 

During the past year the Cobalt Camp produced 
about 12} 2l^ of the total world's output ofsilver, and this 
was achieved by a camp about four miles in length and 
the same in width. The Cobalt silver mines have paid in 
dividends to December 31st, 1918, over $76,000,000.00, 
which, added to the dividends paid by the Porcupine gold 
mines of over $13,000,000.00, gives a grand total of more 
than $89,000,000.00 paid in dividends by the mines of 
these two camps since 1904. 

Notwithstanding the shortage of labour due to the 
war, the gold and silver mines of Northern Ontario are 
employing about 7000 men at present with an annual 
pay-roll of at least $8,500,000.00; and it is estimated that 
up to the present time, at least $103,000,000.00 has been 
spent by the operating mines in labour, equipment and 
supplies. 

The numerous promising discoveries of gold through- 
out the whole territory served by the railway gives assur- 
ance that the gold-mining industry of Northern Ontario is 
j^et in its infancy. 

In 1917, there were fifteen dividend-paying silver 
mines and five dividend-paying gold mines in Northern 
Ontario, as compared with nine dividend-paying silver 
mines and three dividend-paying gold mines in 1918. 

Notwithstanding that silver was discovered on the 
north-east side of Lake Temiskaming about a century 
ago when operations were carried on at the Wright Mine, 
the history of the Cobalt mining camp began in 1903, 
when the T. & N. O. Railway was in course of con- 
struction, native silver being discovered at that time at 
both the north and south ends of Cobalt Lake. These 
spectacular finds of native silver aroused immediate and 
widespread attention and, as a result of the work done by 
the large number of miners and prospectors who flocked 
into the country, a number of mines were rapidly opened 
up, and these mines paid handsomeh- from the grass-roots 
down. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



87 



The total output of silver from the Cobalt district 
from 1904 to the end of 1918, is as follows:— 



Average 
price, 
Cents 
per oz. 

1904 57.2 

1905 60.4 

1906 66.8 

1907 67.5 

1908 52.9 

1909 51.5 

1910 53.5 

1911 53.3 

1912 60.8 

1913 57.8 

1914 54.8 

1915 49.69 

1916 65.661 

1917 81.418 

Estimated— 1918...96 . 772 



Ounces 



206,875 
2,451.356 
5,401,766 
10,023,311 
19,437,875 
25,897,825 
30,645,181 
31,507,791 
30,243,859 
29,681,975 
25,162,841 
24,746,534 
19,915.090 
19,401,893 
17,500,000 



$ 



Value 



111.887.00 

1,360,503.00 

3,667,551.00 

6,155.391.00 

9,133,378.00 

12,461,576.00 

15,478,047.00 

15.953.847.00 

17,408.935.00 

16,553,981.00 

12.765.461 

12,135,816 

12,643,175 

16,131,013 

16,935.100 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



292,224,172 $168.895,661.00 



The total cost of mining and milling at the Coniagas 
Mine, including development, head office and adminis- 
tration and all overhead charges, have declined from: 

$19.75 per ton in 1908 
to 9.24 " " " 1910 
to 6.13 " " " 1915 
to 5.67 " " " 1917 
and increased to 5.88 " " " 1918 
The cost per ounce of fine silver produced, including 
the above charges, freight, treating and refining at the 
company's smelter at Thorold, Ont., war taxes and 
shipment to London, England, have ranged from: 
17.53c. in 1908 



While there is no doubt that the Cobalt Camp is 
rapidly becoming exhausted, there is every prospect of 
other workable deposits being discovered of the same 
geological formation, which covers an enormous area 
of this Northland, in the vast territory which remains as 
yet unprospected, and this promise is borne out to a limited 
extent by notable finds of silver in South Lorraine and 
Casey Townships, and up the Montreal River. 

Geologically, the Cobalt Camp consists of a founda- 
tion of Keewatin rocks, upon which a slate conglomerate 
has been uncomformably deposited, the whole broken in 
places by eruptions of diabase forming dykes and sills and 
causing vertical cracks which were afterwards filled with 
mineral. The most valuable silver deposits are found in 
these vertical veins cutting through the conglomerate, 
and the silver almost invariably disappears in depth at 
the contact with the Keewatin. Some valuable veins 
have been found in the diabase rocks which have produced 
a notable amount of silver. 

In the opening up of some of the mines in the early 
days a few hand-drills or a machine-drill, a derrick and 
a hoisting engine formed the only plant necessary to 
sacking the rich ore and shipping it in carloads to the 
smelters, these carloads of ore netting as high as 
$100,000.00 per car when silver was selling at about 60c. 
per ounce. This method of mining, however, rapidly 
gave way to mining from shafts and levels underground 
with overhand stoping, the rich ore being sorted and 
sacked in the mine and the remainder sent to concen- 
trating mills before shipment to the smelters. The camp 
now boasts of some very excellent examples of mining 
and milling equipment, with resultant up-to-date operating 
methods, as reflected in the costs of mining and milling 
at the Coniagas Mine, which mine has produced to date 
over 26,000,000 ounces of silver and has paid in dividends 
$9.240,000.00. 



to 11.06 


' 1911 


to 13.06 


' 1913 


to 18.26 


' 1916 


to 25.69 


' 1917 


to 41.35 


' 1918 



For the description which follows of the Milling and 
Hydrometallurgy of Cobalt ores I am indebted to 
F. D. Reid, Mine Manager, Coniagas Mines, Cobalt; 
and for that portion which deals with the smelting and 
refining of these ores, to R. L. Peek, manager. The 
Coniagas Reduction Co. Ltd., Thorold, Ont. 

Ore Treatment. 

The outstanding features of the practice of recovery 
of values from Cobalt ores followed at the various mills are: 

1. The utilization of jigs and tables to recover 
a large percentage of the silver and cobalt content of 
the ore prior to treatment by flotation or cyanidation 

2. The grinding of the table tailing to a slime 
to obtain a maximum net return from the cyanidation 
treatment ; 

3. The necessity of grinding the table taiUng 
to pass a 100-mesh screen to obtain a maximum net 
return from the flotation process; 

4. The use of Sodium Sulphide as a precip'.tant, 
and Aluminum in a caustic soda solution as ade- 
sulphurizer. (Footnote 1.) 

5. The treatment of concentrates by the 
hypochlorite method. (Footnote 2.) 

Since much of the silver now produced comes from 
low-grade ore, chiefly wall rock, the treatment of this low- 
grade ore is described more in detail. In this connection 
cyanidation, flotation and gravity concentration processes 
are discussed. 

The hypochlorite-cyanide process which has been 
recently introduced for the reduction of high-grade ores 
is also dealt with somewhat fully. 

Brief Historical Review. 

For the first three years following discovery only 
high-grade ore was sought and no attempt was made to 
extract silver from the low-grade material. Much of the 
ore was sacked underground and the rest was hand-sorted 
in washing plants. In this way three products were 
olDtained and shipped to the smelter, viz.: (1) ore 
carrying from 2000 to 4000 ounces of silver per ton; 



88 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



(2) ore carrying about 400 ounces; (3) a grizzly product 
carrying about 125 ounces. The discarded material with 
a value of from 15 to 30 ounces went to the low-grade 
dump for future treatment. 

In the summer of 1907 the McKinley-Darragh 
Mining Company erected and put into operation a five- 
stamp mill equipped with classifiers, a Wilfly table and 
Frue Vanners, with a view to treating their low-grade ore. 
Shortly after this the Coniagas Mill was put into operation 
with a daily capacity of 60 tons. Then followed the 
Buffalo and others, until to-day there are thirteen mills 
in operation with a total daily capacity of approximately 
3000 tons. 

Prdim i nary Treatment. 

The general practice at present is to hand-sort the 
high-grade ore, either underground or in washing plants 
and send the low-grade, consisting of country rock con- 
taining a portion of the vein matter, to the mill. Here it 
is crushed in breakers, sized, and given a preliminary 
treatment on jigs, thereby practically recovering the 
balance of the vein matter. 

The wall-rock, containing finely disseminated mineral 
and fine leaf silver, passes on to the stamps, ball or 
Hardinge mills, for further reduction and concentration. 

Concentrating by Gravity Machines. 

In general it may be said that the silver, when in a 
gangue of smaltite or niccolite, is readily recoverable by 
jigging; or, when coarser than 200- mesh and finer than 
8-mesh, by concentrating on Wilfly, Deister or James 
tables. This class of vein matter has a specific gravity of 
6 to 6.5, whereas the specific gravity of the wall-rock is 2.7. 

Losses occur in concentrating this vein matter when 
crushed to finer than 200-mesh. Filmy leaf silver, various 
brittle, complex silver compounds, oxidized vein matter in 
the form of slime, and silver in a finely disseminated state 
in the wall rock, are also sources of loss in subsequent 
treatment. However, from an ore containing 25 ounces of 
silver to the ton 80 '^^ of the values can be recovered by the 
gravity concentrating methods at a comparatively low 
cost— the cost depending largely on the capacity of the 
mill. The cost of crushing the ore to the size required 
and concentrating on jigs and tables is approximately 
$1.00 per ton for a mill with a capacity of 200 tons per 24 
hours. This does not include overhead charges nor the 
cost of marketing the concentrates. In general, the cost 
of concentrating the prepared ore on tables is approxi- 
mately 20c. per ton. Gravity concentration, therefore, 
serves its purpose, namely, to reduce the silver content 
of the ore to approximately 5 ounces, at a low cost. 

The introduction of the Cyanide process and later 
the Flotation process was with a view to recover this 
elusive five ounces. The cyanide process has the additional 
advantage of producing silver in the form of bullion. 

Note 1.— See "Sodium Sulphite Precipitation of Silver at the 
Nipissing Mine" (R. B. Watson) Transactions, Canadian Mining 
Institute, 1917. 

Note 2. — See "Notes on Metallurgy at Gsbalt during 1916." 
i-R. B. Watson), The Canadian Mining Journal, March, 1917. 



Mechanical Concentration followed by Cyanidation. 

Cyanidation as an adjunct to mechanical concentra- 
tion is employed in three mills, the Cobalt Reduction, 
O'Brien and Nipissing. 

The practice at the Nipissing and Cobalt Reduction 
Mills, is to concentrate as closely as is economically 
possible on concentrating tables, and to reconcentrate the 
rougher concentrates to obtain a product assaying from 
2000 to 3000 ounces of silver to the ton. This concen- 
trate is then treated by the hypo-chlorite cyanide process, 
to be described later. The tailings from the tables after 
being slimed in tube mills is run to the low-grade cyanide 
plant for further treatment. The O'Brien practice is 
similar to that of the Nipissing and Cobalt Reduction, 
excepting that the concentrate recovered is shipped direct 
to their smelter at Deloro. 

The run of mine ore after receiving a preliminary 
treatment in the washing plant to recover the vein matter, 
is crushed in a 0.12% cyanide solution to pass a 4-mesh 
battery screen. The battery discharge is then concen- 
trated on 12 Wilfly tables, the concentrate going to the 
hypo-chlorite cyanide plant and the tailings discharging 
into Dorr classifiers in closed-circuit with tube mills until 
the product is reduced to a slime. The slime product is 
re-concentrated on slime tables, the tailing assajang 
approximately 6 ounces is given a 48 hour treatment in a 
0.25% cyanide solution. The pregnant solution is then 
recovered by filtering in vacutmi filters and the residue 
containing from 2 to 2.5 ounces of silver to the ton, is run 
to waste. The silver in the pregnant solution is pre- 
cipitated by the addition of sodium sulphide and the 
precipitate desulphurized by being brought into contact 
with aluminimi in a caustic soda solution. It is then 
refined in a reverberatory furnace to 999 parts per thousand 
fine. 

Hypochlorite-Cyanide Process. 

The Nipissing Mining Company and the Mining 
Corporation of Canada, recover approximately 97% of the 
silver contained in their high-grade ore and concentrates, 
by the hypo-chlorite cyanide process. 

Until recently it was thought that concentrates could 
not be treated economically by the cyanide process. 
The method outlined below, however, is now in successful 
operation, due to the combined efforts of J. J. Denny, 
research manager of the Nipissing Mining Company 
and M. F. Fairlie, manager of the Mining Corporation. 

Five to seven tons of ore or concentrates is charged 
into a tube mill along with the required amount of iron 
balls for grinding and water to give a 1 to 1 dilution. The 
tube mill is then revolved for 18 hours, as extremely fine 
grinding is necessary to get maximum results. Calcium- 
hypo-chlorite is then added at the rate of from 50 to 75 
pounds per ton of ore treated, depending on amount of 
sulphides present, and the grinding continued for an 
additional six hours. The pulp is then discharged into a tank 
and fed to a Dorr classifier to separate the coarse metallic 
silver from the slime pulp. The metallic silver discharged 
from the Dorr classifier is held over and re-charged into 
the tube mill, with the next charge of ore, for further 
grinding. The slime overflow from the Dorr classifier. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



discharges into a collecting tank and is allowed to settle, 
the solution is then decanted and the thickened pulp 
discharged into a vacuum filter to be further de-watered. 

The de- watered pulp is then discharged into a cyanide 
treatment tank and the charge made up to a dilution of 
20 to 1 and the cyanide strength maintained at 0.5%. 
The pulp is then thoroughly agitated and aerated for 
fourteen hours. The pulp is then allowed to settle and 
the excess solution decanted. After being again agitated 
the thickened pulp is pumped to a stock tank for filtering. 
The discharged residue from the filter, containing from 
50 to 75 ounces of silver, with the cobalt, nickel and arsenic 
content, is sold to the smelters. 

The silver is recovered from the pregnant solution by 
the soldium-sulphide process. 

It is possible by this process to recover in the form of 
fine bullion approximately 97';j; of the silver content of 
the ore, in a period of 96 hours. 

The Flotation Process 

In September, 1916, the Buffalo Mines Limited, put 
in operation a Callow flotation plant, of 600 tons daily 
capacity, to treat a arge accummulation of sand tailings 
and as an adjunct in the treatment of its low-grade ores. 
Today there are ten mills in the district using the flotation 
process with a total dailv capacitv of approximately, 
2000 tons. 

The flotation machines used are the Callow pneu- 
matic and the Groch centrifugal types. The former de- 
pends for its action, entirely on air forced, from below, 
through a porous medium, at a pressure of 5 pounds; the 
latter depends on mechanical agitation and air, the air 
being drawn into the pulp through a hollow shaft by the 
centrifugal force of impellers. 

Oil Mixtures. 

Experiments have been carried out with a number of 
oils and combinations thereof. A mixture of 20% pine 
oil, 70% coal tar creosote and 10%, coal tar, is now in 
general use, with slight modifications to meet varied 
conditions. 

The amount of oil used ranges from ^4 pound to 13^ 
pounds per ton, depending upon the dilution of the pulp, 
the amount of mineral present, the fineness of the product 
and the skill of the operator. 

The oil mixture is usually fed into the tube mills to 
insure an adequate mixing of the oil with the pulp. 

Practice. 

The practice in general use, with slight modifications 
is to concentrate the battery or ball mill discharge on 
reciprocating tables to recover the coarse free mineral and 
to reduce the silver content in the slime tailings. The 
table tailings go direct to the Dorr classifiers and are kept 
in closed circuit with tube mill, where the oil mixture is 
added, until ground to pass through a 100-mesh screen. 



This product, with a dilution of approximately 4 to 
1, is sent to the flotation machines, where it is fed into 
the rougher cells and agitated or aerated to effect a separa- 
tion of the mineral from the gangue. The mineral is 
floated and discharged in the form of a froth, assaying 
approximately 75 ounces of silver to the ton. The tailing, 
varying in value from 1 to 3 ounces, is sent to waste. 

The rougher concentrate is reconcentra ted in cleaner 
cells to raise the value to, approximately, 250 ounces. 
The cleaner cells discharge a nine ounce middling product, 
which is returned to the head of the rougher cells for 
further treatment. The final concentrate is allowed to 
settle in Dorr thickeners, filtered, dried and sent to the 
smelters. 

General 

The gravity concentration process of Cobalt was 
developed when the price of silver ranged from 50 to 65 
cents an ounce. 

Mill operators, employing straight concentrating 
methods, concluded that an economic limit of extraction 
had been reached when the silver content of the ore was 
reduced to 5 ounces. Forty percent of this final tailing 
was slime, assaying approximately 6 ounces per ton and 
the balance sand, with a silver content of 4 ounces. 

With silver at 55 cents an ounce, it was possible to 
treat the current slime tailing at a small profit, by the 
flotation process. It was not, however, until the price of 
silver advanced to above 65 cents an ounce, that a profit 
could be made from the 4 ounce sand. 

The present activity, in the treatment of these low- 
grade products cannot be attributed entirely to the 
flotation process, as, owing to the advance in the price of 
silver, other attractive processes were available. The 
cyanide process, which did not look economically attractive 
when a tailing of only $2.50 was going to waste, was worthy 
of consideration when this value was raised to $5.00. 

It must not be supposed, therefore, that the silver 
now being recovered by the flotation process would, other- 
wide, have been lost. 

The uncertainty in the price of silver influenced 
operators, using the gravity concentrating methods, to 
adopt the flotation process, owing to the comparatively 
low cost of installation and to the satisfactory results 
obtained by experiment. On the other hand, the high 
cost of marketing the flotation concentrates, which is 
approximately 80 cents per ton of ore, is an objectionable 
feature to the process. It is possible that research may 
develop a process to treat this concentrate locally or to 
raise the value of the concentrate by elimniation of the 
silica, which is about 65% of the product shipped, and so 
render this process of more value to the district. 

Smelting and Refining. 

Up to the early part of 1908 all the ore from the Cobalt 
camp was shipped to reduction works in the vicinity of 
New York and Camden, N.J., for treatment. There was 
previously a natural desire to treat the ores in Canada, 
coupled with a just appreciation of the complexity of the 



90 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



problem such Irealment presented. There was very little 
useful information bearing on the treatment of these 
singular ores to be gleaned from the literature available, 
and it cannot be said that those operating then existing 
works minimized the difficulties to be met with. That 
these difficulties metallurgical, commercial, financial 
and h\'gienic— were very real may be inferred from the fact 
that of eleven works actually built in Ontario for the 
treatment of Cobalt ores, only three survive as going 
concerns. To the wastage chargeable against the mining 
industry as the result of misdirected prospecting, exploita- 
tion of unremunerative mineral deposits, and so-called 
" wildcatting," may be compared the very considerable 
losses incurred by the backers of the eight defunct plants 
just referred to. 

Leaving out of consideration the methods of treat- 
ment that have been used and discontinued, the usual 
procedure is to first fine-grind and sample the ore or 
concentrate, and then smelt in a blast furnace. This at 
once separates the non-metallic or rock materials as a 
slag; effects a separation of a part of the silver combined 
with antimony and arsenic — the so-called silver buttons; 
volatilizes a part of the arsenic as fume, and so leaves the 
cobalt and nickel combined with arsenic in the blast 
furnace speiss. 

This primary separation having been made by the 
very simple process of melting the ore with a coke fire, it 
becomes necessary to consider the four primary products. 
This consideration leads us far from what has been 
called " the sweet simplicity of fire," as applied to the 
the treatment of ores and metals. 

The treatment of the slag is summary; it is thrown 
over the dump or used to ballast the track. 

Silver Buttons usually consist of about 80-85'' ; silver, 
the balance being chiefly antimony. Most of the unde- 
sired components may be removed by melting and blowing 
with air. Silver does not oxidize under the conditions and 
so remains on the furnace hearth, while the oxides of the 
impurities either depart as fume or are raked off as 
skimmings. By appropriate means the silver may be 
refined on the hearth to the extent desired, or it may be 
cast as anodes for electrolytic refining. 

In the electrolytic refinery the crude silver anodes 
are treated in an electrolyte of silver and copper nitrates 
to an electric current. The anode undergoes dissolution 
and the silver only plates out on the cathodes. The 
impurities of the 'anodes remain either in solution or fall 
as sediment in the anode compartments whence they may 
be removed and disposed of. The cathode silver is of the 
highest purity and has only to be washed, melted and cast 
into bars for shipment. 

Arsenical fume from the blast furnace is collected in 
cloth dust filters called bag houses. As the fume laden 
gas current from the furnace top is rather hot, it is led 
through appropriate flues wherein it may partly cool and 
deposit coarse dust particles before it is filtered. Under 
proper operating conditions the bag house retains all the 



solids in the gas stream, and, without it, it may be said 
that such ores as those of Cobalt could not be safely 
treated in any even partly settled locality. 

After collection in the bag house, the fume is put into 
refining furnaces from whence white arsenic is volatilized 
and collected in suitable condensing and filtering arrange- 
ments. This white arsenic is sold chiefly to plate glass 
works and to makers of insecticides. At one time a 
demand arose from one of the belligerent powers for 
metallic arsenic. This demand was met by the manu- 
facturers of the metal by the reduction of white arsenic 
with carbon in large cast iron retorts. This, though but a 
small matter, is one more item in the record of war time 
achievement to the credit of this country. 

When one takes up the treatment of speiss, he takes 
upon himself a most grievous task. Essentially an 
artificial arsenide of a metal or metals of the iron group, 
it may present a degree of complexity that is quite dis- 
conserting. Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, Zinc, Copper, Lead, 
Silver, Antimony, Sulphur, Arsenic, are the substances 
practically always present in Cobalt Speiss, and usually 
small amounts of several other elements are also found. 

The practice in one works is to grind and roast the 
speiss with salt to chloridize the silver and then leach out 
the silver with a solution of sodium cyanide. The 
silver is then thrown out with aluminium powder, washed 
and melted to make bars of great purity. Other practice 
does not extract the silver at this stage, but recovers it in 
the smelting of the insoluble residue after separating the 
greater part of the cobalt and nickel. 

All processes separate the cobalt and nickel from the 
speiss by dissolving them out from the roasted speiss with 
acids. Sulphuric acid is usually employed on account of 
its cheapness. The solution of sulphates is next purified 
until it is technically free from undesirable substances, 
when the cobalt and nickel are successively precipitated 
as hydroxides by hypochlorate and alkali respectively. 
These hydroxides are dehydrated in suitable furnaces and 
either ground and sold as Cobalt and nickel oxides, or 
reduced with carbon to produce the metals. 

Until the last four or five years practically all the 
Cobalt produced was utilized in the form of oxide for the 
manufacture of enamels, ceramic colors and for correcting 
the color of crockery made from inferior clays. The 
development of " Steilite," a hard alloy of cobalt, chro- 
mivmi and other metals led to a considerable demand for 
metallic cobalt. There was also some demand for the 
metal from the makers of high speed steels, many of whom 
add small amounts of cobalt to toughen and improve 
the wearing qualities of their product. Most of the 
cobalt metal used throughout the world is made in Cana- 
dian works by reduction of the oxide with carbon and 
melting the metal in electric furnaces. 

The nickel derived from the cobalt ores is only a 
trifling part of the Canadian output of that metal, as the 
very great production from the Sudbury ore entirely over- 
shadows it. Neverthless it is of interest that metallic 
nickel has been regularly produced in Canadian works from 
Cobalt ore before any commercial quantity was made in 
Canada from Sudbury ores. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



91 



National Highways and Good Roads* 

Bij Capt. J. A. Duchastel de Montrouge, B.A.Sc. M.E.I.C., 
Hon y Près., Canadian Good Roads Association. 



It is somewhat embarrassing, addressing a meeting 
of Engineers on the subject of Good Roads, one would feel 
more at home in talking to a gathering of the rank and 
file, men requiring to be taught the gospel of good roads. 
Every engineer realizes the very great importance of a 
system of good roads. It will be unnecessary for me to 
point out the great benefits — material, social and econ- 
omical — that go with road improvement. 

Permit me to bring to your attention some of the 
conditions we have in Canada today. At the present 
hour and with increasing rapidity, we will be face to face 
with the great problem of finding employment for our 
returned men and munition workers. Many industries 
will be in the period of reorganization for months to come ; 
railroad construction will practically be at a standstill, 
and that for many j'-ears. Means will have to be taken to 
create work, and road construction offers in a great measure 
the opportunity of converting for the good of the country 
the surplus labor it will have for a long period. 

We have to admit to ourselves that, except in a few 
instances our road construction has been sadly neglected, 
as compared to European practice. True enough our 
distances are very large, our population scarcely settled, 
and our resources limited. Again, nature has in two ways 
assisted us — first, in providing a wonderful system of 
navigable streams and chains of lakes, which takes care of 
the transportation of a great number of our natural 
products; secondly, the cold weather we experience during 
several months of the year permits the transformation of 
many poor country roads into excellent winter roads for 
sleighing, and in some localities a great deal of our 
transportation is accomplished during this period. 

Railroad companies have expanded in a wonderful 
manner; we have three transcontinental roads parallelling 
one another at close range. Many localities depend 
entirely on the railroad facilities for all their commodities. 
This condition of affairs is all very well up to a certain 
point, but there comes a time when feeders, in the way of 
highways to these railway trunk lines have to Ije de- 
veloped. The districts situated twenty miles or more 
each side of the trunk lines of these railways have to be 
tapped, and the only way of doing so is to build good 
roads permitting the settlers and farmers to economically 
transport their produce to the railroad. 

A great deal of talk has recently been indulged 
about the help the Federal Government should give 
towards road construction. Several methods of govern- 
ment aid have been advocated. The French system has 
been advocated by some. There is no question that it is 
a very wonderful one and its results clearly show its 
excellence. The roads of France have in a great measure 



*To be read at the General Professional Meeting, Ottawa, 
February 12th. 



helped to win the great victory of democracy over 
aristocracy. But unfortunately for us the French road 
policy is based on a different political organization to ours. 
In France everything is centralized, the Department of 
Ponts and Chaussées constructs and maintains all roads — 
Nationales, Départementales, Vicinales, etc. 

Here the situation is quite different; the British North 
America Act has vested with the different Provinces the 
obligation of building and maintaining public roads. We 
know that Provincial rights are sacred and rightly so. 
Our situation in the road problem is very similar to that 
of the United States. I would like to study with you an 
Act passed by Congress in July, 1916, destined to aid the 
several States of the Union in road construction. I 
believe that our Federal Government should adopt a 
measure somewhat on these lines, as in my mind, it is the 
most practical method to meet our conditions. 

These remarks are made with the sole purpose of 
inviting discussion, and my sincere hope is that it will be 
extensive and fruitful. 

The law in question is entitled "An Act to provide that 
the United States of America shall aid the States in the 
construction of Rural Post Roads and for other purposes." 
It can be summarized as follows: — 

1. Congress appropriated a sum of $85,000,000.00 
to be apportioned amongst the different States of the 
Union during a period of five years in the following 
manner: 

$ 5,000,000 to be apportioned during the fiscal year ending June 30/1917 
10,000,009 do do June 30/1918 

15,000,000 do do June 30/1919 

20,000,000 do do June 3Q'1920 

25,000,000 do do June 30/1921 

Also a simi of $1,000,000.00 annually for ten years up 
to and including the fiscal year ending Jime 30th, 1926, 
for the survey, construction and maintenance of roads and 
trails within or partially within the national forest. 

2. The apportionment of the amount available for 
grants to each State is done in the following manner: 

One-third in the ratio which the area of each 
State bears to the total area of all the States; 

One-third in the radio the population of each 
State bears to the total population of all the States; 

One-third in the ratio which the mileage of rural 
delivery routes and star routes in each State bears to 
the total mileage of rural delivery routes and star 
routes in all the States. 



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JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



3. Any amount apportioned to any State for any 
fiscal year as remains unexpended at the close there of shall 
be available for expenditure in that State until the close 
of the third fiscal succeeding the year for which appor- 
tionment was made. Any amount apportioned and unex- 
pended after a period of three years shall be re-apportioned 
to all the States. 

4. The Secretary of Agriculture, who is intrusted 
with the application of the Law, is authorized to co-operate 
with the States through their respective State Highway 
Department, in the construction of rural post roads. 

5. All roads constructed under the provisions of this 
Act shall be free from all tolls. 

6. The Federal authorities contribute only 50% of 
the total cost of constructing any portion of road. 

7. Any State desiring to avail itself of the benefits 
of the Act must submit its project to the Federal authori- 
ties. Before any grant is made, surveys, plans and 
specifications must be submitted and approved, as well 
as the location, character and methods of construction. 

8. No payments on account of any work are to be 
made until the Secretary of Agriculture has assured 
himself that the work has been constructed according to 
plans and specifications, and no pajTnent shall be made in 
excess of $10,000.00 per mile, exclusive of the cost of 
bridges of more than twenty feet clear span. 

9. The construction work and labor in each State 
shall be done in accordance with its laws and under the 
direct super\asion of the State Highways Department, 
and subject to inspection and approval of the Secretary 
of Agriculture. 

10. It is the duty of the different States to maintain 
the roads constructed under the provisions of the Act, 
and the Secretary of Agriculture shall, if any such road 
is not being properly maintained, penalize the State by 
refusing any further grants under the Act. 

11. Items including engineering, inspections, and 
unforseen contingencies, shall not exceed ten -per centum 
of the total estimated cost of the work. 

12. The cost of administering the provisions of the 
Act must not exceed three -per centum of the appropriation 
of any fiscal year. 

13. In the Act: 

(a) the term " rural post route " is construed to 
mean any pubUc road over which the United States 
mails are now or may hereafter be transported, 
excluding any street or road in a locality having a 
population of over 2500 or more, except when on 
portions of streets or roads along which the distance 
between the houses average more than 200 feet apart. 

(b) the term "construction" is construed to 
include reconstruction and improvement of roads. 

(c) the term " properly maintained " is con- 
strued to mean the making of needed repairs and a 
preservation of reasonably smooth surface, con- 
sidering the type of the road, but shall not be held 
to include extraordinary repairs nor reconstruction. 



For the purpose of drawing a discussion allow me to 
present to you my views in the matter of Government 
aid. 

I believe that a Highway Branch of the Public Works 
Department or Railways and Canals Department should 
be organized, and that this Branch should be intrusted 
with the duty of examining and reporting on all projects 
brought up by the different Provinces, with a view of 
obtaining Federal aid. 

Each province should maintain its sovereignty over 
the roads constructed within its boundaries, and the 
Provincial Highway Departments should continue to 
exercise the same authority and duties they have at the 
present time. 

No project should be considered by the Federal 
authorities unless presented and vouched for by a Pro- 
vincial Highway Department. 

We should do our best to keep politics out of the 
administration of a Good Roads Aid Act. 

The Federal government should provide but 50% 
of the funds necessary to build roads of national im- 
portance, or international highways. By " roads of 
national importance," I mean roads connecting centres 
having a population of at least 20,000 inhabitants. 

A sum of $50,000,000. should be voted immediately 
by the Federal government to aid the construction of 
roads throughout the different provinces, and this sum 
should be apportioned to the provinces during a period of 
five to seven years. Apportionment of this amount 
should be made only on the basis of population ; the areas 
of our provinces having no relation to their needs or 
importance. The relation of the mileage of existing roads 
in each province to the total mileage in the country 
having, in my mind, little or no importance in our case. 

Any amounts unexpended by a province during a 
given fiscal year should be carried over, for a limited 
number of years, to the credit of the said province, as in 
the American Act. 

All roads constructed under Federal government aid 
should be free from tolls. 

All road specifications, plans and details should be 
standardized and adopted by the different Provincial 
Highway Departments and Federal Department. 

A higher limit than $10,000. per mile as the contri- 
bution of the Federal Authorities should be fixed. It is 
the feeling in the United States today that this amount is 
not always sufficient. 

As one of the most important problems in road 
construction is " maintenance," our bill should go the 
limit on this score, and compel each province to thoroughly 
maintain all highways over which the Federal Government 
has spent money. 

No time should be lost in obtaining Federal aid for 
the construction of roads, because it will take considerable 
time to organize a Federal Roads Department, and the 
study of the different problems submitted vnW also 
require some time. 



i 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



93 



Design and Construction of Reinforced Concrete Viaducts 

At Mileages 0.9 & 1.8 North Toronto Subdivision, 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway 

By B. 0. Eriksen, A.M.E.I.C. and H. S. Deubelbeiss, A.M.E.I.C. 



General Description and Design. 

The greatly increasing freight traffic and a still 
greater prospective increase in passenger traffic, due to the 
agreement between the Canadian Pacific Railway and the 
Canadian Northern Railway, whereby the latter acquired 
running rights over the Canadian Pacific Railway, from 
Leaside Junction to North Toronto Station, necessitated 
the double-tracking of the line between these two 
stations. 



heavier motive power on this important link. Bridge 
1.8, being located at the limit of the North Toronto yard 
required an extra track for switching purposes, so as not 
to interfere too much with the main line traffic. 

Estimates for both bridges were made for building 
them in either steel or reinforced concrete. The higher 
cost of steel viaducts and the uncertainty of the delivery 
of structural steel were the deciding factors in the choice 
of Reinforced Concrete Trestles as built and here described. 




.:.:J:. 




,m^^'^ 



Canadian Pacific Railway Viaduct, Toronto. — Bridge 1.8 Completed. 



While this line is only about two miles long, several 
reinforced concrete culverts required extensions and two 
important bridges, one at Mileage 0.9 from Leaside Junc- 
tion and the other at Mileage 1.8 therefrom had to be 
rebuilt. The existing single track steel viaducts at these 
two points not being adequate for the present heavy rolling 
stock, and still less for future requirements, had to be 
rebuil t, so that these bridges would not limit the use of 
♦Read at a meeting of Montreal Branch, Thursday, January 16th. 



While no designs were prepared for concrete arches 
at these points, the possibility of building such was con- 
sidered. The limited right of way at the bridge sites, 
however, and the necessity of building temporary trestles 
within these limits, made the maintenance of traffic in 
building arch structures a most difficult problem.' The 
designs adopted, where all slabs were pre-moulded and 
the bulk of the concrete could be cast in forms on the 
ground, promised a much speedier and safer construction, 



94 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



/fûTJZ. Fonre PfperbefrfJ. ^ pK. r^^i* 



P' 



''"^^;^, 




- F)6. I. - 

and''permitted the carrying of traffic within our right of 
way without difficulty. These considerations justified 
the dropping of further studies of reinforced concrete 
arches, and the adoption of designs of which the principal 
dimensions are shown on Plate 1. 

It will be noted that continuous piers have b3en used 
instead of individual pedestals, as is customary for steel 
viaducts. These, together with the very stiff caps, made 
each bent act as one unit. 

The columns are thoroughly bonded to the piers by 
the recesses and the rods in tops of same, which correspond 
to the reinforcing rods in the columns. 

In designing the columns, rectangular and octa- 
gonal sections were considered; the rectangular section 
was adopted as the mos suitable to resist the great 
bending moments that the columns would be subject to. 
The columns are reinforced with longitudinal rods an- 
chored into the concrete by -^s" diameter bands. On 
account of the unusual size of these columns, these bands 
were made in sections, so that intermediate bars would be 
thoroughly anchored into the body of the columns. 



These bands were not considered to act as hooping owing 
to their rectangular shape. The tower bracing consists 
of struts reinforced to resist the bending moments due to 
their own weight and the various horizontal forces acting 
on the lower. In order to improve the appearance and 
reduce the weight, the vertical faces of the longitudinal 
struts were given a three inch recess. It will be noted that 
the longitudinal and transverse struts are arranged 
alternately. At all intermediate points, bending moments, 
due to transverse forces, will then be practically zero, where 
the moments caused by the longitudinal forces are maxi- 
mum. Sliding surfaces for the main slabs are provided 
by Vî' steel bearing plates on caps of the bents; the plates 
are held in position by I32" dowels. As these plates are 
continuous over the caps of the bents, they strengthen 
the caps against stresses produced by longitudinal forces 
on the bridge. 

Each track is supported by two pre-moulded simple 
T Beams. The end brackets shewn on these slabs do 
not bear on the caps, but are kept clear by the steel 








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Canadian Pacific Railway. 

Bbiock 03«I6 North Toronto Susoiv. 

AT MORTH ToRorrro. 



TrfVAL Br HT Bai!>S[ N^IS. — — TrPieiiL Sr-rr -Seiost M^N. • 



Bridges 0.9 & 1.8 North Toronto Subdivision at_North Toronto. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



95 




Canadian Pacific Kailway Via(.luct, loronto. — Turning of Slabs. 

bearing plates which they overhang ; they are intended to 
strengthen the horizontal flanges and improve the appear- 
ance of the structure. The top surfaces of the slabs have 
a smooth finish and are sloped towards drain pipes, placed 
along coping blocks and between the tracks. 

The ballast is held in position by the coping blocks 
which were pre-moulded in sections and anchored to the 
slabs by 1" dowels. After the erection of the slabs and 
coping blocks, the surfaces in contact with the ballast 
were waterproofed with a membrane type of water- 
proofing. This was laid continuously from abutment to 
abutment, the gaps between slabs being reinforced by 
additional layers of felt and mastic. 

The sidewalks are composed of pre-moulded T shaped 
slabs, supported on brackets projecting out from the main 
slabs. The flanges of the sidewalk slabs fit into a hori- 
zontal groove in the coping blocks; these coping blocks 
are heavy enough to counteract any tendency of the T 
beams to overturn. 1" dowels hold these slabs in position 
on the brackets. The hand-railing consists of pre-moulded 
concrete posts and three rows of 2" pipe. 

The bridges are designed to carry Cooper's E-50 load- 
ing, with an impact allowance of .90 „„^ , L.L., where 

L.L. = live load and 1= loaded distance in feet. Where 
stresses are produced by the loading of more than one track 
1 is multiplied by the number of tracks. The design 
is in accordance with the Specification for Reinforced 
Concrete of the Engineering Insliluie of Canada. 

In addition to dead load, live load and impact, the 
towers had to be designed to resist stresses due to traction 
and wind. A traction force equal to 9% of the wheel 
load was assumed to act at the rail level. This coeffi- 
cient of traction was derived from diagram in Mr. 
Blumenthal's paper on " Traction Stresses " (Transaction 
of the Can. Soc. C. Engrs., vol. xxiv. Part II.). 



A wind load of 30 pounds per square foot on exposed 
surfaces of train and slabs, and a similar load on 1,' ô times 
the vertical projection of towers was assumed. 

Bending moments in columns due to dead load of 
struts were included in calculations. While this is 
usually neglected in steel structures, it becomes necessary 
here, owing to the great weight of the struts. These 
latter moments, and also the moments due to traction, 
were calculated by the elastic theory — the equations 
being soved by the Area Moment Method. Plate X 
indicates how these equations were developed. The 
application of this theory, however, for the calculation of 
moments, due to transverse forces, becomes extremely 
involved, owing to the shape of the bents. For this 
reason, points of inflection were assumed as shewn on 
Fig. 1. Comparison between results obtained by similar 
assumptions in the case of longitudinal forces with those 
obtained by the use of the elastic theory shewed that the 
method adopted would give results sufficiently accurate 
for the purpose. Stresses in columns including bending 
moments when one span only was fully loaded were cal- 
culated, but found to be below maximum shewn on stress 
sheet. 





"'• -, J - i *? ' • ■>■ V.' ' 







Canadian Pacific Railway Viaduct, Toronto. 
Bridge 0.9 Tower Partly Stripped. 



96 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 




-RiRT- ElEVATION.- 




Canadian PAcinc Railway- 
Sriwes M»I8 North Toronto 5uBDm 

. 1 — -^.^^ =_^ - , . /(T North Toronto. 

"""''^. . I ^" T\!'!^Z. f?"-'-- .T ""^ Details of Torms tor Jmbs. 

— ^gj.? - Sfcr/ûM — 

Bridges 0.9 & 1.8 North Toronto Subdivision at North Toronto. 
Details of Forms for Slabs. 

Maintenance of Traffic. 

Traffic on both bridges was maintained on temporary 
wooden trestles, erected on the north side of the old main 
line track. This was contemplated from the very first 
for Bridge 1.8, as the spans of the existing bridge were 
so arranged, that to build a concrete trestle and keep 
clear of existing steelwork would be impracticable. At 
Bridge 0.9, however, it was found, that if the new bridge 
were laid out with 34 ft. tower and 36 ft. intermediate 
spans, there would be no interference with existing steel- 
work and traffic could be maintained on the old bridge. This 
arrangement of spans was, therefore, adopted for both 
bridges. However, when excavation was started it was 
fovmd that the condition of existing masonry would not 
permit excavation for new piers to be carried down to the 
required depth without endangering the safety of traffic. 
It was, therefore, considered advisable to build a tem- 
porary wooden trestle for this bridge also, rather than 
attempt to support masonry pedestals on these steep 
hillsides. 



Plant — Bridge 1.8. 

A plant for storage and mixing was installed at each 
end of the bridge, and one at the slab yard about a quarter 
of a mile east of the bridge. The stone and sand were 
piled in the open about 25 feet from the mixer. They were 
stored on plank bottoms to prevent admixture of earth. 
The cement was stored in three sheds having capacities of 
five carloads each. They were built of dressed lumber and 
roofed with ready roofing paper. The floors were kept 
about 8" clear of the ground in order to make the sheds 
damp-proof. Each carload was piled separately; there 
being a space of at least one foot all around each pile. 

The various materials were wheeled in barrows to the 
mixers — stone and sand were measured by barrow loads. 
One bag of packed cement was considered one cubic foot. 
Water barrels were filled from the City line through 2" 
pipes, and the water was measured with pails. At each 










^ IT I 

5TRVT5 ^tSt 



Canadian Pacirc Railway. 

Bridge 0-9 North Toronto Sub: 

BaT Line Ravine at North Toron"; 

BcTAiLS Of Tower 5-6. 



Bridge 0.9. North Toronto Subdivision, Belt Line Ravine at North Toronto. 

Details of Tower 5-6. 



JOURNAL OF THE KNGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



97 



I 



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Canadian Pacific Railway. 

Bridse 9 North Toronto 5ubdiv 

/Z^^/ff/^^/'—^'-'-^'x^BELTiiNE Ravine at north Toronto, 
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Canadian pacific Railway. 
Bridge f:)-^ North Toronto Subdiv. 
Belt Lime Ravine at North Toronto. 
Details of 36 V-. Slass. 

: « / ^ " '-■ " ""-•-*^ ' " ' '' '• '" '' 

\ \ ' ÔTIRRUPi 'L: OTIKRUPi L-. 

fJOTS 

Concrefe Mix/ure , J li 3 — ÀffRANSEMENT 0f=JWffUP5. — 

Bridge 0.9 North Toronto Subdivision Belt Line Ravine at North Toronto.— Details of 36 Foot Slabs. 



98 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 




Canadian Pacific Railway Viaduct, Toronto. 
Bridge 1.8, Finished Deck. 



end of the bridge a 75 ft. hoisting tower was erected from 
which concrete was conveyed to the various piers and 
towers by spouting. At the slab yard the concrete was 
wheeled in buggies along a trestle built on a level with the 
tops of forms, and dumped directly into the forms. 

Plant at Bridge 0.9. 

At this bridge only two storage and mixing plants 
were installed, one at the west end of the bridge and one 
at the slab yard, half a mile east of the bridge. At the 
slab yard, materials were stored and handled in the same 
manner as at Bridge 1.8. The plant at the bridge site, 
however, was entirely different; the stone received here 
was too large and had to be crushed and screened to 1" 
size. Between the storage pile and the mixer a Gyratory 
crusher — belt connected to a gasoline engine — was 
mounted on a platform about 10 ft. high. This crusher 
was fed from the storage pile by a one yard grab bucket and 
derrick. The crushed stone dropped through the floor 
of the platform to an inclined screen, which screened out 
all particles J4" and less. The stone was then delivered 
from the crusher to an elevated stone bin with an inclined 
bottom, located directly above the hopper of the mixer, 




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Canadian Pacific Railway 
Bridges 09*18 North Tor ONTO Sueoiv 

AT North Toronto. 
MrTHOD OF Calculating MoniENTi w Tbwers. 



Bridges 0.9 & 1.8 North Toronto Subdivision at North Toronto.— Method of Calculating Moments in Towers. 



I 

I 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



99 



which was set up on a foundation about four feet above the 
ground. The flow of the stone from stone-bin to hopper 
was regulated by a steel plate gate, and the hopper was 
graduated to receive the correct quantities of stone. The 
screenings from the crusher were used mixed with the sand. 
The sand was stored on plank bottoms as at Bridge 1.8, 
and delivered from there to the elevated bin adjacent to 
the stone bin and handled in same way as the stone. 
The cement was stored in a shed of similar construction 
to those at Bridge 1.8 and was delivered to the mixer by 
the derrick. No hoisting tower was used at this bridge 
for conveying the concrete. It was wheeled in dump 
cars running on a narrow gauge track on a trestle con- 
structed at the track level along the bridge. The concrete 
was dumped into hoppers at various points along the deck 
of the trestle and delivered from there to piers and towers 
by metal chutes connected to the hoppers. 

Malcriah. 

Stone. — The stone used was partly trap rock and 
partly hard limestone, ranging in size from 1" down to ]i". 

Sand. — The sand was a natural bank and of a granity 
composition, well-graded from 3î" down. 

Cement. — Two brands of cement were used. 
" Pyramid Brand," manufactured by the St. Mary's 
Cement Company, and " Canada Brand," manufactured 



by the Canada Cement Company. They were fairly slow 
setting cements; averaging about 3 hours for initial 
set, and about 53^ hours for final set. 




il'iSS'is'-a'^V ;*^ .^.•Ji*»'>'.fc..«S iins 



Canadian Pacific Railway Viaduct, Toronto. 
Bridge 0.9 Completed. 



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CANADIAN PACIFIC RAIUVAY 
Bridge 9 North Toromto Subdiv 
Belt Line Rapine at North ToRonTO 
Scheme for Erection of Slabs. ■ 



— Cross Jcct/on 'A-A" — 
Bridge 0.9 North Toronto Subdivision Belt Line Ravine at North Toronto. — Scheme for Erection of Slabs. 



100 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



While the cement was being unloaded from the cars, 
one bag in every 50 was opened and a small sample taken 
from it. These small samples were mixed into one com- 
posite sample for each car (one car contained an average 
of 760 bags). These samples were then forwarded to the 
testing laboratory in Montreal, shipped in air tight lever 
top tins which insured that cement did not air slack in 
transit. Each car load of cement was stored separately 
in sheds, given a number corresponding to number of 
sample and held until the inspector was notified that the 
test had proved satisfactory. All cement used was in 
conformity with the C. P. R. Cement Specification, 1912. 

Treatment of Forins. 

The forms were treated with one application of 
Petrolatum and neutral oil, mixed in the proportion of one 
of Petrolatum to two of neutral oil, or until a creamy con- 
sistency existed. After the forms were fabricated, all 
holes and large cracks were filled with putty, all knots 
and putty fillings were then shellacked. The above 
mixture was then applied on inside of forms with a white- 
wash brush; the neutral oil penetrated about },i" into the 
wood, leaving a thin waxy film of petrolatum on the 
surface. The forms, thus treated, did not warp or wind, 
and moisture did not cause the grain of the wood to rise. 
A number of the forms were used as often as eight times, 
and all that was necessary after each stripping was to dust 
or sweep them off with an old bag or broom. 

Healing. 

In the month of November, when the temperature 
dropped to 40°F., heating of the materials was commenced. 
A live steam jet was introduced into each water barrel, 
which kept the water nearly to the boiling point while 
the mixer was running. Sand and stone were heated by 
perforated steam pipes placed under sand and stone piles. 
For the very cold weather, the steam was kept on night and 
day. The temperature of the concrete as it left the mixer 
was about 55° to 60°F. during the very coldest weather. 
For the main track slabs, concrete was poured in as low 
a temperature as 25°F. After pouring of concrete, the 
tops of slabs were covered with tar paper, kept about 6" 
clear of the surface of concrete, a layer of straw was then 
packed around the entire form and the whole covered with 
tarpaulins. The sidewalk slabs and coping blocks were 
protected in a similar manner to the main slabs. The 
hand-rail posts were cast in a shed heated by a stove. 

Bents were housed in from top to bottom with 
'14," tongued and grooved boards; this housing was built 
about three feet away from the forms and steam pipes 
were run into this space. As an auxiliary to the steam 
heat, a battery of four (4) coke burning salamanders was 
placed on the ground. With these precautions concrete 
was poured at a temperature as low as 10° F., and the 
space around the forms could be kept at a temperature of 
about 50° F. Heat was maintained for at least three days 
after pouring was completed. 

The longitudinal struts were also housed in and a 
steam line run along each side near the bottom of the 



housing. The bottoms of the housings for struts were 
packed with straw — the tops were covered with tar paper 
clear of concrete, on this was placed a packing of straw and 
the whole covered with tarpaulins. 

Details of Construction. 

Excavation was started during the middle of August, 
1917, the soil encountered was generally a hard blue clay, 
in some cases coarse sand. Before any concrete was 
placed, each foundation was subjected to a loading test 
at both ends. An ordinary table having 4-3" x 3" 
legs was used for this purpose; the table was loaded with 
cement bags filled with sand, the total load corresponding 
to four (4) tons per square foot. 

Piers. — Concrete in the piers was poured in three 
consecutive runs as follows: The footing course was poured 
in the open excavation; before this had a chance to set 
large boulders and stone from the old pedestals, broken 
up to one man size, were imbedded in the top surface in 
three rows and about three feet apart; thus a good bond 
was obtained with the next course. After the footing 
course had taken its final set, forms were erected for the 
pier proper and the surface was thoroughly scraped and 
slushed with water until all signs of laitance had been 
removed. The concrete was now poured for the vertical 
portion of pier. After the top surface of same had been 
treated in the same way as the footing course, concrete 
was finally poured for the batter course of the pier. For 
recesses of columns, templets in the shape of a box with 
proper number of holes spaced to receive the anchor rods 
were placed and fastened in position to the forms of the 
batter course. After the last batch of concrete was poured, 
the anchor rods were inserted in the holes, and driven to 
the right depth in the wet concrete. The forms of the 
piers were stripped after two days and the exposed surfaces 
rubbed with carborundtun stones. 

Towers. — Details of towers are shewn on Plate IV, 
and photographs show clearly the details of forms. In 
erecting the forms great care was taken not to have any 
parts braced to, or allow any to come in contact with the 
trestle carrying traffic, so as to avoid disturbance of 
concrete while it was setting. The concrete was poured 
from strut to strut, the brackets at the end of each strut 
forming hoppers to receive concrete. At every con- 
struction joint, trap doors had been arranged in the column 
forms in order to permit removal of all laitance and thor- 
roughly to clean the surface before any new concrete was 
poured. The concrete in the column forms was spaded 
by long handled spades, and the outsides of the forms were 
beaten with wooden mallets to free any air. A good 
smooth surface with very few air pockets resulted there- 
from. The column forms were stripped after four or 
five days in warm weather, and after a week or ten days 
in cold weather. The strut sides were stripped after seven 
days in warm weather and after two weeks in cold weather. 
The bottoms of the struts were not stripped until absolutely 
necessary and never before tliree weeks in warm and four 
weeks in freezing weather. All surfaces of towers were 
rubbed down with carborundum stones. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



101 



Slabs. — Details of slabs are shown on Plate V and 
details of forms on Plate VI. Forms were made 
collapsible, as is clearly shewn in details. A new bottom, 
however, was made for each slab. After assembling of 
forms one end was left open until all reinforcing bars were 
properly placed and wired together. Bars were sup- 
ported on pre-moulded dove-tailed concrete blocks 1-J4" 
thick ; this made suspending wires unnecessary, thus 
avoiding obstructions to levelling off top surface of slabs. 
On slabs, only the exposed surfaces of outer slabs were 
rubbed down with carborundum stones. 

Erection of Slabs. — Erection of Main slabs of Bridge 
0.9 was started on February 22nd and completed on 
April 10th, 1918. On Bridge 1.8 erection started on April 
11th and the last slab was placed on June 1st, 1918. 

The longest slab weighs 56 tons. 

As the 100-ton wrecking crane did not have the reach 
required for placing these heavy slabs, a special scheme of 
erection had to be devised. This is shewn on Plate VII, 
and photographs. At the slab yard, one end of the slab 
was lifted on to a freight car truck, the other end suspended 
from the crane. The slab was thus pushed ahead by the 
crane on to the bridge. Two timber trusses specially 
constructed for the purpose were placed far enough apart 
to permit the slab to be lowered down to the bents. The 
end of slab resting on the track was then hitched to a 
trolley, which was running on rails on top chord of trusses. 
The derrick was then moved ahead until the slab had 
reached the position for lowering down to rollers on caps ; 
after the slab was on rollers, it was moved sideways on 
them to its final position. When all slabs of one span 
were erected, the erection trusses were moved forward 
by the crane to the next span and same operation repeated. 

The actual cost per cubic yard of concrete in the 
various parts of the structure at 1.8 North Toronto, was 
as follows: 

Piers. 

Forms. — Including labor, o.h. expenses, 

and contractors' commission $1 .35 per cu. yd. 

Concrete. — 

Materials 3.94 

Freight for sand, stone and cement . 87 

Labor 1.61 

Incidentals, o.h. exp. and comm. 0.98 

Steel 1.07 



$9.82 per cu. yd. 

Abutments. 

Forms. — Including labor, o.h. exp. and 

commission $4 . 38 per cu. yd 

Concrete. — 

Materials 3.70 

Freight on sand, stone and cement . 76 

Labor 3.38 

Heating 1.28 

Drainage and waterproofing 0.16 

Incidentals, o.h. exp. and comm. 1.59 

Steel 2.54 



Toxvers. 

Forms. — Material, labor, o.h. exp. and 

commission $13.32 per cu. yd. 

Concrete. — 

Materials 4.53 

Freight on sand, stone and cement 1 . 00 

Labor 5.75 

Heating 4.19 

Incidentals, o.h. exp. and comm. 2.65 

Steel 14.12 



$45.56 per cu. yd. 



Slabs. 



Forms. — Material, labor, preparing of 
slab yard, incidentals, o.h. exp. 
and commission $9 . 15 per cu. yd. 

Concrete. — 

Materials 5 . 67 

Freight on sand, stone and cement . 97 

Heating 0.20 

Labor 3.11 

Incidentals, o.h. exp. and com.. 1.55 

Steel 13.45 



$34.10 
Cost of erection of slabs, per cu. yd. 7 . 18 



$17.79percu. yd. 



$41.28 

Regarding the item, Heating of Towers, the average 
cost of $4.19 is shewn; as, however, only about three 
fifths of the towers required heating, the actual cost per 
cu. yd. was approximately $7.00. 

The average cost of materials used and the average 
rates of wages paid were as follows : 

Materials. — 

Lumber $38.50 per M. 

Stone 993 per ton. 

Sand 295 

Cement (including bags) 2 . 00 per bbl. 

Wages. — 

Carpenters 51 cts. per hour. 

Carpenters helpers 40 

Laborers 37^ " 

Engineers on mixers 55^ 

Concrete finishers 41 " 

The work was carried out under the direction of 
J. M. R. Fairbairn, chief engineer, P. B. Motley, 
being Engineer of Bridges — J. H. Barber, with 
A. H. Munson as assistant, was engineer in charge of 
construction, while the necessary investigations, calcula- 
tions and details were worked out by the writers. The 
contractors for Bridge 1.8 were Wells & Grey Ltd., and 
for Bridge 0.9 The Dominion Construction Company, both 
of Toronto. 



102 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Can Earth Roads be Made Satisfactory? 

By H. S. Carpenter, A.M.E.I.C., Deputy Minister, Department of Highways 



Many states south of the International Boundary are 
known to the road building fraternity as " earth road 
states." To be thus characterized does not of necessity 
imply a reflection on the condition of the roads. It may 
mean that these states like the Province of Saskatchewan 
have not been supplied by nature with material from which 
broken stone or other hard road metal can be obtained 
within their boundaries, and that they are obliged to make 
the best of the clay, sand and gravel which is found 
comercially available for road construction purposes. 
We know that some states have used this inferior road 
building material to good purpose. If in addition to being 
known as an '' earth road state " a state has earned the 
right to be called also a " road drag state," it will have 
gone a long way towards removing any reproach which the 
former term may imply. 

Saskatchewan is an earth road province and although 
it would be rashness for any one to state that sometime in 
the future this province may not be served by main roads 
surfaced with some form of durable road metal we have 
to face the fact that there is not at present available 
material from which to obtain broken stone with which to 
build hard surfaced roads. This material has been shipped 
into the province for use in paving our city streets. There 
is also the possibility that it may be obtained from the 
rock deposits which cover the northern parts of the pro- 
vince. The cost of this material at present makes its 
use prohibitive for any extensive program of improvement 
of our country roads. The same may be said of the 
relatively small amount which can be obtained from field 
stone. 

We sometimes indulge in speculation as to whether 
or not some process of treatment may not be devised by 
which our Saskatchewan clays or gumbo soils may be 
converted into a material wliich may be used as a substitute 
for the broken stone, slag, or other hard durable road- 
building material found in other countries. It is pointed 
out that it took many years of patient labor and experi- 
menting to demonstrate that the soil of this great north- 
west would produce crops. Many of us remember not so 
many years ago when it was said that the Regina plains 
were barren. Other sections of this country were at one 
time looked upon as hopeless from an agricultural point 
of view. Through the hard work, perseverance and 
intelligence of the earlier settlers all difficulties were 
overcome and it was demonstrated that Saskatchewan 
mud could be so treated as to be converted into the very 
best of farm lands. It is reasoned then that there is 
reason to hope that the road builder may in a similar 
manner work out his own salvation, and in time evolve 
ways and means of converting the prairie soils into service- 
able road metal. Certain characteristics of Regina gumbo 
it must be admitted are such as to lend encouragement 
to this optimistic outlook. If you will go out onto one of 
the unpaved streets of this city a few hours after a rain 
when the surface has dried out sufficiently to have lost its 
stickiness, but is still plastic, it will be found that portions 

•Read before the Annual Meeting of the Saskatchewan Branch, 
January 9th, 1919. 



of the surface which have been rolled out and compressed 
iDy heavy motor wheels have been converted into a material 
which in that stale would make a good road surface. It is 
so hard that it will take a polish, as tough as leather, and so 
dense that one would expect it to be waterproof, as it 
dries out under the rolling of traffic these properties in- 
crease. If we could devise some means of fixing it in this 
condition it might be utilized as a serviceable road metal. 
But we know only too well what happens to it the next time 
it rains. 

Methods of burning clays have been tried in the con- 
struction of " burnt clay " roads. This has met with 
more or less success in districts where fuel is plentiful and 
cheap, but this treatment does not promise success in this 
province where fuel is scarce. 

We do not wish to dampen the enthusiasm of the 
optimist or even of the dreamer, on the contrary they 
should be encouraged, but in the meantime it does not seem 
wise that we should defer our hopes of providing this 
province with good roads until some genius has evolved 
some magical process of transmuting Saskatchewan 
mud into hard road metal. 

It would seem then that we should devote our energies 
to making the best use of the material commercially 
available which, generally speaking, is the material which 
is within scraper haul or at most waggon haul of our roads. 
This does not imply that we should not make a judicious 
selection of this material. In fact it is the neglect to 
exercise judgment in this respect which is responsible for 
the construction of a great many miles of poor earth roads. 
Instances of this are noted in the attempt to construct 
grades across sloughs when advantage is taken of a dry 
season to build the grade from the soft alkali mud which 
often forms the bed of the slough regardless of the fact 
that good material can be obtained from the banks of the 
slough. Even where it is necessary to cut down these 
banks to provide a suitable grade at each end of the 
fill, good material excavated from these banks is some- 
times wasted rather than incur the little longer haul that 
its use involves, as compared with scraping in the material 
from the bottom of the slough. 

Again attempts are made to build a road entirely of 
light sandy material or even of fine sand, when clay could 
conveniently be obtained to mix with the sand to construct 
a sand clay road, or conversely a clay road is built not- 
withstanding the fact that sand suitable for mixing with 
the clay can be conveniently obtained. 

It may be noted also that we are not making the 
most of our resources in gravel. In many districts 
gravel can be obtained convenient to our roads, and 
although the presence of these gravel deposits is more or 
less generally known in each locality this is ignored 
by those in charge of road improvement work. In order 
that greater advantage may be taken of oiu- gravel supplies 
it would be well for each rural municipality to imdertake 
a survey of the municipality to ascertain its resources in 
the way of gravel and sand. This information should be 
so recorded as to be available in connection with any 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



103 



scheme of road improvement planned by the municipality. 
Control of manv of these deposits could probably be more 
readily obtained now than later on after the value of the 
gravel and sand has increased. A start has been made by 
the Department of Highways to collect information as to 
location, extent and quality of gravel and sand deposits in 
the province. It is hoped this infonnation will be very 
useful both to the department and to the rural munici- 
palities in carrying out, not only road construction, but 
also in connection with the construction of concrete 
culverts and bridges. 

It cannot be too forcibly insisted on that the question 
as to whether or not earth roads will prove satisfactory is 
largely a question of maintenance. The necessity for this 
should be faced at the inception of any scheme of road 
improvement. Provision for financing the improvement 
should also include provision for adequate maintenance. 

The satisfactory road to be built in any locality we 
may assume to be that road which is most suitable to the 
conditions for which the road is to be used. The conditions 
to be considered are soil, climate, nature and extent of the 
traffic, and the materials available, but also unfortunately 
we cannot overlook the condition that the road must be 
suitable to our ability to pay for it. This latter condition 
so dominates the others that it is generally accepted that 
we are justified in expending on a scheme of highway 
improvement only so much as will represent a safe sound 
investment upon which dividends will be paid, not in 
actual cash disbursements but in actual cash savings to the 
community to be served and which has to bear the cost. 
That is, the tax which will have to be borne to finance the 
improvement must not exceed the tax which is imposed 
because of the poor condition of the roads. 

The suitable class of roads then is the one that can be 
built, financed, and maintained from the annual savings 
represented by the dilïerence in cost of hauling over poor 
roads and the cost of hauling over the improved road. 
A careful study of the costs of hauling over different 
classes of roads has been made by the United States Office 
of Public Roads, and also by officials of some of the high- 
way departments of the different states. The United 
States Office of Public Roads gives the cost of hauling on 
unimproved roads throughout several different states as 
varying from 24 to 37 cents per ton per mile, or an average 
of 30 cents. From the insufficent data I have been able to 
gather it would appear that the cost in Saskatchewan is 
at least as high as 30 cents. 

The cost of hauling on improved roads is given as 
10 cents per ton mile on the first class roads in European 
countries before the war, making allowances for extreme 
variations in wages between Europe and the United 
States, the cost in this latter country is given as not to 
exceed 20 cents on improved earth or sand clay roads, and 
from 15 to 12 cents on good gravel, macadam or other 
more expensive pavements. Similar figures for Saskat- 
chewan are for obvious reasons not available. 

B. K. Coughlan, Professor of Highway Engineer- 
ing in the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, 
gives the following very conservative figures for the 
saving in the cost of hauling effected by the following 
classes of improved roads in cents per ton mile: earth or 



sand clay roads, ly^ cents; gravel roads, 10 cents; bit- 
uminous macadam, concrete or other expensive pave- 
ments, 15 cents. These figures are made use of in the 
computations submitted below. It should be noted here 
that these figures do not take into consideration the saving 
in wear and tear on vehicles, harness and animals, nor do 
they include the undoubtedly great benefits to the 
community from improved social opportunities, greater 
comforts, and other benefits resulting from improved 
roads which, however apparent, are difficult to value in 
dollars and cents. 

Having then the annual saving in hauling costs, if 
we ascertain the annual traffic which the road system 
slated for improvement will carry reduced to ton miles 
we can calculate the annual saving to the community which 
the improvement will produce. We can then capitalize 
this amount and thus determine the class of road which is 
economically suitable. Or conversely having the cost of 
constructing, financing and maintaining a certain class of 
road it can be ascertained the minimum of traffic which 
would be necessary to justify the investment. 

In this discussion it is assumed the money necessary to 
cover the improvement will be obtained by the sale of 
bonds or debentures. This means that included in the 
cost must be ample provision for annual maintenance 
sufficient to preserve the investment during the currency 
of the bond. This provision is a matter that is too fre- 
quently overlooked. Bond money should not be spent for 
road improvement unless the arrangement provides for 
adequate maintenance. 

The annual cost of the improvement then is the 
interest on the bonds, the annual sum needed to retire the 
bonds at maturity, and the annual cost of maintenance. 
The bonds for earth and sand clay roads should not run 
over 20 years. This may be extended to 30 years for 
gravel, macadam and the more expensive pavements. 

Following then the method of calculation adopted 
by Professor Coughlan we can determine the amount of 
traffic which a road will have to carry to justify an issue 
of bonds to convert it into an improved road of any 
particular class as follows: 

Earth Road. 

Cost of construction estimated at $1000 per mile. 
Annual cost of maintenance at $75 per mile; Interest 
on bonds at 6%. Interest on sinking fund 3}^%. Bonds 
to run 20 years. The annual cost then equals .09536 x 
1000 plus 75 equals $170.36, which at a saving of 7M cents 
per ton mile would require a traffic of 2270 tons or about 
8 tons for each working day. 

Sand Clay Road. 

Cost of construction estimated at $1500 per mile. 
Annual cost of maintenance at $125 per mile. Interest on 
bonds at 6%. Interest on sinking fund at 3 3/2%. Bonds 
to run 20 years. The annual cost then equals .09536 x 
1500 plus 125 equals 268.04, which at a saving of 7}^ cents 
per ton mile would require a traffic of 3570 tons or about 
12 tons for each working day. 



104 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Gravel Road. 
Cost of construction estimated at $3000 per mile. 
Annual cost of maintenance at $225 per mile. Interest on 
bonds at 6<;. Interest on sinking fund at 3 '2';. Bonds 
to run 30 years. The annual cost then equals 3000 x .07937 
plus $225'equals 463.11, which at a saving of 10 cents per 
ton mile would require a traflic of 4630 tons or about 15 
tons for each working day. 

Water Bound Macadatn Road. 
Cost of construction estimated at $9200 per mile. 
Annual cost of maintenance at $525 per mile. Interest 
on bonds at &%. Interest on sinking fund at 3}4%. 
Bonds to run 30 years. The annual cost then equals 
.07937 X 9200 plus 525 equals 1255.20, which at a saving 
of 15 cents per ton mile would require a traffic of 8366 
tons or about 28 tons for each working day. 

Bituminous Bound Macadam Road. 
Cost of construction estimated at $10,300 per mile. 
Annual cost of maintenance at $700 per mile. Interest on 
bonds at 6' c. Interest on sinking fund at 3H%. Bonds 
to run 30 vears. The annual cost then equals .07937 x 
10,300 plus 700 equals 1517.50, which at a saving of 15 
cents per ton mile would require a traffic of 10,116 tons 
or about 34 tons for each working day. 

The cost of constructing water bound macadam and 
bituminous bound macadam roads used above at $9200 
and $10,300 per mile, respectively, is taken from a report 
of the United States Office of Public Roads on the average 
cost of constructing in the years 1908 to 1911 of 137 miles 
of the former class of road and 85 miles of the latter, the 
width of the road paved being in both classes 15 feet. 
I would not venture an estimate of what these two 
classes of pavement would cost in Saskatchewan. 

I have endeavored to give the results of the above 
calculations a local application, but, unfortunately, traffic 
census on any of our main roads are not available. Lacking 
more definite data I have assumed a hypothetical case. 
Assuming a main market road leading out from a market 
center in one direction for a distance of twelve miles and 
considering only the traffic which originates on the farms 
for which the road is the main market road ; neglecting then 
the traffic in coal, lumber, and other supplies from the 
market town to the farms, also any traffic which may use 



the road, but which originates outside the area tributary 
to the road. I have assumed that each quarter section 
will annually yield 30 tons of produce or equivalent to 
1000 bushels of wheat. The traffic on each mile num- 
bering from the town out would be as follows: 

1st mile 7320 tons 

2nd " 7200 " 

3rd " 6800 " 

4th " 6400 " 

5th " 5880 " 

6th " 5280 " 

7th " 4680 " 

8th " 4080 " 

9th " 3000 " 

10th " 2520 " 

11th " 900 " 

12th " 840 " 

Comparing these figures with the results of the com- 
putations for each class of road we find that on no part of 
this road would the traffic warrant the construction of 
either water bound or bituminous bound macadam surfaces. 
The theoretically suitable road would be constructed of 
gravel for the first six miles, sand clay for the next two 
miles earth for the ninth and tenth miles and the last two 
miles would not carry sufficient traffic to warrant even an 
earth road. In actual practice, of course, the total length 
of the road would be included in the scheme of improve- 
ment and the class of road built be that which the average 
traffic over the whole stretch would justify. 

If the road under discussion in addition to being a 
local market road were also an interurban road or a trunk 
road there might be added to the local traffic sufficient 
through traffic to justify more durable and more expensive 
pavements. We must face the fact, however, that in 
comparison with our small population we have a very 
large mileage of roads to construct and maintain; so that 
when we are confronted with the question as to whether 
we should use the money available to build one mile of 
bituminous bound macadam road or ten miles of improved 
earth road, we are forced to the conclusion that the 
province will be best served by making the best use of the 
material commercially available and that for the present 
at least we should devote our energies to the improvement 
of our organization for constructing, maintaining and 
financing our earth roads. 



Economy in Ocean Transportation 

By A. W. Robinson, M.E.I.C. 



The purpose of this paper is to direct attention to a 
few points connected with ocean transportation which 
are deserving of special attention now in view of the altered 
conditions consequent upon the war. In the replacement 
of lost tonnage we have now an opportunity to make a 
distinct advance upon previous practice. It is incumbent 
upon us to make such an advance and to increase the 
efficiency of everything connected \vith ocean transporta- 
tion to the utmost possible extent in view of the new con- 
ditions of increased cost of fuel, labor and materials, and 
the competition of other nations. 

*To be read before the Montreal Branch, Thursday, February 6th. 



Conservation of fuel whether it be coal or oil is now a 
national necessity. Economy in the generation and use 
of propelling power is now highly developed, and the 
gains that can be made in that direction are comparatively 
small . 1 1 is in the direction of larger units more efficiently 
employed that we must look in order to obtain a greater 
output per man and per horse-power. 

How can larger and more economical vessels be pro- 
fitably utilized, what is their relative economy, and what 
are their limitations ? The writer will endeavor to present 
facts and data that will enable an independent judgment 
to be formed. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



105 



During the four years that have elapsed there would, 
in ordinary times, have been a natural increase of require- 
ments to be provided for, tîut this cannot be figured at the 
normal rate because of the great interruption to trade and 
commerce. Much of that trade will now have to begin 
where it left off and the enormously increased transport 
due to war material having now ceased is no longer a 
factor. 

During the closing months of war a powerful impetus 
was given to building vessels of any kind that would 
promise quick delivery, and a large programme was 
entered upon, the United States alone undertaking to build 
25 million tons. All other nations are striving to contri- 
bute their quota. It is impossible to foresee the future or 
to say how far the present building programme will be 
pushed, but if one may venture on an opinion, there will 
soon be a superabundant supply of the smaller class of 
ships now being built. It is now necessary to meet new 
conditions and build more permanent tonnage. It is 
most important that the permanent ships now building 
and to be built, should be in every way suited to carry 
cargo at the least cost and that all the factors that contri- 
bute to this end should be most carefully studied. 

The increased cost of construction and of fuel and 
labor and the likelihood of competition from Japanese 
and other sources all have to be met. The earlier ships 
built during the present period will be handicapped by 
excessive first cost and to some extent also by inferior 
construction due to haste and inexperience. For reliable 
service under stress of all weathers and for freedom from 
repairs and breakdowns nothing but the best and 
staunchest construction dictated by long sea experience 
will suffice. In view of the increased cost of fuel and 
labor it will be necessary to improve the design not only 
of the ship itself but of every thing connected with ocean 
transportation, including means for rapid and economical 
handling of cargo and improved terminal facilities in 
general. 

These questions are receiving close study and 
attention from both naval architects and ship owners as 
well as shipping registry societies and port authorities. 
There is a society of " Terminal Engineers," and a monthly 
journal called " Freight Handling and Terminal En- 
gineering," now in its fourth volume. 

There is also a comprehensive survey of the resources 
and development of the British Dominions contained in 
the great report of the Dominions Royal Commission, 
already referred to. This report being prepared by the 
most competent authorities and having for its object the 
economic linking up of the great Dominions of the Empire 
merits our most careful study and earnest co-operation. 

This Commission was appointed by the British 
Government in April, 1912, and made its final report in 
March, 1917, so that it covers much of the war period. 
Its proceedings and evidence are contained in nine volumes 
and include the most complete and exhaustive study of the 
relations of the Dominions to the Empire and to each 
other that has ever been made. 

That portion of the report dealing with the question 
of ocean transportation is so important that I quote a part 
of it as follows: 



"The war has abundantly demonstrated that the life 
of the Empire depends upon its sea communication. 
Whatever the existing magnitude of the ocean-borne 
commerce between the United Kingdom and the Do- 
minions, and whatever the prospect of its development in 
the future, producer, manufacturer and merchant alike 
are concerned and vitally concerned with securing cheap, 
regular and efficient transport for their goods, and conse- 
quently with the progressive improvement of the Empire's 
shipping facilities." 

" We emphasize this point for we feel that in discus- 
sions as to the best means of fostering trade within the 
Empire, its importance has been obscured by other 
factors affecting the exchange of merchandise, and in 
particular to the prominence given to fiscal legislation. 
In our view cheap sea transport is not only of importance 
in relation to other means of fostering exchange of mer- 
chandise, but it also confers absolute advantages on the 
countries which possess it. So long as freights are cheaper 
and means of communication better between the Mother 
country and the Dominions overseas, and between the 
Dominions themselves, than between foreign countries 
and the Dominions, so long will trade naturally follow 
Imperial channels. If, therefore, it is possible to devise 
some means of permanent betterment of sea-routes within 
the Empire, a powerful impulse will have been given to 
Imperial trade, while the strength and cohesion of the 
Empire will be notably increased." 

" The development of cheap, regular and efficient 
transport (and indeed of quick transport) depends in the 
last resort on increase in the size and draft of sea-going 
vessels, and consequently on the existence of harbours 
and waterways of a capacity and particularly of a depth 
adequate to receive such vessels." 

"To some extent these considerations have influenced 
the minds of ship owners, naval architects and harbour 
authorities, but the improvement of isolated harbours is 
of little avail unless all the harbours on a given route are 
brought up approximately to the same level. Joint 
co-ordinated action is required. Individual disconnected 
effort is of little use. It is, therefore obvious that efforts 
should be made to correlate and develop the existing and 
future capacity of harbours and waterways on the great 
trade routes of the Empire, and to suggest a general scheme 
for improving the ports on these routes." 

The report goes on to state that so far as the 
Dominions are concerned, Canada is most favored by 
nature with deep and extensive harbours both on the east 
and west coasts. Full data is given of all trade routes 
and available depths at present in all principal harbours, 
and estimated work to be done at various points to bring 
them up to standard. 

A depth of 40 ft. is recommended as being the limit 
at present available in principal ports, and that can be 
attained in some other secondary ports within reasonable 
time. We have, or soon will have this depth at our own 
ports on the Atlantic and Pacific. The Panama Canal 
is 40 ft. Hong Kong, Singapore, Sydney, Hobard and 
Capetown are all 40 ft. Shanghai contemplates 50 ft. 

The most efficient size of a vessel fixed upon by this 
Commission is the largest that can make use of these 
main ports, and will be a vessel 660 ft. long, 38 ft. draft, 



106 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



and about 25,000 tons deadweight capacity. Vessels 
of this size are proposed for the main trade routes to 
Australia, via Capetown, and to Canada. Also a line 
from a British port to New Zealand, v'a Halifax, Bermuda, 
Jamaica and Panama Canal, giving a faster mail route 
than via Suez. It is not generally realized that the 
Panama Canal is directly on the shortest sailing line from 
Britain to New Zealand and that the distance is 560 
nautical miles shorter than the mail route via Suez. 

Mail services are also an important subject for dis- 
cussion. Much improvement can be made in the methods 
that prevailed before the war in our transatlantic mail 
service. Instead of numerous trans-shipments by methods 
involving delay, injury and risk of loss, it should be pos- 
sible to run a mail train alongside the ship and fit portable 
rubber belt conveyors that would take the mail bags from 
the railway car and deliver them directly into the mail 
room of the ship through a d(X)r in the ship's side designed 
for the purpose. A further improvement would be an 
ample postal station as part of the railway terminal, so 
that trucking the mail bags through the streets or along 
station platforms among passengers and baggage would be 
avoided. 

The increased cost of labor and fuel makes it necessary 
to devise new ways and means to meet this cost. If all 
countries suffered the same relative increase we would be 
in much the same position as before. Manual labor 
must be superseded by mechanical appliances. Where 
manual labor cannot be dispensed with it should be sup- 
plied with such mechanical aids as will render it more 
effective. In the manufacturing industries it has been 
shown repeatedly that the most important factor in 
cheap production is not the rate of wages, but rather the 
increase of output. We can well afford to pay high wages 
with efficient plant and large output. 

As in railroads economy in haulage has been obtained 
by increase of train loads, so in marine transport the 
simplest and most direct way to reduce costs is to increase 
the capacity of ships so as to carry more tons of freight 
per unit of labor and fuel. Theoretically the larger the 
vessel the greater the economy but practically there are 
limitations. These limitations are not rigid, and do 
not bind down the ship as do railroad limits of size, but 
are elastic and depend on commercial considerations of 
traffic, freight handling and depth of water, and can be 
expanded to any extent. 

The question is, how far can we go efficiently in 
increasing the size of ships ? The discussion which follows 
will enable us to find the answer. 

In November, 1902, the writer read a paper before 
this Society on " The Economy of Large Ships, "in which 
he stated the principles governing the case and pointed 
out that when the 30 ft. channel to Montreal was completed , 
we could employ a vessel 520 ft. long, 61 ft. beam and 30 ft. 
draft, which would carry 12,000 tons deadweight at 13 
knots speed on 5 lbs. of coal per 100 ton miles. He also 
pointed out the economy that would result in even larger 
sizes and deeper draft. That limit has been long since 
reached and passed. A very full discussion was contri- 
buted to that paper by the late E. L. Corthell and printed 
in our transactions, in which he ably reviewed the develop- 
ment of ocean traffic up to that date . 



The degree to which size can be carried to be profitable 
is limited, not by any problem of construction but by 
depth of water and commercial considerations of traffic. 

The superior economy of the large vessel is generally 
recognized. There exists some difference of opinion as to 
the limits to which great size can be carried to advantage. 
Economy in railway transport has been attained by heavier 
train loads and full car loading. The same principle 
applies to ships except that they are not limited like 
railways, and hence can derive a greater benefit. 

The following table shows the comparative economy 
of cargo vessels of 2500 to 25,000 tons deadweight capacity: 

Deadweight Capacity tons 2500 5000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 

Length of vessel ft. 215 300 430 510 590 675 

Beam " " 36 44 58 68 72 80 

Draft of water, loaded. " 22 25 28| 32 34 36 

Speed, sea-miles 11 11 11 11 11 11 

Indicated H.P 1460 1900 2800 3750 5000 6000 

Coal per hour lbs. 2920 3600 5000 6380 7350 7950 

Coal consumption lbs. 

per 100 ton-miles... 10.6 6.5 4.5 3.9 3.3 2.9 

In the above table the dimensions may, of course, be 
varied to suit different designs, as for instance, if deeper 
draft can be allowed the hulls may have less length and 
beams, but the comparison is sufficient to illustrate the 
great saving in coal consumption in the larger sizes. 
Thus, a vessel of 2500 tons deadweight consumes 10.6 lb. 
of coal per 100 ton-miles at 11 knots, while a vessel of 
25,000 tons only consumes 2.9 lb. per 100 ton-miles at the 
same speed. In other words: a given amount of cargo 
is carried in the larger vessel with 27 per cent of the fuel, 
a saving of 73 per cent, with intermediate sizes in pro- 
portion. Not only is there a saving in fuel but in labor 
also. These savings are cimiulative as the space saved 
by reduced percentage of machinery and fuel goes to 
increase the paying cargo space. It will be seen that the 
largest size vessel in the table corresponds closely with 
that proposed by the Dominions Royal Commission. 

The saving in labor in the large vessel is also most 
important. The question of finding crews for a great 
number of small vessels is already proving a problem. 
Inevitably the standard of skill and experience must be 
lowered and this will result in loss and inefficiency. The 
number of crew will vary in different services, but roughly 
speaking a vessel of 5000 tons deadweight may have a crew 
of 35, while a vessel of 25,000 tons would only require 
about 68. That is to say twice the crew would carry 
five times the cargo. For oil-burning vessels the saving 
would be still more marked. 

A further advantage of the large vessel is that less 
wharf frontage is required for a given tonnage. Thus a 
berth for one vessel of 25,000 tons deadweight would be 
about 700 ft. long, whereas berths for two vessels of 12,500 
tons would be 1,000 ft. and for four vessels of 6250 tons, 
about 1500 ft., and so on, in proportion. Consequently 
the cost of wharfage accommodation is actually less for 
the large vessels, although the depth of water required is 
a few feet more. The concentration of so much cargo on 
a small frontage will, however, make necessary more floor 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



107 



space in the sheds and much better distribution facilities 
than for the smaller ships. In other words, the harbor 
accommodation must be designed to suit the vessel and the 
trafiic. 

What are the conditions essential to enable us to use 
successfully these large and efficient vessels? 

Unless they can be worked under suitable conditions 
they will yield no benefit. These are: (1) Sufficient 
volume of trade on a regular route to furnish full cargoes, 
or nearly so; (2) Sufficient terminal and warehouse 
facilities at both ends of the route to collect and hold 
available a full cargo ready for loading during the time in 
port; (3) Improved mechanical appliances for rapid 
loading and unloading so that the time in port can be 
reduced to a satisfactory minimum; (4) Sufficient depth 
of water and sufficient space for manoeuvering in port. 

Let us consider more specifically the foregoing points. 
The first condition, that of sufficient traffic, can be deter- 
mined from statistics of any given trade route, with allow- 
ance for future changes. We are not now considering the 
tramp steamer, which must seek trade where it can find it, 
and which must necessarily be restricted to the smaller 
class of vessel. There is no doubt of ample traffic being 
available on the main trade routes. 

The second condition, that of terminal faciUties, is 
one which is now receiving great attention. To utilize 
the large economical ship, we must assemble 25,000 tons 
of outgoing cargo at a time in sufficiently close proximity 
to the ship's side so that it can be rapidly handled, and at 
the same time provide for incoming cargo. We must also 
consider the rail and water facilities for assembling this 
cargo economically. It will require about 15 train loads 
to fill such a ship. 

Improved mechanical appliances for handling cargo 
are essential to economy. In the case of bulk cargoes as 
grain, coal or oil, mechanical means can be and are used 
most efficiently, and the time of loading and unloading 
is very short. But with miscellaneous freight no means 
have yet been devised to supersede hoisting by slings or 
skips which must be loaded by hand in the hold of the 
ship. The limiting point will be, therefore, the rate at 
which slings or skips can be loaded. The hoisting 
apparatus should be so improved that the lifts are made 
with safety and high speed, and the capacity of the lifts 
should be in excess of the capacity of the men to load them 
so that there should be no waiting. The number of 
hatches should be as many as can be arranged on the 
vessel, and with as large openings as possible so that two 
or more lifts can be used at each hatch. 

The chief mechanical improvements which can be 
made are the adoption of electric hoists on shore instead 
of steam winches on the ship, and electric trucks to receive 
the load directly from the hoist and carry it away to avoid 
congestion. In this way manual labor can be reduced and 
hand trucking done away with. The electric winch should 
be double drum, and the hoist arranged with two points 
of suspension, one over the hatch and one over the point 
of deposit. In this way perfect control at high speed can 
be obtained, and no swinging booms or derricks are 
required. 

If the 25,000 tons of cargo in the ship proposed by the 
Dominions Royal Commission can be unloaded at eight 
hatches with sixteen hoists, each working at 40 tons per 
hour, the ship can be unloaded in 40 hours. Much depends, 
of course, on the character of the cargo. 

As long as we are obliged to handle miscellaneous 
freight in packages of every conceivable size and shape 



so long will the loading process be subject to more or less 
delay due to hand manipulation. Some improvement 
might be effected by giving a preferred rate to standardized 
packages specially adapted to quick loading. Something 
may also be done to save the ship's time by carrying small 
freight in large crates or containers that can be quickly 
lifted and closely stowed. 

In repetition work as in unloading a vessel, a time 
study should be made of each movement to a fraction of 
a second showing where the losses are and the methods so 
improved as to eliminate them. 

It has been a time-honoured custom for each ship to 
have a complete outfit of steam winches and derricks to 
discharge her own cargo. For the tramp steémier and 
for ports not properly equipped this is, of course, necessary. 
But why perpetuate it, and why carry a deckload of obso- 
lete winches and derricks cumbering the ship and weighing 
hundreds of tons when the work can be better done by 
electrically operated winches on shore ? The steam winch 
as used on shipboard is probably the most wasteful form 
of power known. With its long steam pipes and general 
maintenance it costs at least ten times as much to operate 
as an electric motor on shore. Hatchways could be made 
larger if the winches were omitted, and the weight of the 
whole outfit added to paying cargo capacity. Elecricity 
can also be made available for rapid distribution and 
stowage of the cargo on shore. 

To give effect to this plan requires that all ports of 
call for this special ship be fully equipped with all the 
necessary appliances and standardized to suit the ship. 
A point for discussion is, shall we construct our ships to 
suit present terminal facilities and channel depths, and 
thus put a limitation on them, or shall we adopt a size and 
type of ship that will give the utmost economy for a 
particular route, and then design the terminals and shore 
equipment at both ends of the route to suit that ship ? 
The writer believes that the latter should be adopted and 
that great economies would thereby result. 

The most perfect example of the success of this 
policy is found in the ore-carrying fleet of the Great 
Lakes. Here, as is well-known, the vessels are standard- 
ized, no unloading equipment is carried on them, and the 
utmost economy and quick despatch is secured. The 
hatchways are spaced a uniform distance apart so that 
a vessel of any length and any number of hatchways 
will fit under a row of fixed loading shoots and also under 
the unloading equipment. While the Great Lakes type 
of vessel and unloading equipment would not be suitable 
for ocean traffic with miscellaneous cargo, the central idea 
of a standardized vessel with all cargo handling equipment 
co-ordinated to it and placed on shore finds full vindication. 
Portable and inexpensive high-speed electric hoists could 
be spaced along to suit any number and arrangement of 
hatches, having a double wire-rope tackle carried in snatch- 
blocks overhead, and requiring no swinging booms or 
expensive cranes except for special or heavy lifts. They 
would also be flexible and would suit any spacing of hatches. 

The elaborate equipment of travelling and revolving 
cranes at some foreign ports is often referred to as an 
example for us to copy. The author thinks that, any 
system of cranes, especially those involving heavy travel- 
ling or revolving parts, is much too slow. 

It has been customary hitherto to consider the design 
of a cargo vessel as inseparably connected with the number 
of hatches and derrick systems that can be arranged along 
the deck, and to consider the time required to unload the 



108 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



cargo by this means as one of the factors acting adversely 
to the large vessel. This was brought out by a paper by 
John Anderson, on "The most suitable sizes and speeds for 
General Cargo Steamers," read before the Institution of 
Naval Architects, March, 1918. In this paper the author 
discusses fully the characteristics of five sizes of cargo 
vessels with the number and arrangement of winches and 
derrick systems to each and shows that at the estimated 
rate of working the time in port would varv from 2.37 
days for 1800 tons deadweight to 13 days for 18,000 tons 
The latter is the largest size he considers and he concludes 
that at this size the large vessel begins to be less efficient 
because of the long time required in port. The most 
efficient cargo liner he places at 450 ft. long and a maximum 
draft of 28 ft., and in view of this maximum draft he 
thinks it is an open question whether the proposed deep- 
ening of trade routes should be considered prior to other 
irnprovements. Mr. Anderson is undoubtedly right in 
his conclusions, based on the slow unloading rate of ships' 
winches, but instead of resting content at 28 ft. draft 
because of inefficient unloading appliances, the writer 
thinks that the cargo handling arrangements and terminal 
facilities should be improved so that we can reap the bene- 
fit of the large vessel as already pointed out. 

The relative advantages and disadvantages of large 
ships are clearly pointed out by Mr. Anderson in his paper 
as follows. The principal advantages are: 1st, reduced 
initial cost in relation to the deadweight; 2nd, reduced 
horsepower, crew and coal required in relation to the 
deadweight; and 3rd, greater seaworthiness. These 
are all indisputable and well recognized. 

The disadvantages he states as follows : The increased 
length of time required to load and discharge; the un- 
suitability of certain harbors, loading berths and dry 
docks, and greater loss in casé of mishap or disaster. 
Let us consider these disadvantages specifically. First, 
as to longer time to load and unload. Undoubtedly it 
will take longer time to discharge 25,000 tons than a less 
amount, but this can be greatly reduced by improved and 
faster methods as already pointed out. Furthermore, the 
cargo can be discharged from the large ship at a much 
faster rate than from the small owing to the greater 
number of hatchways and hoists in use at once, conse- 
quently the detention does not increase as the weight of 
cargo, but in a much smaller ratio. 

The second disadvantage is the unsuitability of many 
harbors, berths and dry docks, etc. My answer is, let 
these small and unsuitable harbors continue to be served 
by the smaller vessels and by the tramp steamers, of 
which we will soon have a superabundance, and let us 
equip certain harbors on our main trade routes specially 
for the most economical ship. 

The last point is the greater risk of loss in the large 
vessel . The best answer to this is experience, and statistics 
show that total losses of large and seaworthy ships are 
comparatively infrequent. Furthermore, as pointed out 
in my forrner paper on " Economy of Large Ships," the 
nsk of accident is in proportion to the number of voyages 
and these are less in the large ship. Finallv the risk of 
possible loss can hardly be adduced as a valid argument 
to cause us to forego the undoubted advantages. 

The question of draft of water is one of the most 
important as affecting the use of the large and efficient 
ship. The 660 ft. ship proposed by the Dominions 
Royal Commission will have a draft of 38 ft. requiring a 
40 ft. channel at least. The ruling depth of ports of the 
first-class at the present time is 40 ft. The depth of 



Panama Canal is 40 ft. The present depth of Suez 
Canal is about 30 ft., but is soon to be 33 ft. 

A. D. Swan in his paper on " Deep Water for 
Harbors and Cargo Handling," read before the American 
Association of Port Authorities, Sept., 1918, gives a 
resume of the question and quotes authorities on the 
subject. The British authorities " expressed a preference 
for at least 45 ft. as the minimum depth which harbor 
engineers should recommend and work for, because 
although at the present moment 40 ft. might be a satis- 
factory minimum working depth, the demand for shipping 
would grow so steadily as to make 45 ft. necessary before 
even this depth could be achieved." 

The same paper also quotes Prof. Biles' calculations 
showing that the most efficient draft for a ship 1,000 ft. long 
would be 57 ft. 6 in. and that it was not unreasonable to 
predict that within 20 or 30 years a depth of harbor of 60 
ft. could be profitably employed. 

1 1 is clear that deep draft more than any other factor 
contributes to the economy with which heavy loads can 
be carried, in fact it is impossible to reap the benefit of 
cheap transportation without adequate depth of water. 
Hence the efforts that are now being made to increase 
the depth in all harbors to a point commensurate with 
their needs. 

Another point in which improvement can be made is 
in provision for life-saving. By the rules now existing 
ships are obliged to carry a load of life-boats adequate for 
the whole population on board. In a passenger liner 
carrying, say 4000 people this is an onerous and useless 
requirement. In emergency this fleet of boats cannot be 
launched, and the history of most disasters is that people 
are precipitated into the sea and left to cling to a chance 
oar or piece of wreckage. The writer has long advocated 
that the life-boat accommodation be reduced and that the 
supply of automatically floating accommodation be 
increased in the form of rafts, pontoons or floatable sections 
of deck-houses. The entire bow and stern superstructure 
of the ship might be made to float off by disconnecting 
fastenings. The lifeboat is a survival from early condi- 
tions, and while we cannot supersede it entirely we should 
made a more comfortable and safe means of keeping afloat 
for the short time now necessary until relief arrives. 

In conclusion the writer has endeavored to point out 
some lines along which progress can be made towards 
further economy in ocean transportation. The subject is 
too large and many sided to reach definite conclusions 
without much further discussion, but it is certain that 
there is room for great improvement, and that the 
opportunity is now. 

When, as has been shown, the 25,000 ton ship can 
carry two and a quarter times as much cargo on the same 
fuel consumption as a 5000 ton ship and do it with two- 
fifths of the crew and less first cost, it is clear that immense 
savings can be made that will vitally affect the whole 
system of ocean transportation. We may not be able to 
make sweeping changes in the existing order of things, but 
we can at least endeavor to see that the additions made are 
in the right direction. It will be an immense step forward 
if the suggestions of the Dominions Royal Commission can 
be carried out as to a service of large and efficient cargo 
liners on our main trade routes. 

What we need is co-ordination, co-operation and 
standardization. By means of these property applied we 
can have a merchant marine which will be so efficient as 
to more than hold its own with any nation, and which will 
link up the empire with lines of vessels that will be the 
closest bond of union and that will carry our products to 
every corner of the globe. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



109 



Modern Boiler Practice 

By F. A. Combe, A.M.E.I.C.\ 



The object of this paper is to give a brief outhne of 
the principles governing boiler and furnace design, with 
a review of our present knowledge of the laws related 
thereto, and the trend of modern practice, together with 
some general notes regarding boiler installation and opera- 
tion which may be of interest to Canadian engineers and 
possibly timely in view of the number of new steam plants 
and extensions to existing plants which it is expected will 
be undertaken in this country now that war restrictions 
have been withdrawn. 

During the last eight years there has been a con- 



eflficient furnaces, boiler settings and plant operation, 
and engineers and plant owners are beginning to pay more 
attention to this very important part of power production. 
In the past it has been too often thought that anyone 
could lay out a boiler room, with the result that plants 
have been put in without proper consideration of their 
suitability for the particular conditions, or, even when 
good boilers, stokers and main apparatus were installed, 
no facilities for economic operation were provided. More 
money can be saved or lost in the boiler room than in 
any other part of the plant, yet, while the latest refine- 




t>4- 



Fig. 1. Standard Longitudinal Drum Sectional Header Boiler. 



siderable advance in the art of generating steam, following 
a better understanding of the combustion of fuel and heat 
transmission in boilers, which, while not leading to any 
radical change in actual construction, has resulted in 
improved arrangement of boiler heating surface, with more 

*Read at Montreal Branch January 30th. 

fEngineer for Canada, for Babcock & Wilcox Limited. 



ments may have been added to the engine room and 
electrical side, the boiler room has been considered as 
a necessarily dirty place to be avoided as much as possible. 
The condition of this same boiler room under operation 
is, however, usually a direct indication of the ability 
of the plant designer or management, or both, as a boiler 
room need not be dirty, and dirt generally means 



no 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



inefficiency and bad management somewhere. At the 
present time when the question of fuel supply is of 
such importance in Canada, every effort should be rnade 
to ensure its efticient use, and steps taken where possible, 
through education and control, to cut down the enormous 
waste which occurs annually through inefficient operation, 
or the false economy or indifference of the plant 
management. 

The operating efficiency of the engine room machinery 
is largely inherent in the design, that is to say, beyond 
the control of the attendant, but. although''a boiler and 
furnace must be properly designed, its actuaKetlficiency in 
service is to a great extent dependent upon intelligent 
operation and supervision, and for that reason warrants 
the placing of the most intelligent and highest ^priced 
men with every modern appliance in this part of the plant, 
since an increase of even a fraction of one per cent in 
efficiency represents the saving of a considerable quantity 
of coal annually. Such a distribution of labour and 
superintendence is very seldom the case at the present 
time. 

The present day tendency towards high ' steam 
pressures and temperatures, concentration of power and 
larger unit capacities have led to the practical elimination 
of the shell boiler for this service and to certain modi- 
fications in the setting and rating of water tube boilers. 
The different water-tube boilers made to-day, suitable 
for these conditions, resolve themselves into two general 
classes, — horizontally inclined straight tube boilers and 
vertically inclined bent tube boilers. Fig. 1 shows a 
section of a standard longitudinal drum boiler of sectional 
header construction with vertical baffies, fitted with a 
superheater and chain grate stoker, having a high furnace 
setting; and Fig. 2 shows a large double setting vertically 
inclined tube boiler with superheater and underfeed 
stokers. For the purpose of illustrating the application 
of the principles entering into boiler design, the author 
will confine his attention chiefly to the former type of 
boiler and its recent development. ?' ^^«5 y BK^,*,&.fiÈ 

The peculiar conditions under^which boilers must 
necessarily work affect their design to a greater extent 
than with most machines. It is possible to design a 
boiler which would give a higher efficiency under test 
conditions than any yet built, but taking into considera- 
tion the general class of service, attention, ease of cleaning, 
first cost and maintenance, a compromise must be made 
for continued satisfactory and efficient service. 





TLvPr^-^«T ■.rio«te?r»^=t'en:.-(yKo-&*tts^'-tt;*vi''E:* — ï^ï^,i*.^i 



rJiSi. 



Fig. J. ticat .Absorption by Convection in Standard Boilers. 



Fig. 2. Double Setting Stirling Boiler. 

The more severe demands of modern service and a 
better realization by engineers of the possible economies 
to be effected in the boiler room has encouraged the 
development of boilers for higher efficiency and rating, 
but it must be understood that, as with any other machine, 
the higher the rate at w-hich a boiler is operated the more 
careful attention is needed and the less abuse it will stand. 
Boilers, engines, or anything else can be, and are, built 
to stand rough usage, but, if the highest efficiency and 
rating be desired, they must be treated with respect and 
for the purpose for wWch they are designed, for instance: 

The function of a boiler is to make steam and it is 
not at any time the proper place for the treatment and 
deposit of the impurities in the feed water. Boilers 
designed for, and operating under, moderate loads will 
stand a lot of abuse in this way, albeit at a loss in efficiency, 
and under such conditions the use of chemicals or boiler 
' compounds fed into the boiler with the feed water may be 
justifiable to lessen adherent scale, but pure soft water 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



111 



RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION 

THE. HEAT TRANSFER RATE. 
IN BOILER FLUES 













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A boiler horsepower, in its true sense, is solely a unit 
of evaporation, being equal to 34.5 lbs. of water evaporated 
per hour from and at 212°F. and equivalent to the standard 
adopted by the boiler committee of the Centennial 
Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876. The term has 
nothing to do, strictly speaking, with the heating surface 
of the boiler, but at different stages of progress of the art, 
manufacturers of stationary boilers have adopted as 
arbitrary standards, certain amounts of boiler heating 
surface which could be taken as suitable for economically 
evaporating one boiler horsepower under average con- 
ditions of service and with a definite ratio of heating to 
grate surface. In recent years 10 square feet of heating 
surface per boiler horsepower or the equivalent of approxi- 
mately 33^ lbs. evaporation per square foot heating surface 
has been considered a nominal full load rating for a water 
tube boiler of standard construction, but considerably 
higher rates are adopted in modern stationary boilers 
designed for high duty service, as also in marine boilers 
where average evaporative rates of 6 lbs. and over per 
square foot heating surface are usual. 

The normal rating, or rate of evaporation, of a boiler, 
and its point of maximum efficiency is entirely dependent 
on the design, and while higher rates than 33 2 lbs. per 
square foot heating surface may constitute a so-called 
overload on a boiler designed for 10 square feet heating 
surface per boiler horsepower, with a ratio of heating 
surface to grate area of about 50 to 1, and the efificiency 
may drop with such overload, it does not follow that the 
same condition will exist with a boiler and furnace designed 
for a different rating. 



O LBS- ZOOO 



12 000 I4-000 LBS 



Weight of Gases per Sq. Ft. of Flue Area per Hour. 
Fig. 4. Heat Transfer in Boiler Tubes. 



must be used in any type of boiler which is to be operated 
at high rates of' evaporation in order to get proper benefit 
from the installation, and to avoid tube troubles, and this 
usually necessitates the provision of an independent water 
purifying plant for the raw make up water in the feed 
supply. 

Rating and Capacity. 

When speaking of boiler loads or high and low rates 
of evaporation of boilers, it is necessary to have a clear 
understanding of the unit on which such evaporations 
are based, that is, what constitutes a normal full load? 
In Europe and other countries boilers are usually rated 
on the quantity of water which they are capable of 
evaporating per hour under certain conditions with a 
specified heating surface, but in Canada, following the 
custom of the United States, boilers are generally rated 
simply in boiler horsepower, a term often very loosely 
used. 




Fig. 5. Modern Waste Heat Boiler. 



112 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



The rate of conductivity of the metal of the heating 
surface is sufficiently high to carry away considerably 
more heat than cari possibly be transmitted in boiler 
service without danger of burning, provided that water 
be in contact with one side of the metal, so the limit of 
capacity alone is practically only governed by the positive 
circulation of the water in the boiler, the cleanliness of 
the heating surface, inside and out, and the amount of 
fuel that can be burned, or the gases which can be passed 
through the boiler. 



is dependent on the avoidance of large chambers in the 
water passages in which eddies and down currents impede 
the pumping action. Tests recently carried out on a 
horizontally inclined tube boiler of the header construction, 
28 tubes high, showed that this pumping action amounted 
to the equivalent of some 18" of water head when the 
boiler was operating at rated capacity and that it increased 
progressively as the load increased. Boilers similar to 
that shown in Fig. 1, equipped with a duplex furnace are 
in service operating up to 4(X)S't rating during peak 




Fig. 6. Cross Drum Boiler with Integral Economizer. 



There is very little difference in temperature of the 
water throughout any part of a well designed water tube 
boiler, the circulation being caused by a pumping action 
set up by the steam bubbles, in a similar manner to an 
air lift pump, either in the front tubes of a vertically in- 
clined tube boiler, or in the uptake headers of a sectional 
horizontally inclined tube boiler, and, as with an airlift 
pump, the rapidity and efficiency of the pumping action 



load periods or an average evaporative rate of 14 lbs. 
per square foot heating surface when using purified feed 
water, so that as far as capacity alone is concerned, a 
boiler having good circulation can be run at considerably 
higher rates than has been the usual practice, provided 
it be kept clean. Cleanliness and positive rapid circula- 
tion become of increasing importance as the rate of 
evaporation is increased. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



113 



In order to better appreciate the significance of 
evaporativerates, let us examine the mode of heat transfer 
in a boiler in the Hght of our present knowledge, and at 
the same time see how the general principles are applied 
in modern boiler design. 

Assuming coal to be burned under a water tube boiler 
at an efficiency equivalent to the production of 12,500 
B.T.U. per pound with 18 pounds of gaseous products of 
combustion; then the temperature above the surface of 
the fuel bed would theoretically be approximately 2800°. 
The heat is transmitted to the boiler heating surface, by 
direct radiation from the surface of the fuel bed and 
furnace walls and by convection from the hot gases passing 
over the tubes. 

Hndiatioii. 

The amount of heat absorbed by the surface of the 
tubes directly exposed to radiant heat from the furnace 
is generally proportional to the difference of the fourth 
powers of the absolute temperatures of the two surfaces, 
or = C(T^-t'') where C is a constant for any unit of surface 
and time. The laws governing radiant heat or heat 
rays are analogous to those for light, the heat transfer 
being extremely rapid, but the great proportion of the 
heat energy is supplied by the obscure or dark rays, only 
a very small amount being carried by the actual light or 
visible rays. 





Fig. 8. Boiler Units at Montreal Tramway Company's Plant. 

The value of the coefficient in the above radiation 
formula was determined experimentally for black surfaces 
by Stefan about 30 years ago, and while this coeHficient 
has been taken as applicable to the partly sooted surfaces 
in a boiler furnace it is probably far from correct, while 
the permeability of the gases in the furnace to heat rays, 
their capability of radiating heat themselves, the reflecting 
and absorbing power of the fire brick furnace walls and 
the proper consideration of the exposed areas, are all 
points on which there is little authoritative data, although 
investigations are being made into this subject at the 
present time. Of course a close determination can never 
be made if the area of the hot surface of the fuel bed is to 
be a determining factor, as it is obviously impossible 
to do more than very roughly estimate the average extent 
of the irregular surface, and there will be, in addition, 
radiation from the incandescent carbon particles in the 
gases; but it is questionable if this surface is a necessary 
factor. With gaseous or oil fuel, we have to deal with 



Fig. 7. Boiler Units at Montreal Tramway Company's Plant. 




Fig. 9. Chain Grate Stoker Setting for Lignite. 



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JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



volume radiation which presents a somewhat similar case 
to that in a gas engine cylinder where the heat from the 
explosive charge is transmitted to the water jacketed 
cylinder walls chiefly by radiation, as brought out in 
investigations undertaken by the explosives committee 
of the engineering section of the British Association some 
years ago. 

One thing we do know is that in a Babcock and Wilcox 
boiler, the amount of water evaporated per hour per 
square foot of surface of the lower rows of tubes exposed 
to furnace radiation, with a furnace temperature around 
2500°F. is at least from 50 to 65 lbs., and as this may 
represent over one half the total evaporation of the boiler 
at normal rating, the importance of a full knowledge of 
the subject of radiation is evident, while it incidentally 
shows how high the evaporative capacity of a tube is, and 
that an average evaporation rate of S'i lbs. per square 
foot heating surface for the whole boiler gives no indication 
of the amount of work which any part of the heating 
surface is doing. 

Failure to take into consideration the extent of heat 
radiation often leads to considerable error in boiler work, 
both in testing and recording and also in details of the 
boiler and furnace setting. For instance it is extremely 
difficult, in fact impossible with the usual type of instru- 
ments procurable, to measure exactly the temperature of 
the gases in a boiler setting owing to radiation from the 
thermometer bulb or end of pyrometer element to the 
hot furnace or to the cooler boiler heating surface in close 
proximity. H. Kreisinger, of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, 
Washington, presented a paper to the American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers, in 1917, dealing with this 
subject, in which he gave the probable error, arrived at 
by experiment, in temperature measured by a thermo- 
couple placed amongst the tubes of a water tube boiler as 
from approximately 600° too low at 2000°F. to 40° too 
low at 500°F. when using a common form of pyrometer 
with a Yi" diameter element; also showing that the error 
was proportional to the size or exposed area of the instru- 
ment. The author has had some success with a special 
cap screen surrounding the end of the instrument element, 
that is, measuring success by the higher temperature 
recorded, but in any case there will be some correction to 
make. Even the measurement of the temperature of the 
flue gases leaving the boiler setting is liable to considerable 
error unless proper precautions are taken. 

Again, the opinion was held until recently that an air 
space in the walls of a boiler formed a good heat insulator. 
Actually it is useless and even a disadvantage, as, although 
still air is a poor conductor of heat, the rate of conduction 
is proportional only to the actual difference of temperature 
of the surfaces, whereas radiant heat will pass across the 
air space at a rate proportional to the difference of the 
fourth powers of the absolute temperatures of the two 
surfaces. For low temperatures, as in refrigeration work, 
air spaces are beneficial, but with a high temperature 
difference, the heat transfer becomes very great. 

To obtain a better insulated wall than that of ordinary 
red brick for a boiler setting, special insulating material 
is today often used, either as a middle course between the 
firebrick lining and the outer wall facing, or on the outside 
of the brick wall, but it should be realized that if too 



good an insulation is made, it becomes increasingly difficult 
with certain types of furnaces to get a firebrick lining to 
stand the higher temperature attained. Sometimes the 
entire boiler brick setting is enclosed in a steel casing, but 
this is rather to give a tight seal preventing the infiltration 
of air, which occurs through any ordinary brick wall, 
especially in boilers operated at high ratings with a corres- 
ponding greater draft suction in the setting. The cost 
of these casings is high, but, if properly constructed, are 
of considerable value and in many cases are undoubtedly 
a good investment. If they are used, there should always 
be a course of asbestos or other insulating material between 
the brickwork and the casing, otherwise the radiation 
loss may be increased owing to the metal presenting a 
better radiating surface than the brickwork. 

Furnace Dttty. 

Returning to the furnace and the assumed case, it 
will be seen that, with the same efficiency of combustion 
maintained, since heat will be radiated as quickly as 
generated, the actual apparent temperature will not reach 
the theoretical figure of 2800° until sufficient coal is being 
burned to generate the heat necessary to satisfy the radia- 
tion equation for 2800" in addition to raising the tem- 
perature of the products of combustion to a figure 
dependent upon their rate of liberation. The stage when 
this condition is reached will depend on the area of the 
cool surface exposed to radiation and it does not necessarily 
mean that apparent high furnace temperature is essential 
to high efiîciency, although they will coincide to an 
extent dependent upon the constituents of the fuel. 

In brick lined extension furnaces or when the lower 
row of boiler tubes over the fire are encased in brick tiles, 
as for certain forms of bafiîing, higher temperatures are 
attained at a lower rate of combustion on the grate, but 
this means that the gases also enter the bank of tubes at 
a higher temperature for the same load, resulting in 
a corresponding higher exit gas temperature and conse- 
quently reduced efficiency, while the higher furnace 
temperature shortens the life of the furnace brickwork. 

With such a horizontal bafïïing, there will, of course, 
be radiation from the furnace or hot brickwork to the 
exposed tubes of the gas passage beyond the tiles, while 
heat will be conveyed from the furnace to the lower tubes 
through the encircling tiles by conduction and possibly 
secondary radiation, but following the fourth power law of 
temperature difference the amount will be considerably less 
than for a direct exposure, and it is, therefore, preferable, 
wherever a high furnace temperature is not necessary for 
proper combustion, for a lower horizontal baffle to take 
the form of flat tiles laid on the second row of tubes from 
the bottom so as to gain the full effect of direct radiation, 
which is the most active and, therefore, the most econom- 
ical mode of heat transfer. 

If the furnace efficiency could be maintained constant, 
the temperature of the gases entering and leaving the 
boiler heating surface would increase with increasing 
coal consumption, resulting in a continued decrease in 
overall efficiency as the load increased, but in general 
practice, the furnace and grate efficiency increases with 
the load up to a certain point dependent on the proportions 
of boiler, furnace and grate, so offsetting the drop in 



I 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



115 



efficiency due to the higher flue gas temperature. With 
a standard setting of boiler designed for 10 square feet of 
heating surface per boiler horsepower, or an equivalent 
normal full load evaporation of 3' 2 lbs. per square foot 
heating surface, and a ratio of heating surface to grate of 
about 50 to 1, the maximum efficiency will usually be 
maintained fairly constant from 90*;',', to ISO'x) rating. 
Below 90' c rating the loss in efficiency is chiefly due to 
incomplete combustion in the furnace and grate and 
above 130' ;> rating chiefly due to the increasing exit gas 
temperatures, the furnace and grate having then reached 
their highest efficiency. For other proportions and designs 
of boiler and furnace the point of maximum efficiency will 
be different; for instance, the very complete tests carried 
out on the large Stirling boilers at the Detroit Edison 
Company's plant some years ago showed the highest 
efficiency of over 80% at 75% rating (based on 33^9 lbs. 
normal evaporation rate) and dropping in a straight line 
to 76% efficiency at 200'rp rating. This remarkably high 
efficiency over such a wide range of load was due to the 
exceptionally large combustion chamber, promoting almost 
complete combustion even at low loads; the skilled regula- 
tion and operation; and the small proportional radiation 
loss from the walls with such a large unit. Fig. 2 shows a 
section of one of these boilers. 

The general tendency in modern design is to provide 
greater and greater furnace volume to ensure more com- 
plete combustion before the gases reach the comparatively 
cool boiler heating surface. Not many years ago the ratio 
of cubic feet of furnace volume to square foot of grate 
usually provided was about 3 or 3' 2 to 1- whereas today we 
may have 5I2 or 6^2 to 1 for natural draft stokers and 
even more for forced draft stokers, particularly when high 
overloads are demanded. In the Detroit Edison boilers 
mentioned above the ratio was approximately 9 to 1. 
For horizontally inclined tube boilers this increased com- 
bustion space generally means that the mean height from 
the floor line to the lower tubes over the fire has been 
increased from approximately 6 or 7 feet to 9 or 10 feet 
and over, where conditions permit, and as required by 
the nature and volatile content of the coal, type of stoker 
and duty. 

Convection. 

The best method of passing the gases over the tubes, 
and the relative advantage of different form of baffling 
have been discussed at various times, but it seems reason- 
able that a cross flow over several passes of staggered tubes 
avoids stratification by ensuring the most thorough 
breaking up of the gas currents, with the consequently 
better contact of all particles with the walls of the tubes, 
while with the first pass at the upper end of the tubes, a 
contra flow action to the circulation of the water in the 
boiler is obtained and, at the same time, with a horizontally 
inclined tube boiler, the circulation will be improved, and 
the danger of blistering the lower row of tubes lessened by 
procuring the quick release from the tubes of the steam 
bubbles formed. 

The laws governing heat transfer by convection from 
the gases passing over the boiler heating surface has been 
the subject of many investigations, and formulas have 
been put forward based on mathematical deduction and 



laboratory experiment, but the great majority of these 
formulae, while holding good within the limits of the 
experirnents, are not applicable without considerable 
correction for the conditions existing in a full size com- 
mercial boiler, especially where the gases pass across a 
bank of tubes, in which case the area of the gas passage is 
not constant. In view of the lack of authoritative data 
on the subject, the Babcock & Wilcox Company, a few 
years ago, conducted a series of experiments with a 
specially constructed plant to determine a formulae with 
coefficients which could be depended upon, for the rate 
of heat transfer in boilers. 

The relation of the heat absorbed by convection only 
from the gases to the amount of heating surface passed 
over in a boiler of standard proportions under coal fired 
conditions on the basis of 10 square feet heating surface 
per boiler horsepower is given by the curve. Fig. 3, which 
shows that the great proportion of the total evaporation 
takes place in the first pass of the boiler and very little 
in the last pass ; for this reason it does not pay, with these 
proportions, to increase the heating surface by adding 
another pass. 

A test was published a few years ago of a 4 pass 
boiler in which the actual drop in temperature through 
the last pass was only 67° and even this drop was obtained 
only by reason of the low steam pressure carried (117 lbs. 
per sq. in.). With a steam pressure of 200 lbs. and a 
corresponding less difference of temperature between the 
gases and the water, the flue gas temperature must have 
been higher and the value of the fourth pass still further 
reduced. 

Waste Heat Boilers. 

In direct fired boilers where furnace temperatures 
are high, and the weight of gas per boiler horsepower 
comparatively low, there is not a great deal of difference 
in heat transfer between several different types of standard 
boilers, fire tube or water tube, when new and clean; but 
with boilers arranged to utilize the heat from waste gases 
where larger gas weights are handled, with generally, 
lower temperature differences, the area, length and 
arrangement of the gas passages must be very carefully 
considered in order to obtain transfer rates for an absorp- 
tion comparable to direct fired practice, and so extract the 
maximum heat from the gases with an amount of heating 
surface which will make the installation of a waste heat 
boiler a commercially economical proposition. 

It was principally for such work that the experiments 
on heat transfer above referred to were undertaken, as 
with waste gases, the radiation factor being largely 
negligible, it is possible, with a proper knowledge of the 
laws governing heat transfer, to calculate very closely the 
results that will be obtained with a given boiler and vice 
versa to design a boiler to give the maximum return for 
the investment. 

The results of the investigations are given graphically 
in Fig. 4, which shows the effect of gas velocity on heat 
transfer rates. For ease in computation, owing to the 
variation in density of the gases with the temperature, 
the velocity is considered in terms of gas weight per unit 
area. 



116 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



It will be seen that at low rates of gas flow, as found 
generally in boiler practice, the transfer rates are affected 
by the velocity to a much greater extent than by any 
rate of temperature difference, also that the effect of 
temperature difference increases as the rate of gas flow 
increases. The effect of gas velocity on heat absorption 
had previously been appreciated to a certain extent, but 
its full importance for waste heat work, as brought out by 
these experiments, has led to developments in boiler design 
which has opened up this field to a remarkable extent. 

Up to a comparatively few years ago, when boilers 
were installed to utilize the heat in the waste gases from 
furnaces, kilns, etc., it was the practice to use boilers of 
the same general design as for direct coal fired purposes, or 
even with still larger gas passages in order to interfere 
as little as possible with the draft at the primary furnace. 
This meant working on the upper part of the curve, Fig. 3, 
and necessitated the provision of such an excessive amount 
of boiler heating surface for the steam produced that the 
installation became a doubtful investment. 

Following the better understanding of the laws 
governing heat transfer and the possibility of economies 
from the utilization of a greater proportion of the heat from 
waste gases, this subject has been receiving particular 
attention during the last few years and efficient boilers 
are now in successful operation in connection with all 
kinds of kilns, furnaces and ovens with temperatures as 
low as 1000°F. 

Fig. 5 shows the side elevation of a typical B. & W. 
boiler fitted with a superheater, designed for waste heat 
work. 

The high gas velocities necessary for efficiency in 
waste heat boilers results in greatly increased frictional 
resistance through the setting, the draft loss running in 
many cases to over 2" water pressure and, of course, 
requiring the use of induced draft fans to handle the gases. 
The power required to drive the fan is, however, many 
times offset by the increased e/ïïciency and capacity 
obtained, while, in many cases, the installation of waste 
heat boilers has actually resulted in an increased output 
from the primary furnace owing to the possibility of 
greater draft at the outlet by the use of a fan in place of 
the original chimney. 

Many factors have to be taken into consideration in 
waste heat boiler work, peculiar to the particular nature 
and origin of the gas; for instance the dust held in 
suspension in many forms of waste gases, especially from 
cement kilns, has a considerable influence on the weight 
of gas handled and the draft resistance, and a knowledge 
of the effect of such factors and the proper way of taking 
care of them can only be obtained by experience. 

Modern Boiler Design. 

In modern direct fired boiler design, the principle of 
higher gas velocities is also adopted where advantage can 
be gained, and the tendency is to reduce the heating sur- 
face, or increase the evaporative rate, of the boiler proper 
employing it primarily for steam raising, and adding 
additional independent surface for water heating, in order 
to get a more efficient total heat transfer by the increase 
in temperature difference for a portion of the total heating 
surface. This practically means combining a boiler and 



économiser in one unit proportioned to give the highest 
efficiency and resulting in less total heating surface and 
considerable saving in space and of many of the losses 
incident to the use of separate economisers. 

A cross section of such a boiler is given in Fig. 6., a 
study of which will show that the maximum effect of 
direct radiation is obtained while the hot gases, entering 
the tube bank at the uptake end and passing at right 
angles across the staggered rows of tubes at high velocity 
through the long passages of the boilers and économiser 
fulfil conditions conducive to high efficiency. 

In Figs. 7 and 8 are given two views of one of four 
boilers of this type recently installed at the Montreal 
Tramway Company's plant at Hochelaga, being the largest 
boilers in Canada. Each of these boilers contains .5625 
square feet heating surface in the boiler proper or steam 
raising section and 2909 square feet économiser or water 
heating section, giving a total heating surface for the unit 
of 8534. These boilers are capable of easily generating 
over 40,000 lbs. steam per hour at 200 lbs. per square inch 
steam pressure and 150°F. superheat from a feed water 
temperature of 120°F. It will be seen that the equivalent 
evaporative rate for the boiler proper is as high as 8.75 
lbs. per square foot heating surface, or 5.75 lbs. for the 
whole unit, in spite of which, it is possible to reduce the 
temperature of the gases below what it would be with a 
standard boiler of 3.5 lbs. normal evaporative rate, 
that is to say, with considerably more heating surface. 
Each unit is steel cased, lined with special non-conducting 
material to minimize air leakage and radiation, and fitted 
with double chain grate stokers, having a total grate 
area of 224 square feet. 

An interesting feature in connection with these 
units is the draft apparatus comprising a specially formed 
stack for each pair of boilers, having a constricted throat 
into which a high pressure air blast is delivered through a 
nozzle from a small fan; the action being that of an ejector, 
inducing a suction in the flue connections to the boilers. 

A complete test of these boilers has not been made, but 
in a paper read before the British Insititute of Civil 
Engineers about a year ago, details are given of a test 
made on a boiler of this type, approximately the same 
capacity, but containing 4963 sq. ft. boiler heating sur- 
face and 4086 sq. ft. économiser surface, in which a thermal 
efficiency of 88.33*^^ for the unit was obtained, the exit 
gas temperature being 293°F., and the evaporation per 
sq. ft. boiler heating surface 9.53; while another test made 
in 1916 at the Hague municipal plant with a slightly 
smaller unit gave an overall efficiency of SSAV/', . It 
is probably not possible to obtain such efficiencies with 
the coals usually obtainable here, but it indicates that a 
very high efficiency in steam generating equipment has 
been reached. 

Boiler Efficiency. 

It is to be understood that in a boiler of the usual 
construction, where the temperature of the water in the 
boiler is practically at the temperature of the steam, it is 
obviously impossible to reduce the temperature of gases 
below that of saturated steam at the pressure carried, in 
fact, while it is possible to add heating surface to reduce 
the gas temperature below 100° above the steam, the very 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



117 



low transfer rate resulting from such a small temperature 
difference in the last passes of the boiler does not warrant 
tlie expense of the additional heating surface. 

In a great number of published boiler tests the exit 
gas temperature is given as near the temperature of the 
steam, but such temperatures will usually be found to 
have been incorrectly measured, owing either to air 
leakage around the boiler damper or to radiation, as 
pointed out earlier in the paper. The saturated steam 
temperature referred to in this connection must not be 
confused with the superheated steami temperature leaving 
the boiler when a superheater is installed, as the exit gas 
temperature is often considerably below the superheated 
steam temperature, the superheater coils being placed in 
the high temperature gas zone. 

For a proper consideration of the efficiency of a boiler, 
the steam pressure carried must be taken into account. 
It is not fair to compare the efficiency of a boiler operating 
at, say 100 lbs. pressure with a boiler operating at 200 lbs. 
pressure where the temperature of the boiler heating sur- 
faces differs by 50° and the necessarily increased fiue gas 
temperature results in a greater heat loss with a corres- 
ponding reduction in the efficiency as usually measured. 
For this reason it has been proposed that the efficiency 
of a boiler be measured in terms of its ' true ' efficiency, or 
the ratio of the heat actually absorbed to the heat theo- 
retically available for absorption, which latter value 
corresponds to a reduction of the temperature of the 
flue gas to the temperature of the steam. In the same 
way allowance is made in England and Europe for the 
burning of the hydrogen in the coal which leaves a boiler 
in the form of superheated steam, but which in a calori- 
metric analysis of the coal is condensed and its latent 
heat added in the heat value obtained. The revised heat 
value, corrected for the hydrogen content is termed the 
lower or nett calorific value of the fuel. 



tStokers and Fuels. 

The greatest factor in the overall efficiency of a 
boiler unit lies, of course, in the combustion of fuel 
in the furnace. It is not within the scope of this paper 
to deal with the theory of combustion, and a great amount 
of literature has already been published on the subject, 
but one of the chief causes for inefficient combustion lies 
in the faulty design of the furnace and the lack of volume 
provided for the proper mixing and burning of the gases 
before striking the cool boiler heating surface. With 
hand firing under small boilers, the skill of the fireman in 
keeping an even regular fire is also a big factor, but with 
larger boilers and automatic stokers a great deal of this 
work is taken care of and, if operated intelligently, with the 
aid of recording instruments, a high degree of efficiency 
can be maintained. 

The advantage of automatic stokers for plants of 
over 500 boiler horsepower has now become generally 
recognized and the only question for the engineer to decide 
is what stoker to instal. No type is suitable for all coals 
and conditions of service. Where boilers of a nominal 
evaporative rate of 33^ lbs. are to be forced to high capa- 
cities or where anthracite coal is to be burned, forced draft 
stokers will probably have to be used and in considering 



high overloads, allowance should be made for the extra 
upkeep cost generally entailed and the consequent need 
for reserve boilers. 

Difficulties have frequently occurred through the 
installation of a chimney of insufficient height to freely 
take away the products of combustion from the furnace 
of a forced draft stoker when operating at a high rate, the 
assumption having been made that as there was an air 
pressure under the grate, very little chimney draft was 
necessary. The result has been that a pressure has built 
up in the furnace, causing excessive burning up of the brick 
walls by reason of the hot gases being forced into the 
cracks. A definite suction, say 1/10 inch of water, should 
always be maintained in a furnace of this type and as with 
boilers forced considerably above their rating the resistance 
through the boiler itself becomes considerable, it does not 
allow of much reduction in the height of chimney to be 
provided. 

For steady running on continuous moderate loads, the 
natural draft stoker will probably give the best satis- 
faction; of this type the chain grate is the most common 
and probably the most logical way of burning high volatile 
coals, possessing the advantage of simplicity and ease of 
adjustment to suit the particular grade of coal and load 
conditions. 

In view of the attention now being paid to the utiliza- 
tion of the Western Canadian lignites, it may be of 
interest to mention that a chain grate stoker was in- 
stalled in 1913 in the University of Alberta, having a 
special setting of arches similar to that used in England 
and Europe and very excellent results have been obtained 
with the Edmonton lignites on this stoker, so much so, 
in fact, that several engineers in the Western cities have 
modified their standard stoker settings as far as possible 
to conform to it. A similarly set stoker has recently 
been installed at Moosejaw where the higher moisture 
Saskatchewan lignites will be burned, and from information 
received it promises to also prove satisfactory. 

Fig. 9 shows the typical setting; the essential feature 
being the centre and back arch construction, which, by 
deflecting the gases and reflecting the radiated heat 
towards the front of the grate, drives off the moisture 
from the freshly fed coal. A front coking arch of the 
standard form is of no use for this class of fuel, as the 
excessive moisture prevents it getting hot and so hinders 
the ignition. This arrangement of arches is hardly 
suitable for burning higher grade bituminous coal, as the 
centre arch would generally not stand up for long against 
the higher furnace temperatures, but it has been used 
extensively for low volatile or semi-anthracite coals, 
which cannot be burned satisfactorily with a natural 
draft chain grate stoker with the standard arch con- 
struction. 

Oil and natural gas make excellent fuels in that high 
combustion efficiency and regulation can be easily 
attained with low operating cost and with increased 
cleanliness in the boiler room, but in Canada, oil is 
generally only economically available on the west coast, 
while natural gas is confined to but few localities, and the 
supply limited. 



118 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Powdered coal has been receiving considerable 
attention in recent years. At present the plant required 
for, and the cost of crushing, pulverizing and drying has 
generally limited its use to industrial plants where the 
fuel can be used in heating furnaces in addition to the 
boilers. For satisfactory operation, the coal must be 
pulverized to a degree equivalent to 95*^; through a 100 
mesh sieve and should be dried to contain not more than 
1% moisture. 

A form of extension furnace is commonly used when 
fired under a boiler, the coal dust being fed through one 
or more nozzles into the furnace in a fine cloud. Air for 
combustion is partly carried in with the fuel and partly 
supplied through annular spaces around the nozzles, 
either under pressure or simply drawn in by suction. 
When properly regulated a high efficiency can be obtained 
and coal utilized which would be difficult to burn in the 
ordinary way, but care must be taken to avoid uncon- 
sumed coal being carried over into the boiler and also in 
handling the ash which settles in a molten slag condition 
to the bottom of the furnace, by reason of the high tem- 
perature attained, and which, if allowed to solidify, is very 
difficult to remove. As the finely powdered coal is in a 
highly combustible state, proper precautions must also 
be taken in the storing, distribution and firing to prevent 
explosions. Brickwork troubles, from the high furnace 
temperature has been one of the difficulties to overcome 
with the burning of this fuel. 

Blast furnace gas and by-product coke oven gas can 
be used to great advantage under boilers, a considerable 
advance having been made during the last few years in 
the efficiency obtained. This has chiefly been brought 
about through improvements in furnace design and types 
of burners, while the application of boilers of a similar 
design to those used for waste heat work now promises a 
still greater advance in this field. 

Selection of Boilers. 

The best type of boiler to use in any plant must 
depend upon the conditions of service. For continuous 
steady loads such as in manufacturing plants where 
generally the boiler room does not receive special 
attention for operation, the standard boiler of 314 lbs. 
evaporation per square foot heating surface will usually 
be found to be the best, with an installation of the regular 
separate cast iron economizer where conditions show that 
a saving will be made, and this is usually an easy matter to 
determine. An automatic stoker should also be chosen 
with a view to continuous steady service with the minimum 
cost for upkeep and repairs to stoker and furnace brick- 
work, and suitable for the particular class of coal which 
it is intended to burn. 

In many manufacturing plants some kind of refuse 
can be utilized as fuel which usually requires a special 
form of furnace. Probably saw mills and pulp mills 
are the chief plants in this country where re fuse is burned, 
being then in the form of hogged bark and edgings; 
and a straight extension furnace of the Dutch oven type 
is generally found to be the best, with a large surface of 
hot brickwork to drive off the moisture when, as is usually 
the case, the wood is wet. Step grate furnaces are largely 
used in Europe. To obtain the best results, the areas and 



proportions of the furnace must be carefully designed; 
very often the chief consideration appears to be merely 
to get rid of the refuse without any effort to obtain the 
maximum efficiency, with the result that a considerable 
amount of coal is burned as an auxiliary which would not 
be necessary if the waste were properly utilized. 

For large central stations and public service power 
plants, where floor space is of more value and load con- 
ditions special, the selection of boilers and stokers requires 
more study. In this service the load is usually very 
variable with short heavy peaks and a more elaborate 
lay-out and system of operation is justified. The general 
practice for these plants in the United States has been to 
get more and more out of the standard boilers of lOsq.ft. 
per horsepower normal rating, in conjunction with regular 
economizers, by forcing them considerably during peaks. 
Particular attention is paid to good boiler and furnace 
design, and although the efficiency falls off at the high rates 
of driving, and the upkeep cost of brickwork and stoker 
is considerable, owing to the high furnace temperature, 
the practice has been considered warranted by the advan- 
tages gained. In these plants special precautions are taken 
to supply pure feed water, while expert attention is neces- 
sary for successful operation. In England and Europe 
the practice tends towards the use of boilers of the type 
shown in Fig. 6. 

The proper size of boilers to instal is, of course, 
governed by the size of the plant and the load conditions 
and no fixed rules can be laid down. In the United 
States there are some very large units, considerably 
larger than any installed in other countries, the Stirling 
boilers at the Detroit Edison Company's plant, shown in 
Fig. 2 having a normal rating of 2365 boiler horsepower 
based on 10 square feet of heating surface per horse- 
power. In Canadian plants it will probably be a con- 
siderable time before units larger than 1000 or 1200 
horsepower are warranted. There is a disadvantage in 
putting " too man}' eggs in one basket," as the failure of 
a tube or other cause of shut down means cutting off a 
big source of power and wasting a lot of coal, but in 
operation the efficiency is increased through a reduction 
of radiation and other losses over several smaller units. 

Operation. 

There are comparatively few plants in Canada where M 
a separate water purifying apparatus is installed; for 1 
small plants where moderate loads are carried on the 
boilers, some form of compound can be fed in with the 
feed water suitable for the nature of the water used, but 
as pointed out earlier, the boiler is not the proper place 
to treat the water and where the highest efficiency is 
desired or where boilers are to be run at high rates of 
evaporation, it is essential that the water be treated in a 
separate apparatus. In the most modern stations, the 
tendency seems to be towards the use of evaporators to 
purify the make-up feed water to ensure the absolute 
removal of all impurities, as in marine practice. It is 
not sufficient that heavy scale be prevented from actually 
adhering to the metal of the heating surface, as floating 
scale, which may temporarily lodge in one place, is apt 
to cause burning under high rates of evaporation. Oil is 
one of the most prolific causes for trouble in a boiler, the 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



119 



least sign of it often causing blisters on the boiler heating 
surface exposed to the furnace heat, even under moderate 
loads. 

A trouble whicli may arise, unless proper precautions 
are taken, especially when using as feed water, the con- 
densed steam from a surface condenser, is corrosion in 
the boiler and economizer from the air entrained in the 
water. The latest investigations indicate that it is the 
CO2, and not the oxygen, present in the air which is -the 
active agent in the corrosion and it is necessary that this 
be got rid of before feeding the water to the boilers, either 
by heating and the provision of efficient air escape pipes, 
or by chemical treatment with calcium hydrate (slaked 
lime). The use of air pumps which draw off the water 
and vapour together from surface condensers are particu- 
larly undesirable when the condensate is to be used for 
boiler feed as this water is strongly impregnated with air. 

For efficiency and capacity it is also necessary that 
the outside of the tube heating surface be kept free from 
soot, and mechanical soot blowers are now being used 
to a great extent as an easy means of ensuring rnore 
regular and effective cleaning than is generally possible 
with the somewhat arduous task of hand cleaning with a 
steam lance. 

While it is of first importance that good boilers and 
furnaces be installed, their value is to a great extent lost 
unless the boilers are kept clean and the plant efficiently 
run, and it is impossible to expect intelligent operation 
unless instruments and meters are provided as a guide 
for the operator. The old idea of the fireman telling by 
a look at the furnace if coal was being completely burned 
is obsolete, and, after all, the furnace is only one factor 
of efficient operation, although the greatest. Some 
modern boiler rooms are now fitted with regular control 
boards and instruments by which losses can be immediately 
detected and located and there is no doubt that the cost 
of such indicators and the extra supervision entailed is 
saved many times over in the yearly fuel consumption. 
Coal scales and water meters are necessary for purposes 
of record and check on deliveries, yet they do not by 
themselves ensure efficiency in operation. If ther- 
mometers, draft gauges, flue-gas analysers, etc., are used 
intelligently as a guide for operation, the coal con- 



sumption will take care of itself; and with a proper log 
system, continuous records can be made over extended 
periods under actual operating conditions which are of 
real practical value and not subject to the often mis- 
leading conclusions resulting from short tests. 

Probable Future Develo'pment 

It does not seem likely that there will be any great 
departure in the near future from the present general 
design of lioilers, but the probable adoption of steam 
at higher pressure and temperature in turbines will lead 
to certain modifications with possibly a more pronounced 
segregation of the evaporating and water heating surfaces. 
Several boilers of tiie type shown in Fig. 6. are already in 
service in England, and the United States, under a working 
steam pressure of 350 lbs. per square inch and a steam 
temperature of 700 to 750°F, and others are under 
experimentation up to pressures of 500 and 600 lbs. These 
higher pressures, of course, prohibit the use of any flat 
stayed surfaces in boiler construction, and the very best 
material and workmanship must be employed; but from 
a constructional and operating point of view, higher 
pressures and temperatures will not be governed by 
boiler limitations. 

With regard to methods of construction, welding of 
joints in drums does not at present seem likely to replace 
riveting, although it is receiving some attention and is 
used in conjunction with riveting on some marine boiler 
work. 

During the last few years, several of the Canadian 
provinces have put into force very complete regulations 
to ensure safety in boiler construction and operation and 
an effort is being made for the adoption of a uniform 
code of laws for the whole Dominion. The advantage 
of this, in the protection it would afford to steam users, 
and the possibility of standardisation for manufacturers 
would be very great; while if, in addition, a system of 
control, propaganda and educational work could be 
carried out iDy a fuel administration department, it would 
be of inestimable value to power plant operators and lead 
to conservation of our fuel resources which form a very 
large part in the cost of power production. 



! 
J 

i 
j 
i 
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kOUR ATTENDANCE AT THE ANNUAL 
MEETING WILL HELP TO MAKE IT 
WHAT IT IS EXPECTED TO BE — THE 
LARGEST AND MOST SUCCESSFUL IN THE 
HISTORY OF ENGINEERING GATHERINGS. 



120 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



THE JOURNAL OF 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 

OF CANADA 



Board of Management 

President 

H. H. VAUGHAN 

Vice-President 

J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN 

Councillors 

ERNEST BROWN WALTER J. FRANCIS 

R. A. ROSS 
H. R. SAFFORD ARTHUR SURVEYER 



Editor and Manager 

FRASER S. KEITH 



Associate Editors 

C. M. ARNOLD Calgary 

FREDERICK B. BROWN Montreal 

J. B. CHALLIES Ottawa 

A. R. CROOKSHANK St. John 

A. G. DALZELL Vancouver 

J. N. deSTEIN Rerma 

GEO. L.GUY Winnipeg 

R. J. GIBB Edmonton 

W. S. HARVEY Toronto 

J. A. BUTEAU Quebec 

J. B, HOLDCROFT Victoria 

K. H. SMITH Halifax 

H. B. DWIGHT Hamilton 



Vol. II. 



February 1919 



No. 2 



Summary of Legislation Situation 

At the General Professional Meeting held in Saskatoon 
in August, 1918, the question of Legislation was brought 
prominently before 77)0 Institute for the first time, an 
entire session of the meeting being devoted to this subject. 
In a paper presented at this session and pubUshed in the 
Sept emter issue of The Journal, by F. H. Peters, M.E.I.C, 
of Calgary, a general outline was given of the activity re- 
garding legislation on the part of the western Branches, 
showing that in the west particularly the subject of 
Legislation was a live issue and had aroused a great deal 
of interest. 

At the same session of this Professional Meeting a 
draft act was submitted from the Legislation Committee 
of the Saskatchewan Branch and after discussion was 
referred back to the Committee for certain alterations 
before being forwarded to Council. 

On receipt of this .\ct by Council which was accom- 
panied by a request from the Saskatchewan Branch to be 
allowed to present it at the fall session of the local Legis- 
lature, a special meeting of Council was called and held 
on October 1st, when the entire session was devoted to the 



subject. At this meeting a draft act was drawn up based 
on the Saskatchewan draft, copy of which was forwarded 
to all branches asking for discussion. This draft was 
published in the November issue of The Joiinial, page 331, 
and the Saskatchewan Branch was requested to withhold 
action until all branches had been given an opportunity of 
discussing and making recommendations. An editorial 
on the subject appeared in the November Journal on page 
335. 

As a result of the request of Council to the Branches 
that legislation be discussed at all branches and the fact 
Council endorses the principle of legislation to improve 
the status of Engineers, the question is receiving consider- 
able attention from coast to coast, resulting in a large 
amount of inter-branch and headquarters correspondence 
on the subject. 

A suggestion of the Manitoba Branch that represen- 
tatives of each legislation committee of the various 
branches meet at some central point and agree on a draft 
act met with general approval in the West, it being felt 
that this committee should meet and agree so that the 
question could again come up at the annual meeting. 
Branch news, pages 409-410 of the December Journal 
contain further reference to the subject. Meanwhile, 
it became evident to the members of the Saskatchewan 
Branch that they could secure early legislation and 
consequently they wired headquarters an urgent request 
to be permitted to present a draft act immediately. 
Resulting from this a special meeting was held at head- 
quarters on Tuesday evening, December 3rd, at the call 
of the President, to consider the request of the Saskat- 
chewan Branch, and to receive the report of a special 
committee appointed by the President to confer with a 
special committee of the Mining Institute. At this 
special meeting of Council it was found that the report of 
the special committee was unfavorable to any immediate 
attempt to secure legislation. The draft act submitted 
was found to differ from the draft submitted by Council. 
It was considered necessary to advise the Saskatchewan 
Branch that it was not within the power of Council to 
approve of the act without a mandate from the member- 
ship. Meanwhile the subject has been the foremost topic 
on the part of the Western Branches, and formed the 
subject of discussion at two meetings of the Montreal 
Branch. 

A new draft act revised on December 4th has been 
received from the Alberta Branches where it is believed that 
immediate Legislation can be secured. This act has not 
been critically analyzed by the Council. In a letter from 
Lt.-Col. W. P. Anderson, past President, who was present 
at the meeting of the Edmonton Branch when Legislation 
was discussed, he strongly urges that the branches be 
given authority to secure legislation. 

Correspondence from the Prairie Branches shows that 
there is a strong feeling in favor of early action and that a 
definite policy be formulated not later than the Annual 
Meeting. 

The Montreal Branch resolved that Coimcil be asked 
to arrange for the appointment of a committee representing 
all Provinces and all branches to inquire into, study, and 
report on the whole question of legislation. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



121 



A resolution of the Manitoba Branch held on January 
2nd, reads as follows: " That in view of the necessity for 
prompt action on the question of legislation, the Secretary 
be instructed to write to all of the other branches requesting 
that each appoint a representative with full power to act, 
to attend the coming Annual Meeting to assist in drafting 
a suitable act for presentation to the various Legislatures." 

Victoria and Vancouver Branches have endorsed the 
action of Council in requesting more mature deliberation. 
Hamilton, Toronto, Halifax and St. John all favor a 
general agreement on the question before action is taken to 
secure legislation. 

At the Annual Meeting of the Quebec Branch held 
on December 21st, it was resolved that it was expedient 
and urgent to give as soon as possible the member of The 
Institute an opportunity of expressing their views on the 
necessity of securing legislation similar to that of other 
professions. That uniform legislation should be enacted 
for each province in order to enable the engineers of one 
province to practise civil engineering in another province, 
consequently the Quebec Branch beg the Council to 
immediately frame up a legislation project that would 
meet all the requirements of the situation and then be 
submitted to the different branches; also to secure through 
a referendum the opinion of the members of The Institute 
on the opportunity of having such legislation. 

The Ottawa Branch has appointed a representative 
to confer with the representatives of the other branches, 
and a telegram to the Manitoba Branch included the 
following: "Your letter of January 6th. Managing Com- 
mittee in sympathy with your aims to the end that satis- 
factory legislation should be sought as soon as possible. 
We believe Council must ultimately direct such action as 
should be taken after a representative committee has 
studied and reported on the whole question. We are 
arranging to have a delegate of the Ottawa Branch n^eet 
other representatives here in advance of Annual Meeting 
which is limited to first day of Convention." 

If this meeting is held before February Uth, it will 
provide an opportunity of having the views of all Branches 
presented for discussion at the Annual Meeting. 

Government Considering Salaries 

The Committee of The Institute consisting of W. F. 
Tye, Chairman, H. H. Vaughan, President, and G. Gordon 
Gale, Chairman of the Ottawa Branch, were pleased with 
the courteous reception they received from the Honorable 
Dr. Roche, Chairman of the Civil Service Commission, 
when they met the Commission to advise regarding the 
grading of salaries of engineers in the employ of the 
Government. Not only was consideration promised of 
the suggestions made, but the committee was requested 
to make definite recommendations. 

P. H. Myers, Acting Chief of Staff Organization 
Branch, Civil Service Commission, who has charge of 
drawing up schedules for salary classifications has expressed 
his appreciation of the advice given, and in thanking the 
Committee for the information, stated that he would 
probably have occasion to accept the kind offer of further 
assistance. 

No Railway Rebates 

In response to a request to the Eastern Canadian 
Passenger Association for consideration of rebates on 
passenger tickets to the Annual Meeting at Ottawa, the 



following letter was received, showing that no rebates will 
be available. 

Dear Sir:^ 

The carriers feel that conditions brought about by 
the war, viz.: shortage of labor and coal, abnormal de- 
mands on transportation equipment and power for the 
handling of returning troops and foodstuffs, do not permit 
relaxation at the present time of existing restrictions on 
passenger travel. Reduced fares mean increased travel 
and, therefore, for reasons stated above, regret to advise 
you that no reduced fares will be made for special occasions 
during the year 1919. 

Yours truly, 

G. H. Webster, 
Montreal, Jan. 14th, 1919. Secretary. 

Ontario Provincial Division 

The Ontario Provincial Division is now established, 
and it is expected that a meeting of the Executive Com- 
mittee will take place at an early date for the purpose of 
electing a chairman and secretary-treasurer or secretary 
and treasurer. The Executive Committee have suggested 
Peter Gillespie as chairman pro-tem. 

The personnel of the Executive Committee is as 
follows: — 

Councillors: — J. R. W. Ambrose, M.E.I.C., Toronto; 
Peter Gillespie, M.E.I.C., Toronto; E. D. Lafleur, 
M.E.I.C, Ottawa; G. A. McCarthy, M.E.I.C, Toronto; 
John Murphy, M.E.I.C, Ottawa; James White, M.E.I.C, 
Ottawa; M. H. MacLeod, M.E.I.C, Toronto. 

Representi7ig Ottawa Branch:—]. B. Challies, M.E.I.C, 
Ottawa. 

Representing Toronto Branch: 
M.E.I.C, Toronto. 

Representing Haniilton Branch: 
M.E.I.C, Hamilton. 

Representing SauU Ste. ]\Iarie Branch: — W. S. Wilson, 
A.M.E.I.C, Sault Ste. Marie. 

Nan- Resident Members: — Major W. H. Magwood, 
A.M.E.I.C, Cornwall; G. R. Munroe, A.M.E.I.C, 
Peterboro; J. L. Morris, M.E.I.C, Pembroke; R. J. 
McClelland, A.M.E.I.C, .Kingston; G. H. Bryson, 
A.M.E.I.C, Brockville; A. C D. Blanchard, M.E.I.C, 
Niagara Falls; T. H. Jones, M.E.I.C, Brantford; J. L. 
Weller, M.E.I.C, St. Catharines; S. B. Clement, M.E.I.C, 
North Bay; James A. Bell, M.E.I.C. St. Thomas; R. L. 
Dobbin, A.M.E.I.C, Peterboro; L. M. Jones, M.E.I.C, 
Port Arthur; V. A. Bélanger, A.M.E.I.C, L'Orignal 

Water Resources Conference 

A most important Conference of Dominion and 
Provincial Engineers was held in Ottawa on January 16th 
and 17th, under the auspices of the Dominion Power 
Board, of which the Hon. Meighen, Minister of the 
Interior, is Chairman. A. St. Laurent, the Vice- 
Chairman of the Board, presided, pointing out as the raison 
d'être of the meeting that the recent crisis regarding both 
fuel and power had iDrought the tremendous importance of 
both very prominently to the front, and had shown with 
greater force than ever the necessity among other things 
of developing and conserving our water powers to the 
utmost. The first step to this end, seeing that various 
authorities are handling the problem in different parts of 
Canada, is to, as far as possible, arrange their methods and 



Geo. Hogarth, 
E. R. Gray, 



122 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



organizations along similar lines, viz., the standardization 
of field and office methods and equipment, uniformity of 
publications, both in matter and arrangement, period to be 
covered by each, etc., etc. 

The administrative end also had to be considered, 
with a view to making the requirements and regulations of 
all the authorities concerned, whether Federal or Pro- 
vincial, as uniform as possible. 

There were present at the Conference: 
H. G. Acres Chief Hydraulic Engineer, Hydro 

Power Commission, Ontario. 
Arthur Amos Chief Engineer, Hydraulic Service, 

Quebec. 
R. J. Burley Engineer, Reclamation Service, 

Ottawa. 
E. F. Drake Director, Reclamation Service, Ottawa. 

C. O. Foss Chairman, N. B. Water Power Com- 

mission. 
T. W. Gibson Deputy Minister, Crown Lands, 

Ontario. 
H. W. Grunsky. . Legal Adviser, Dominion Water- Power 

Branch. 
J. T. Johnston. . . Assistant Superintendent, Water- 

Power Branch. 
E. B. Jost Engineer, Department of Railways 

and Canals. 

R. S. Kelsch Consulting Engineer, Montreal. 

O. Lefebvre Chief Engineer, Quebec Streams Com- 
mission. 
K. H. Smith Chief Engineer, Nova Scotia Water- 

Power Commission. 
R. G. Swan Chief Engineer, British Columbia 

Hydrometric Survey. 
Wm. Young Comptroller of Water Rights, British 

Columbia, 
together with the following Ottawa Members of the 
Power Board, viz.: 
A. St. Laurent (Vice-Chairman). W. A. Bowden. 

D. B. Dowling. B. F. Haanel. 
C. N. Monsarrat. John Murphy. 

J. B. Challies (Secretary). 

As a basis for a uniform system of locating any and 
all water resomxes, and analyzing and fihng all data of 
whatever kind concerning them, which is the first requisite 
to co-ordinated working, there was laid before the meeting 
a Water Resources Index-Inventory, designed by the 
Dominion Water Power Branch, and which the Dominion 
Power Board submitted as one which would suit the needs 
of any and all authorities concerned with water investi- 
gation, whether Federal or Provincial. The basis of the 
system is the dividing of the country into its main or basic 
drainage basins, with sub-basins and other divisions, detail 
maps, a card index system, and a folder equipment, samples 
of all of which were shown those present, the whole forming 
an indexing and filing system adaptable to the needs of all 
the various organizations concerned with any type of 
water investigation or administration. The Joumai hopes 
to publish a full description in an early issue. 

After a lengthy discussion as to how various local 
requirements would be covered by the system, the result 
of which was to show that it was of such a flexible and 
comprehensive nature as to cover practically any needs 
that were likely to arise, and in view of statements by 
several of those present that they already had the system 
in use in their offices, in whole or in part, a resolution was 



passed by the conference recommending its adoption by 
all Federal and Provincial authorities concerned, and 
further, to facilitate its adoption, that an explanatory 
monograph on it, accompanied by maps, diagrams, etc., 
be prepared for general distribution. 

Meteorological data, as a fundamental branch of 
water survey, was discussed at some length, it being 
pointed out that continuous and complete meteorological 
figures were often of inestimable value in deciding as to 
the water likely to be available for either domestic, 
irrigation, or power purposes. A Resolution was passed 
aiming to help the efforts being made to extend the work of 
the Meteorological Service. 

The next matter considered was the co-ordination 
of the work of investigating water resources, it being 
pointed out that in view of the fact that several Federal 
and Provincial organizations were at work on the same 
matter, in different sections of Canada, it would greatly 
help if their field and office procedure and their equipment, 
and finally their publications, could all be largely stand- 
ardized, both as to form and contents. As a simimation 
of the discussion a resolution was passed recommending 
the yearly publication of hydrometric data, each report 
to cover a climatic year, October 1st to September 30th; 
and to include daily discharge records, but not daily 
gauge heights, except in those special cases where they 
are obviously necessary. The Power Board is to prepare 
and distribute a key map showing the territories covered 
by the different organizations and surveys. The other 
details though were thought to be so many and so complex 
as to require further consideration, and so it was decided 
to leave them to later conferences, one in the West and one 
in the East, after which a plenary conference at Ottawa 
woud make final recommendations on the whole subject. 

The final matter before the meeting was that of 
Water Power Regulations, the question being introduced 
in the form of a Report prepared by H. W. Grunsky. 
As the subject is an exceedingly large one, and the report 
most comprehensive, it was felt that it was impossible to 
do anything but discuss the main divisions, six in number, 
viz.: nature of franchise, control of stock and bond 
issues, rentals, renewal pro\'isions, extent of properties 
taken over if license terminated, and compensation there- 
for, in a preliminary way, leaving any decision thereon to 
a future meeting. The discussion covered such points as 
sale versus rental, limited versus indefinite franchise, 
nominal or substantial rentals, uniform regulations, 
etc., etc., after which the meeting adjourned, first deciding 
that after the organizations more particularly concerned 
had gone further into the matter, the Dominion Pov/er 
Board should call another conference on the subject. 

As has been so clearly demonstrated during the last 
few years, one of the fundamental requisites to the stability 
and growth of any country is a supply of cheap and depend- 
able power. Canada fortunately possesses the natural 
sources for this, from coast to coast, in the form of either 
coal or water, and with a permanently constituted medium 
like the Dominion Power Board aggressively at work on the 
problem of co-ordinating the efforts of the various bodies 
engaged in seeing that these resources are handled to the 
best advantage, there can be no doubt as to the further 
progress of the Dominion, as far as water power is con- 
cerned. To those who were responsible for the conference, 
The Journal extends'î heartiest congratulations on the 
splendid results achieved. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



123 



CORRESPONDENCE 



The Diving Bell Again 

Editor, Journal: 

I note in the December, 1918, issue of The Journal, 
a letter from Mr. J.J. MacDonald in reply to my letter of 
October 24th, 1918, with reference to the Caisson used at 
Halifax Harbor. In his letter Mr. MacDonald assumes 
that his brief reply clears up the issues raised by me. 
It would be interesting to know the name of the individual 
who actually originated the idea of using the outfit of the 
type employed, and whether the design of the walls was 
prepared, having in view the use of a caisson of the parti- 
cular type used. 

Mr. MacDonald asserts that the device used by me in 
Hamilton was lacking in novelty, so far as the regulation 
of draft is concerned. In making this statement, Mr. 
MacDonald is either speaking without information as to 
the actual facts, or deliberately misrepresents them. 
The device, as used by me here, was capable of being used 
in depths of water varying between 1 foot 6 inches and 
7 feet, and with slight structural modifications, not 
affecting the principle of the apparatus, this depth could 
have been increased. The method of obtaining this 
difference in draft is not in any way fundamentally different 
from that used in the Halifax outfit. Mr. MacDonald 
calls the outfit used here, simply a scow with a bottomless 
central well for working about three feet below the surface, 
and asserts that any change in draft was impossible. 
This is not the case. The fact that the Halifax device 
rested on the bottom when working has nothing whatever 
to do with the buoyancy and water ballasting principles 
of the apparatus, except in so far as it aids in maintaining 
the equilibrium of the apparatus when in operation. 

The principle of the bottomless central well is insepar- 
able from diving bells of caissons in any form used in 
construction work, as a matter of fact, the long air shafts 
as applied to Mr. MacDonald's device for use in deep 
water is not at all original as applied to deep water marine 
work, and the form of the lower part of the caisson is of the 
general type used on bridge pier foundations. The only 
parts of the device apparently for which Mr. MacDonald 
claims originality, are the buoyancy and water ballast 
chambers. The use of such chambers was made by me on 
the device used here for floating and moving the outfit 
when required and for carrying water ballast to increase 
the dead weight of the apparatus and for regulating the 
draft of the caisson or bell when in operation. 

The matter of the exact name or names which are 
applied to the device does not alter their functions in any 
way, and whether Mr. MacDonald calls his device a 
mobile, pneumatic caisson, or diving bell, or simply a 
plain floating caisson, as the writer prefers, does not matter 
and does not affect the fundamental principle in any way. 
Strictly speaking, the word bell should not be applied to the 
device, the diving bell proper, so called from its approxi- 
mate similarity in outline to a bell, has no air lock or shaft, 
and depends for its ballast on its own dead weight, being 
suspended in the water from suitable hoisting and lowering 
apparatus placed above water. 



As Mr. MacDonald refers to European practise, it is 
relevant that I should refer to it also from personal 
experience in my own particular case. Probably the most 
extensive recent work carried out by the diving bell type 
of this device was the construction of the break waters at 
the Dover Naval Harbor by the contractors, S. 
Pearson & Son of London. The principles of its operation 
are too well known to require explanation here. Another 
device of the type of caisson proper with a shaft and air 
lock was that used at Plymouth Harbor by the contractors 
for the removal of a large rocky shoal there for the 
Admiralty. The writer was at one time a member of the 
staff of the company carrying out this work, so does not 
need to generalize or use text book information. In this 
particular outfit, the air shaft passed through a well in 
the centre of a large steel scow, which was filled with air 
compressors, etc., and the air driven rock drills were 
carried on a track in the working chamber, which was 
larger than in the Halifax outfit. This particular device, 
however, was ballasted by the dead weight of the scow 
When it was desired to float the caisson the ballast con- 
nections between the scow and caisson were liberated and 
the air pressure in the caisson brought it towards the 
surface. This device was simple and stable in all condi- 
tions, and was able to withstand quite a heavy sea, but did 
not depend for its ballast on excess dead weight or water 
ballast, there being no buoyancy or water ballast chambers 
attached. The caissons used in dock wall construction 
at Antwerp and other ports are of the type which become 
a part of the permanent structure and are not. strictly 
speaking, part of the construction machinery or plant. 

The writer is quite familiar with the use of ballast and 
buoyancy chambers as applied to sliding gates for dry 
docks, etc., but this device is not adapted for construction 
purposes, and is not generally movable beyond the limits 
of its berth. The water is simply expelled from a section 
of the gate, which is built much of the same shape as a 
ship's hull, in sufficient quantity to permit the gate to 
lift slightly clear of the sill, and float to one side endwise, 
not at all an intricate device fundamentally. Mr. 
MacDonald apparently overlooked the application of 
ballast and buovancy chambers to our late friends the 
" U " Boats. 

The writer would be interested in knowing of a case 
where this principle is applied to scows carrying construc- 
tion plant in tidal waters as Mr. MacDonald states, and 
what purpose this is supposed to serve. The writer is 
awai'e of a self-dumping deck scow of Norwegian origin, 
which unloads its deck cargo by alternately flooding and 
unwatering portions of the subdivided hull, but this has 
no bottomless central well, and he fails to see where the 
flooding and emptying of the hull of an ordinary scow, or 
use of a bottomless central well, presumably for the purpose 
of turning air in it, serves any purpose. 

Mr. MacDonald states that the problem of flota- 
tional stability while in a submerged condition was entirely 
absent, etc. A little superficial examination will correct 
this statement. Has Mr. MacDonald made any actual 
calculations in support of this statement, or is this merely 
an unsupported assertion ? 

As a matter of fact, the question at issue between the 
device used at Halifax and that used at Hamilton, is 
which had priority of design, construction and operation. 



124 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



and whether the principle of attaching compartments to a 
self-contained movable caisson, or as Mr. MacDonald 
also calls it, bell, to be used for construction purposes under 
water, and on which the compartments referred to can be 
loaded with water to provide additional ballast, or emptied 
by any suitable means to provide buoyancy or maintain 
quilibrium in a floating condition is the exclusive monopoly 
of either apparatus or is common to both. The exact 
shape of the caisson or the compartments or the position 
of the latter relative to the working chamber does not 
affect the principle of the device. Mr. MacDonald says 
the use of water ballast was not an essential principle of 
the device used here. Water ballast, as a matter of fact, 
was a prime necessity, when in operation. A heavier 
scow, as Mr. MacDonald asserts would not have served 
the purpose. The jise of water ballast did not regulate 
the draft so that it could pass over the piling, as Mr. 
MacDonald asserts, but rather the absence of water 
ballast permitted this to be done. Mr. MacDonald 
makes this statement: " In order to float the Halifax 
caisson when it was required to be moved, the buoyancy 
chamber was added and this was its only function." 
Does this mean that the buoyancy chamber shown on 
figure 5, page 254 of the October issue of The Journal of 
The Engineering Institute, is not also used as a ballast 
chamber by the admission of water into it, and is it not 
the case that the ballast chamber, as indicated in the 
same drawing, is also, when required used as a buoyancy 
chamber, and that this is simply a matter of juggling with 
names. 

The Hamilton apparatus was finally designed in May, 
1913, and put in operation in August, 1913, as previously 
stated, and Mr. MacDonald states he got the idea in 
1913, the exact month not being stated, and the design 
was got out in 1914, rather a remarkable coincidence, to 
say the least. 

In my previous letter in connection with this matter, 
which was written somewhat hurriedly, I made an error 
in dictation and got the relative position of the meta 
centre and centre of gravity in the device used here, 
misplaced, fortunately these points were misplaced only 
in my letter and not in the actual apparatus. The theory 
of the equilibrium of floating bodies to ensure stability, 
in other words to make sure of them floating right side up, 
is no doubt more or less generally understood by engineers. 

Yours very truly, 

John Taylor, A.M.E.I.C. 
Hamilton, Jan. 11th. 



Institution of Civil Engineers 

Dear Sir: 

I am in receipt of your letter of the 4th December, 
and as, owing to the Christmas recess, it will not be 
practicable to place it before the Council of The Institution 
until January, I hasten to express on their behalf and on 
that of the whole body of this Institution, the very cordial 
appreciation with which the greetings of The Engineering 
Institute of Canada are received here, and to reciprocate 



the kindly and sympathetic expressions of good will con- 
tained in your letter under acknowledgement. 
I am. 

My dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

J. H. T. TUDSBERY, 

Secretary, 
The Institution of Civil Engineers, 
Great George Street, 
Westminster, S.W., 
England. 

Overseas Correspondence 

Christmas Day, 1918. 

Members will be interested to know that a great many 
replies have been received from our overseas men acknowl- 
edging the cigarettes and Xmas greetings sent them. 
A few of the many are published below. 

Dear Mr. Keith:— 

I did not answer your last letter in the summer 
as we were fairly busy, and it did not get any easier in 
the fall until the 11th of November, when things eased 
up for most of the Armies, but not for us. 

The " hun " has planted a great deal of delay action 
mines in the railway embankments, yards, stations, 
bridges, culverts, etc., and in the roads, houses, churches, 
and large buildings, also in all the ammunition trains, 
and dumps which he was leaving behind him, and we had 
to search for them, locate them if we could, and then 
draw them. The ones in the ammunition were in the form 
of ordinary looking nose caps set in howitzer shells, and 
had very very little to distinguish them from the other nose 
caps in the other shells. These mines were of a chemical 
mechanical action set at varying periods, and on operating 
set off the shell in which they were screwed, and that 
made the train or the dump blow up. 

We off-loaded the trains and spread the shells over the 
fields about ten feet apart so that one going off would not 
be likely to explode the others. We spread out the diunps 
in the same manner over large areas, and then anyone 
who wanted to could start in and unscrew the caps until 
he found a delay action one. We were in a town that was 
a Ijig railway junction and there were a large number of 
dumps and trains on the railways, and as these kept going 
up at any hour, it was interesting work trying to get 
them unloaded before they unloaded themselves in a very 
abrupt manner. Not very many of these nose caps were 
found at the right time, but I have one which is intact, 
except that the acid is poured out of it, and if you think the 
Institute would care to have it, I will give it to you. I enclose 
a descritpion of a short delay action fuze, the one I have 
is the long delay action fuze with the red gaine mentioned 
in the first paragraph. 

My fyle of " Mining Notes," " Military Engineering " 
and " Field Work Notes," is a fairly complete one and 
would be of interest to the members of our Institute as 
showing some of the works we did and the things we built. 
They were made up or invented by engineers in the 
different units and descriptions sent in to G.H.Q., 
where they were compiled and those of value were issued 
to all the other units. There was little or no Military 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



125 



enKineerin,c: that was of use to us at the beginning, and 
we had to invent things for ourselves. Many of them will 
appear futile and clumsy, but they were effective as a rule, 
and handy, and when it is considered that they had to be 
made in the field with whatever material we could find, 
mostly under shell fire, a lot can be excused. 

In our attack on the Hindenburg line we had a little 
amusement, and I was awarded the D.S.O. This would 
not appear in the " Canadian Gazette," as the Imperial 
authorities had me transferred from the Canadian Army 
to the " Royal Engineers " of the Imperial Forces, as from 
January 1st, 1918. 

The present of cigarettes was received from The 
Iiistitule, for which I beg to tender my very best thanks, 
and I will close by wishing all a very happy New Year. 

Yours very truly, 
Major William T. Wilson A.M.E.I.C, D.S.O., M.C., 
" O.C.," Tunnelling Company, R.E., 

B. E. P., France. 

The Mount Hospital for Officers, 
Parkstone, Dorset, 

January 1st, 1919. 
Dear Sir:^ 

I am enclosing the post card found in the box of 
cigarettes which you were so kind to send me again this 
Christmas time, and I also wish to add a few words to 
thank you for your thoughtfulness. It is exceedingly 
good of the Institute to remember us again in this way, and 
I appreciate it more than I can say. 

As you will see I am in the hospital due to one of the 
Boche's machine guns locating me and sending me back 
to Blighty. This happened just before Albert was taken 
in August last year, and my left hand suffered in conse- 
quence, but now it is well on its way and in a few months 
time, I hope to have complete use of it. 

All Canadians, like the rest of the Allied forces, will 
be rejoicing over the great news of these last two months, 
and what it means to us all . One certainly has good reason 
to be thankful whether having taken part or not, and when 
one sees just what France has suffered these last four 
years we should be more than thankful that we were 
victors. Christmas time this year has been a very happy 
one for those who have not suffered in lost ones, and in the 
knowledge that it is all over at last. 

Great excitement has prevailed over President 
Wilson's visit and all it means to the Peace Conference. 
England has given him a most rousing reception and has 
strengthened the ties that the war has started. 

Allow me to wish The Institute, through you, a most 
happy and prosperous New Year, and that nineteen 
hundred and nineteen will be a real victory year in all 
ways. 

Thanking you again for you Christmas gift, I remain, 

Most sincerely yours, 
2nd Lieut. J. E. Jaffary, 

34 Redford Place, 

Russell Square, 
Holborn, London, England. 



Just received your very welcome gift of cigarettes 
for which very many thanks. We are trying to put in 
our time here preparatory to sailing for England enroute 
for Canada. The gods be praised its all over but the 
shouting and the paying. 

Sincerely yours, 

Sergt. H. P. Heywood, 
No. 1039092, 3rd Can. Ry. Tps., 
A. P. O., 

Longon, England. 

I desire to acknowledge with many thanks the receipt 
of the parcel of cigarettes. With best wishes for the 
future. 

Sincerely, 

Lieut. Thomas H. Bacon, 
Hdqrs., Jura Group, 

Can. Forestry Corps, 
B.E.F., 

France. 

Received cigarettes, also kind wishes from fellow 
engineers, in Canada. Kindly convey my best thanks, 
also best wishes for The Institute during nineteen hundred 
and nineteen. I hop2 to hz with you again next year, as 
soon as my duty towards my country (.-Canada) is finished. 

C. G. Read, Jr., E.I.C., 

" Ravensbourne," 

Victoria Road, Teddington, 
Middlesex, England. 

Very many thanks for the splendid gift of cigarettes. 
Best wishes to The Institute for nineteen hundred and 
nineteen. 

Yours sincerely, 

Lieut. G. E. Bell, M.E.I.C, 
49 Kidbrook Park Rd., 
London, S.E. 3, 
England. 

Please convey my very best thanks to the members of 
The Institute for the most acceptable Xmas gift and kind 
wishes. 

Yours truly, 

Lieut. W. Reynolds, 
282 Coy. R.E.. 
B.E.F., 

France. 



Many thanks for kind remembrance. 
a personal call at 176 before very long. 



Hope to make 



Yours truly. 

Captain A. C. Reid, A.M.E.I.C, • 
R.A.F. Seaplane Base, 
(Late R.N.A.S.), Dover, England, 



126 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Many thanks for card and smokes, they were both 
much apreciated. 

Yours truly, 

Major E. W. Reed-Lewis, A.M.E.I.C, 
6th Batt., Can. Ry. Tps., 
B.E.F., 

France. 

May I express my best thanks to The Engineering 
Institute of Canada for the cigarettes, and especially for 
the kindly thought which prompted so acceptable a gift. 
Yours truly. 

Captain P. A. Ablett, M.E.LC, 

Director Board of Administration, 
Ministry of Munitions, 
32 Nassau Street, 

Dublin, Ireland. 

I thank the Council and members of The Institute 
for their greetings and good wishes at this time, which I 
cordially reciprocate. All members overseas will appre- 
ciate, I am sure, the kindly spirit which prompted the 
sending of a remembrance at this season. 
Yours truly, 

Victor F. Murray, A.M.E.I.C, 
c/o Park Cottage, 
N. Union Street, 
Cupar Fife, 

Scotland. 

Your cigarettes have arrived safely and have been 
greatly appreciated. My best wishes and thanks to The 
Institute for them. 

Major G. R. Evans, 

55th Field Company, 

Royal Engineers, 

B.E.F., 

France. 

Very many thanks for the kind thoughts expressed by 
sending the parcel of cigarettes which I have received in 
good condition. 

Yours truly, 
Engr. Lieut. Chas. Stephen, A.M.E.I.C, 
24 Handfield Road, 

H.M.S. " Glorious," 

Waterloo, Liverpool, 
England. 

Many thanks for your kind remembrance in the form 
of cigarettes which we received at a most convenient time. 
Best regards for the prosperity of The Institute in the 
coming years. 

Arthur J. Edwards, S.E.I.C, 

I wish to acknowledge with grateful thanks receipt of 
cigarettes. Wishing you a very happy New Year. 
Yours truly, 
Lieut. Philip A. Fetterly, A.M.E.I.C, 
Can. Ry. Tps. Dept, 
Witley Camp, 

Surrey, England. 



The cigarettes arrived safely this morning for which 
many thanks. It makes us realize that we are not entirely 
forgotten by our home friends as we sit on the banks of the 
Rhine here. The wish for a speedy victory expressed on 
your card has been fulfilled, and it should'nt be long now 
before we are all back clamouring for positions in the 
engineering world again. Best of good wishes to the 
Institute. 

Yours truly. 
Major A. A. Anderson, J.E.I.C, 
2nd Can. Div. Signal Co., 

Bonn, Germany. 

Many thanks for your thoughtful gift of cigarettes, 
which came at a time when they were practically unob- 
tainable in this part of France. Kindest greetings to all 
your members of the various grades. 
Yours truly. 
Captain R. McKillop, A.M.E.I.C. 
13th Light Ry. Operating Coy., 
B.E.F., 

France. 

The writer has much pleasure in acknowledging 
receipt of smokes together with the season's greetings from 
The Institute, and mshes you all the compliments of the 
season. 

Yours truly. 
Major A. R. Ketterson, A.M.E.I.C, 

No. 1 Canadian Constr. Corps, 
Can. Rv. Tps., 
C.E.F., 

France. 

Beg to acknowledge with many thanks your thought- 
file remembrance and well wishes. 

Sincerely, 
Stafî-Sergt. W. W. Dynes, J.E.I.C, 
No. 2260308, 

Can. Forestry Corps, S. 5, 
B.E.F., A.P.O., 
London, England. 

In acknowledging the remembrance of cigarettes from 
The Engineering Institute of Canada I wish to add a word 
of appreciation which I feel is due to those who are bearing 
the burdens at home while we are away. Many of them 
are making ends meet on fixed salaries that have not 
risen with the cost of living, and at the same time they 
are sending remembrances to us, they are supporting 
Red Cross and Patriotic Funds and are in many other 
ways denying themselves. 

We, over here, appreciate this, and for this reason 
value he more highly the remembrances sent us. 

Now that our work over here is finished, we await 
with impatience the time when we may return again to 
take up the burden alongside you, and to share the 
economic burdens and problems brought into being by the 
war. 

Yours sincerely, 

Floyd K. Beach, A.M.E.I.C. 
8th Batt., 

Can. Ry. Tps., 
B.E.F., 

France, 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



127 



REPORT OF COUNCIL MEETING 



The reijular monthly meeting of the Council was held 
at headquarters on Tuesday, January 21st, at 8.15 p.m. 

After confirming the minutes of the previous meeting, 
the Executive Committee report was presented, the result 
of one special meeting and three regular meetings held since 
the last meeting of Council. 

The special meeting of the Executive Committee was 
called to discuss the whole question of The Institute'.'^ 
publications and the functions of the committees dealing 
therewith. In that connection the following recommenda- 
tions were made, all of which were approved: 

Tranmctions: — That The In.'itiiiiie publish the Tran- 
sactions every year, consisting of papers selected by the 
Publications Committee. Approved. 

Papers Coinini tee: — That the Papers Committee shall 
be responsible for obtaining papers, either through the 
Branches or from authors direct, and for their allocation 
to Branch or Profes ional Meetings. Approved. 

Journol: — That the Board of Management of The 
Journal, which is the Executive Committee of the Council, 
shall decide whether papers shall be printed in The Journal, 
either in advance or as a report of a Branch or Pro- 
fessional Meeting, and whether they shall be published in 
full or in abstract. Approved. 

Publications Committee: — That the Publications 
Committee shall decide what papers shall be printed in 
the Annual Transactions and will advise regarding their 
form and editing. Approved. 

Technical Press: — That papers read before The 
Institute, either at a Branch or Professional Meeting shall 
be issued to the technical press on application to the 
Secretary of the Institute, it being a condition of their being 
given, that the technical press state the meeting at which 
the paper was read, and give the author's title in The 
Institute, aftr his name. Approved. 

Annual Meeting: — That the suggestion of the Pro- 
fessional Meeting Committee that invitations to the 
Annual Meeting should be sent to His Grace the Duke of 
Devonshire, the Ministers of the Departments of Public 
Works, Railways and Canals, Marine, Interior; to the 
Chairman of the Railway Commission and to the Presi- 
dents of the three big railway systems, and the Executive 
Committee's instructions to the Secretary to send these 
invitations be approved. Approved. 

That the letters from Comfort A. Adams and Ira N. 
HoUis accepting invitations to Annual Meeting be noted. 
Noted. 

That Council note the cable received from Col. C. H. 
Mitchell, D.S.O., expressing his inability to be present at 
the Annual Meeting and approve of its being read at the 
Annual Meeting. Approved. 

Legislation: — That Council approve the instructions 
to the Secretary to make a summary of the correspondence 
re legislation and the draft Act received from the Edmon- 
ton and Calgary Branches for presentation at the meeting 



of Council and that he publish an editorial in The Journal 
which would give the membership a general idea of the 
legislation situation in the different Branches and in view 
of the activity in the Western Branches, that Council 
approve of their being asked to send a delegate to the 
Annual Meeting to constitute a special legislation com- 
mittee. Approved. 

Salaries of Government Engineers: — That Council 
note the correspondence in connection with the salaries 
of engineers in the Civil Service and give full approval 
of the course pursued by the Committee, in meeting the 
Civil Service Commission and forwarding a letter to the 
Hon. Dr. Roche recommending a certain standard of 
salaries and giving specific recommendations regarding 
positions in the Department of Public Works as an exam- 
ple, this letter being signed by President H. H. Vaughan, 
J. M. R. Fairbairn, Vice-President, Lieut. -Col. Leonard, 
President elect, and W. F. Tye, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee. Noted. 

Ontario Provincial Division: — That Council approve 
the instructions given the Secretary to send a letter to 
each of the three Ontario Branches, giving the personnel 
of their executive committees, and suggesting Professor 
Peter Gillespie as temporary Chairman to elect officers ; 
also to note that the Ontario Provincial Division had 
thus been established. Approved. 

Sault Ste. Marie: — That the application to form a 
Branch at Sault Ste. Marie be noted and that approval be 
given to the instructions to the Secretary to visit Sault 
Ste. Marie in this connection; also approval to the 
formation of the Branch and their election of Officers, as 
follows: — Chairman, J. W. LeB. Ross; Secretary-Treas- 
urer, L. R. Brown, Executive Committee, R. S 
McCormick (two years) B. E. Barnhill (two years), 
A. G. Tweedie, J. H. Ryckman. Approved. 

Wi7idsor and Peterboro Branches: — That the corres- 
pondence with reference to the formation of Branches at 
Windsor and Peterboro, Ont., be noted. Noted. 

Resolutions of the Toronto and Quebec Branches: — 
That the secretary prepare a memorial to the Government, 
embodying the resolutions of the various Branches, with 
a view to submitting it at the earliest possible moment. 
Approved. 

Investigation Committee on Cement: — That Council 
approve the appointment of R. S. Stockton, by the 
Calgary Branch, on the Committee for Investigation of 
Disintegration of Cement, to replace H. Sidenius, de- 
ceased. Approved. 

Joint Committee of Technical Organizations: — That 
Council approve instructions to the Secretary to write 
W. G Chace and all the Branches, in view of the letter 
received from Mr. Chace in answer to the Secretary's 
letter transmitting Council's decision to withdraw upport 
from the Joint Committee of Technical Organizations. 
Approved. 

That Council approve the Reports of Committees, 
the Report of Council for 1918 and the Annual Reports 
of the Branches for 1918, as follows, also instructions 
to the Secretary that these be published in the February 
issue of The. Journal and that the following Branch 
officers be approved: — Calgary Branch, Chairman, G. W. 
Craig; Secretary-Treasurer, C. M. Arnold; Executive 



128 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Committee, Wm. Pearce, A. S. Dawson, F. H. Peters, 

B. L. Thome, A. S. Chapman; Representatives to Alberta 
Div sion, F. H. Peters, S. G Porter; Auditors J. S. 
Tempest, R. C. Gille pie; Quebec Branch, Chairman, 
A. R. Decary; Secretary-Treasurer, J. A. Buteau; Execu- 
tive Committee, F. T. Co e, J E Gibault W. Lefebvre, 
A. E. Doucet, A. Amos S. S. OHver; Hamilton Branch: 
Chairman, E. R Gray; Secretary-Treasurer, H. B. 
Dwight; Executive Committee, E. H. Da ling, J. A. 
McFarlane; Victoria Branch: Chairman, W. Young; 
Vice-Chairman, R A. Bainbridge; Treasurer, E. Davis; 
Secretary, J. B. Holdcroft; Executive Committee, E. 
Everall, N. A. Yarrow, D. O. Lewis, R. W. Macintyre; 
Auditors, A. F. Mitchel , W. M. Stokes; Saskatchewan 
Branch: Chairman, H. S. Carpenter; Vice-Cha'rman, 

C. J. Yorath; Secretary-Treasurer, J. N. deStein; Execu- 
tive Committee, H. R. Mackenzie, W. R. Warren, J. R. C. 
Macredie A. R. Greig, H. Mclvor Weir, L. A. Thornton, 
G. D. Mackie St. John Branch: Chairman, C. C. Kirby; 
Secretary-Treasurer, A. R. Crookshank; Executive Com- 
mittee, G. G. Murdoch, G. G. Hare, C. O. Foss, A. Gray. 
Toronto Branch: Chairman, A. H. Harkness; Secretary- 
Treasurer, W. S. Harvey; Executive Commttee, H. G. 
Acres, Willis Chipman, W. A. Bucke, H. E. T. Haultain, 
J. R. W. Ambrose, R. O. Wynne-Roberts, Peter Gillespie. 
Approved. 

Programme of the Ottawa Meeting: — That the pro- 
gramme drawn up by the Ottawa Professional Meeting 
Committee as submitted be approved. Approved. 

Memorial to Ontario Government: — That the copy of 
the Memorial submitted to the Provincial Secretary by 
the Toronto, Hamilton and Ottawa Branches with the 
letter by the Secretary of the Toronto Branch, be noted, 
and the Memorial published in The Journal. Noted. 

That in view of the desire of the Sault Ste. Marie 
Branch to have affiliates appointed to their Executive 
Committee, the Secretary be instructed to write that 
Council in recommending imiform By-Laws, wishes to 
have them adopted as uniformly as possible by the 
various Branches, but is wil ing to recommend a change in 
the By-Laws to read, that affiliates may hold Branch 
office. Approved. 

A'ominating Committee: — That the nominees to the 
Nominating Committee be approved as follows: — St. 
John Branch, C. O. Foss; Halifax Branch, J. L. Allan; 
Vancouver Branch, Newton J. Ker; Quebec Branch, 
Alex. Fraser; Ottawa Branch, A. A. Dion; Hamilton 
Branch, H. U. Hart; Toronto Branch, Geo Hogarth; 
Victoria Branch J. B. Ho'.dcroft. Approved. 

_ Engineering Index: — The offer made by the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers for supplying the index 
was considered reasonable and its approval recommended. 
Approved. 

Representation on Board of Fire Vnderwriters: — 
Alexander Potter, M.E LC, was nominated as repre- 
senting The Institute on the Board of Fire Underwriters 
for specifications of Fire Tests. Approved. 

That the report of the committee on The Institute 
emblem as submitted by its chairman, Walter J. Francis, 
be approved, for submission to the Annual General 
Meeting. 



A large number of letters were presented and their 
contents noted. 

Classifications: — Classifications were made for a 
ballot returnable February 25th. 

The following elections and transfers were effected: — 

Members. 

Albert Johnson Barnes, B.Sc, of Halifax, since 1911, 
superintendent of Traffic, Maritime Telegraph and 
Telephone Company, Halifax; Ira Percy MacNab, S.B., 
of Halifax, since 1915, mechanical superintendent of the 
Nova Scotia Tramways and Power Company, Halifax; 
John S. Misene , of Dartmouth, N.S., chief engineer and 
assistant manager of the Acadia Sugar Refining Com- 
pany, Halifax. 

Associate Members. 

John Griffith, of Woolwich, England, assistant 
superintendent Building Works Department, Royal 
Arsenal, Woolwich, England; Richard Crosby Harris, 
with the C. P. R. for twelve years in various capacities, 
at present time resident engineer at Medicine Hat, 
Calgary and Edmonton, Alta.; John William Houghton, 
of Winnipeg, in civil life, with the dept. of City Light and 
Power, since 1917, Captain in the C.EF.; William 
Goldsmith Jones, of North Vancouver B.C. since 
1916-18, overseas n the C.F.A., at present, representa- 
tive Imperial Munitions Board at Wallace Shipyard, 
N. Vancouver, during instaLing of engines, boilers, etc., 
in HM.T. War Cayuse and H.M.T. War Atln; Alan 
Thomas Macdonald, of Kentville, N.S., resident engineer 
with the Halifax Ocean Terminals, since 1917, Major, 
1st Bataillon, C.R T., France; William Blain MacKay, of 
Halifax, five years member of firm Farquhar Bros., Ltd., 
Halifax; Richard Lewis N xon. B.Sc. of Kentville, N.S., 
since 1916, lecturing in King's College, on mechanics, 
drawing, surveying and mathematics, in absence of regular 
professor overseas; Walter Kingston Scott, of Montreal, 
since 1912, Structural Draftsman with Phoenix Bridge 
Company; George Leslie Stephens, of Halifax, with the 
Royal Canadian Navy for seven years, at present, 
engineer officer of H.M C. Naval Depot, Halifax. 

Transferred from Associate Member to Member. 

Cecil Rainsford Crysdale, M.C., of Vancouver, 
B.C., since 1916, Major Canadian Engineers and 
Tramway Company, B.E.F., previous to enlistment, 
asst. div engineer, with the Pacific Great Eastern Ry; 
Ernest Howard Darling, (graduate of S.P.Sc.) , of Hamilton, 
Ont., in private practice as consulting engineer on bridges, 
buildings, reinforced concrete, structural steel and indus- 
trial engineering. 

Transferred from Junior to Associate Member. 

Wilfrid Ernest Hobbs, of East Kildonan, Man., 
since June, 1918, Captain, 13th Company, Canadian 
Forestry Corps, B.E.F., on aerodrome construction; 
David Whittaker, o Pincher Creek, Alta. joined the 
Canadian Overseas Railway Construction Corps in 1915, 
1917, received commission with the Royal Engineers. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



129 



BRANCH NEWS 



Saskatchewan Branch 

J. N. deStcin, M.E.I.C. Secij.-Treas. 

Since the kist contribulion to The Journal from our 
Branch, the question, which had been uppermost in our 
minds, namely, legislation, has not advanced one iota. 
We had an Act ready to submit to the Legislative Assembly 
of this Province and a delegation appointed to interview 
the Executive Council of the Government, and it was hoped 
to get it presented as Government measure. But our 
Parent Council thought the question should be submitted 
to the membership at large— and in deference to their 
wishes we refrained from carrying out our intentions, 
which, unfortunately meant the postponement of legis- 
lation for another year. 

Right from the outset (Professional Meeting at 
Saskatoon), we endeavored to get joint action by at least 
the Western Branches, and that means the Western 
members of The Institute. But we seemed unable to 
carry it out, and through no fault of our own. Though 
we sent copies of the draft of our Act to every Branch of 
The Institute and kept the Western Branches posted as to 
changes, progress, etc., yet, except a few days ago, we did 
not receive the copy of a single Act from any of the other 
Provinces. Recently the Edmonton Branch wa, courteous 
enough to send us a copy of the proposed "Alberta Act." 

It was the writer's opinion from the very inception of 
" proposed legislation," that nothing satisfactory could 
be achieved, except by a meeting of representatives of 
Branches, who would have to have full authority and 
would have to be thoroughly posted on the question. 
And then it would have required a few days of steady 
" grind " together, preferably with the assistance of an 
able lawyer. This opinion was voiced by the undersigned 
at our December meeting, and his motion to that effect 
carried. We got immediately in touch with all the 
Western Branches by wire, trying to arrange a meeting 
of representatives of Western Branches as outlined above. 

A satisfactory Act drawn up at that time, could have 
been submitted to the present sessions of the Legislative 
Assemblies of the Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan 
and Alberta and, no doubt, the Parent Council would not 
have refused their consent to an Act adopted by the 
Western membership of The Institute. The three 
Prairie Provinces might have had satisfactory Legis- 
lation this year. 

But the invitation to the meeting was turned down — 
and now comes the Montreal Branch and practically 
suggests the same in a resolution passed on December 
1918, of which fact the other Branches and Provincial 
Divisions were not acquainted until January 9th, 1919. 

It is nearly six months since the Saskatchewan Branch 
was instructed at the Western Professional Meeting at 
Saskatoon to complete the Act and send copies of same to 
all the Branches of The Institute, and we are just now 
where we started from! Why the delay ? I do not think 
we have maintained the reputation of Western aggressive- 
ness ! 



And if the Committee, as suggested by the Montreal 
Branch, should materialize, let it waste not any more 
valuable time, but get together and " do something!" 

As the Duluth Engineers Club in an invitation, dated 
December 28th, 1918, to form a Union of Engineering 
Societies, so ably remarks : "The time to do this is now ! . . . 
We should not lose the momentum we have gained!" 
Which remark perfectly fits the situation concerning 
legislation. 

Our Annual Meeting, January 9th, at Regina, saw 
representatives from every city of our Province and was 
very successful. Several visits had been arranged for the 
outside members and we hope that our Annual Meeting 
will be quite an event in the future. H. S. Carpenter, 
our newly elected Chairman, very ably presented a paper : 
" Can Earth Roads be made Satisfactory," another 
important and interesting contribution to our study of the 
problem of " Good Roads." The Secretary had read a 
paper at the December meeting on " Remarks concerning 
Rural Roads," and our February meeting has again the 
promise of a valuable paper on the road problem in our 
Province. 

The members seem to have taken quite an interest in 
the exhaustive study of this timely question. 



Manitoba Branch 

Geo. L. Guy, M.E.I.C. Secy.-Treas. 

A meeting was held on January 8th at the Engineering 
Building, Manitoba University, at which consideration of 
the new by-laws for the section was taken up. A Com- 
mittee of the local Branch had been working for some time 
on a revision of these by-laws and a proposed draf^ had 
already been submitted to the members for consideration. 
Subsequent to the issue of this draft the new by-law pro- 
posed by Headquarters had appeared in The Journal. 
Professor Brydone-Jack, Chairman of the Committee on 
By-laws, gave a brief address on the proposed new by-laws 
pointing out where they differed from the by-laws pro- 
posed by the head office. There being no points on which 
these two drafts essentially differed it was decided to 
consider the amended draft, clause by clause, and at the 
same time to consider the points in which they differed 
from the Headquarters draft. Considerable discussion 
took place and several minor amendments were proposed. 
Motion was finally passed that these by-laws be sent back 
to the Committee with instructions to make the necessary 
alterations, and that the draft be then submitted to 
Headquarters for approval. 

On January 11th, a luncheon was held at the Fort 
Garry, at which an address was given by Ex. Controller 
Puttee on labor and its position with regard to re-organi- 
zation after the war. Mr. Puttee, who is well known in 
labor circles in this city, gave an excellent address which 
was listened to with considerable interest. 

At a meeting held in the Engineering Building, 
Manitoba University, on January 15th, a paper was read 
by Theo. Kipp, M.E.I.C, on the " Engineer as a Factor 
in the Development of Agriculture in Western Canada." 
The paper was of considerable interest to the Members and 
a good discussion followed. 



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JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Among the business transacted at tliis meeting was the 
passing of a resolution endorsing the action of the Mani- 
toba Branch of the Mining Institute of Canada in sub- 
mitting to the Government a protest against the present 
method of granting mining Hcenses in Manitoba by 
Order-in-Council, and requesting that same be altered to 
Crown grant by Parliament. The Propaganda Committee 
was instructed to co-operate with the Mining Institute in 
this matter. 

W. M. Scott, M.E.I.C., gave notice o'' motion that at 
the next meeting consideration be given as to the best 
disposition of the railway line of the Greater Winnipeg 
Water District, which, owing to the completion of the 
pipe line, is now being considered with reference to whether 
this line should be disposed of or operated under the 
Water District management. 

Guy C. Dunn and J. M. Leainy were appointed as 
official representatives of the Branch to represent them 
at the next general meeting. 

Owing to the influenza epidemic no meetings were 
held during November and December. 

On December 21st a luncheon was held at the Fort 
Garry Hotel at which over sixty members were present. 
A presentation of a fob with solid gold charm and fasten- 
ings, suitably engraved, was made to A. W. Smith, late 
Secretary of the Branch. The presentation was made by 
W. P. Brereton, Acting Chairman, who, in a short speech, 
expressed the appreciation of the Branch for Mr. Smith's 
valuable service, to which Mr. Smith replied in a happily 
worded speech. 

After luncheon the members visited the tunnel under 
the Red River, which is being constructed by the Greater 
Winnipeg Water District. 

On January 2nd, the first meeting of the year was 
held at the Engineering Building, Manitoba University. 
Con iderable business was put through, including the 
election of officers for the ensuing year; W. P. Brereton 
and Geo. L. Guy being elected Chairman and Secretary- 
Treasurer, respectively, by acclamation, and A. H. O'Rielly 
and R. W. Moffatt as Auditors. Nominations were also 
made for the Executive Committee. 

A vote of condolence was tendered to the Secretary- 
Treasurer, Geo. L. Guy, oh his recent bereavement in the 
death of Mrs. Guy. 

A resolution was passed nstructing the Secretary 
to write to each Branch of The Institute requesting them 
to appoint a delegate to attend the next annual meeting 
of The Institute in Ottawa, to arrange for proper legis- 
lation to be presented to the various Legislatures at an 
early date, for the registration of Engineers. The motion 
was made by J. G. Sullivan, Chairman of the Legislative 
Committee, and was carried unanimously, the Executive 
being authorized to appoint a representative for this 
Branch. 

An interesting paper was then read by W. J. Dick, 
M.E.I.C. on " Reconstruction." Considerable discussion 
took place after the paper, and a Committee was 
appointed to co-operate with the Winnipeg Board of 
Trade on forth-coming reconstruction problems. 

A full programme has been arranged for the coming 
season, many interesting papers having been promised. 



It is hoped by the success of the short season before us to 
make up for the time lost owing to the recent epidemic. 

+ * * * 

The soft water for Winnipeg, which it was anticipated 
would be delivered by Christmas, has been delayed owing 
the late delivery of certain castings, but it is hoped the 
water will be available early in the year. 

Chas. F. Gray, local Associate, was elected Mayor 
of Winnipeg at the recent elections by an overwhelming 
majority. 

W. A. Duff, Chairman o' the Branch, who has been 
absent from the City for some time, owing to illness, 
returned for a short time and was welcomed by many of 
the Members. It is hoped that the will shortly return to 
Winnipeg permanently. 

Grasping an Oppoiiunittj. 

The action of the Manitoba branch of The Engineering 
Institute in deciding to take a more keen and active 
interest in matters afïecting public welfare calls for 
commendation. It indicates the trend of the times, that 
problems vitally affecting the future of the nation are 
drawing the attention of the right type of men. In other 
words, the practical as well as the theoretical men are 
becoming interested. There is little chance of anything 
" getting past " the engineers save that which will be 
backed by the best brains in the country on any given 
subject which has to do with advancement along en- 
gineering lines. There will be none of the political 
element in any of the recommendations which they may 
make. If a power line is suggested or a waterway advised 
it will not be recommended until the men best qualified 
to know its feasibility have pronounced upon it. There 
will be no wholesale recommendations for roadbuilding in 
certain constituencies. Neither will there be any moves 
to spend the public money on bridges which from a 
utilitarian standpoint give way to the spectacular. It is 
verj^ easy for a semi-public body to recommend the 
government to do certain things which, on the surface, 
appear feasible and are pleasing to the ear. It is, however, 
another thing for the promoters of such an idea to be able 
to show the government how the fundamentals of such a 
plan are possible in conformity with the need of the greatest 
possible economy in the use of public money. From this 
standpoint the engineers are at a great advantage. They 
will not recommend any plan until they find it is feasible 
and reasonably economical. 

But the best sign of all is that these men have been 
induced to come out publicly and offer their valuable 
services in advising federal, provincial and municipal 
authorities on important matters. . The value of this 
cannot be overestimated. — Winnipeg Free Press, Jan. 17. 

St. John Branch 

.1. E. Crookshank, M.E.I.C. Secy.-Treas. 

The Annual Meeting of the St. John Branch was held 
in the old Post Office Building, January 14th, at 8 p.m. 

The members present were the Chairman and Secre- 
tary, and Messrs. Archibald, Baxter, Cameron, Dufresne, 
Hare, Hatfied, Kirby, and Macdonald; also the follow- 
ing visitors: B. Allen of Dept. Ry. & Canals Cape 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



131 



Tormentine; G. B. Ballantyne, F. M. Barnes, J. L. 
Heans. H. D. Macaulay, T. W. Russell and K. Vavasour, 
a total of seventeen. 

The minutes of the meeting of May 7th, at which 
the present officers were elected, were read by the Secre- 
tary, who also read the minutes of the meetings of 
October 7th and November 21st, which were then 
approved. 

The Chairman then appointed Messrs. Archibald and 
Cameron to act as scrutineers. 

The Secretary then read his report, which was adopted 
on motion. 

On motion of Mr. Kirby, seconded by Mr. Hare, 
D. L. Hutchinson's application was received, and he was 
elected an Affiliate of the Branch. 

The Chairman then introduced G. S. Baxter, and 
called upon him to read his paper, entitled "A Con- 
tractor in a Clyde Shipyard." The paper had been 
carefully prepared, was interesting and well illustrated 
l)y photographs and diagrams. It dealt with the work of 
remodelling, bringing up to date and enlarging the existing 
facilities of the shipyard to allow of the construction of 
the largest steamer built up to that time, 1911. This 
comprised (1) the construction of several ways, with 'he 
use of concrete keel blocks, each served by two sets of 
guyed stiff leg full circle cranes; (2) the equipping of the 
material yard with railway tracks served by overhead 
travelling cranes, straddling a track with storage space on 
each side and a radial gantry 136 feet long, pivoted near 
the centre and swinging an angle of 180 degrees at the 
rear of one of the raised traveUer crane rails; (3) the 
lengthening of two fitting out berths so that the new 
vessel would not stick out into the river and interfere 
with navigation. This necessitated the sinking at head 
of a slip within three fee of a railway track and near a 
heavy building of three curved caissons, with steel cutting 
edges and working chamber, brick superstructure 
with a horizontal concrete arch forming the core and tie; 
(4) the building of a steel sheet pile retaining wall and 
timber pile wharf, after the removal of the old existing 
structure. A hearty vote of thanks was tendered to Mr. 
Baxter by the Chairman for the presentation of his paper. 

The report of the scrutineers was then read, and they 
stated that twenty-three ballots had been received, one 
was rejected, as improperly marked, that C. C. Kirby 
had received the plurality of votes for Chairman, 
A. R. Crookshank for Secretary- Treasurer and G. G. 
Hare and C. O. Foss for E.xecutive Committee 
members. The Chai man then declared these gent- 
lemen elected, and welcomed Mr. Kirby to the chair. 
Mr. Kirby in reply, thanked the members for honouring 
him and then referred to the General Professional Meeting 
that is plarmed for this fall, and a^ked hat each memlaer 
begin to think seriously about the matter, to make plans 
for preparation of papers, entertainment, etc., and to 
impart all suggestions to the Executive, so that this 
meeting should be worth while. He then called for a 
vote of thanks, which was unanimously given to Mr. Gray 
for all the effective hard work he had done for the Branch 
during the past year. 



Mr. Gray stated he appreciated the kindness of the 
Meeting and referred to the conscientious work done by 
the other officers of the Branch. He then strongly em- 
phasized the necessity of each and every member turning 
out to the meetings, and to give their active assistance 
and support to the officers in this work, " For the Branch 
can only be a success, if each member works." The New 
Brunswick turnout and the part St. John men played in 
the Halifax General Professional Meeting showed what 
St. John men can do when they try, so if we all work 
together the meeting this fall should be equally successful 
as the Halifax one. Mr. Gray then had to leave to catch 
his train for home. 

The new Chairman then asked the Secretary to read 
the communications. A number of letters were then 
read by the Secretary. 

Under new business it was decided to have the present 
and the proposed revised by-laws mimeographed and 
distributed to members of the Branch. Moved by Mr. 
Baxter, seconded by Mr. ArcWbald, that the Executive 
Committee draw up a set of by-laws based on those re- 
commended by the Council and that would be applicable 
to our Branch. Carried. Notice of motion of change in 
by-laws was given by the secretary, seconded by Mr. 
Macdonald, as follows: " That the fee paid by Affiliates 
be $5.00, the same to include the subscription to The 
Journal for the concurrent year." 

On motion the meeting then adjourned at 11.20 p.m. 

Sault Ste. Marie Branch 

/,, R. Brown, A.M.E.I.C. Secy.-Treas. 

The first meeting of the Branch was held in the 
Y.M.C.A. on the evening of January 9th with about 
thirty engineers in attendance. Fraser S Keith, Secre- 
tary of The Institute gave a brief outline about the aims 
and objects of The Institule and of its history and present 
organization for the benefit of prospective members. 

The following Executive was elected for 1919: — 
Chairman, J. W. LeB Ross; Secretary- Treasurer, L. R. 
Brown; Executive Committee R. S. McCormick, B. E. 
Barnhill, A. G. Tweedie, J. H. Ryckman. 

It was resolves that a meeting be held on the last 
Thursday of each month. A membership committee 
was appointed from the various industries. W. S. Wilson 
was elected representative on the Ontario Provincial 
Division. F. F. Griffin read a paper entitled Efficiency 
Acceptance Tests on a 3200 H.P. Water Turbine. 

The next meeting was called for January 30th. 



Quebec Branch 

J. A. Buieau, A.M.E.I.C. Secy.-Treas. 

At the Annual Meeting of the Quebec Branch the 
following officers were elected: Chairman, A. R. Decary; 
Secretary-Treasurer, J. A. Buteau; Executive, F. T. Cole, 
J. E. Gibault, W. Lefebvre. 



132 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



The past Chairmen of the Branch are A. E. Doucet, 
A. Amos and S. S. Oliver. Alex. Fraser, 16 Aberdeen 
Street, has been appointed a member to represent the 
Quebec Branch on the Nominating Committee. 

Vancouver Branch 

.1. a. Dahell, A.M. E.I. C, Scc'y.-Trcas. 

A meeting of the Vancouver Branch was held on 
December 13th, 1918, at which a paper, illustrated by 
lantern slides, on The Detroit Tunnel, was read by 
C. T. Hamilton, A.M.E.I.C., and an interesting discussion 
took place. 

A resolution was passed approving the action of the 
Council at Montreal regarding proposed legislation. 

At an Executive meeting of the Branch it was decided 
to prepare a memorandum to be presented to the Local 
Members of Parliament regarding the rating of engineers 
by the Civil Service Commission. A copy of this memor- 
andum has been sent to all Branches of The Institute. 
A delegation waited upon H. H. Stevens and S. J. Crowe, 
M.P's. for the Vancouver District and presented 
the memorandimi, and favourable consideration was 
promised. 

A general meeting was held on January 17Lh, and the 
communications from the Montreal and Manitoba 
Branches regarding legislation considered. After dis- 
cussion it was decided to endorse the attitude of the 
Montreal Branch with the addition of the word 
" promptly " in the sentence of their resolution — " to 
inquire into, study and report {'promptly) upon the whole 
question of legislation, etc." 

It was decided to send a delegation to interview the 
Premier of the Province to suggest that the proposed 
Public Utilities Commission of the Province should 
consist of : one lawyer, one accountant, one qualified 
engineer. 

A discussion took place regarding a local civic issue : — 
the control of the watershed area of the waterworks 
system of Vancouver and adjoining municipalities, and 
it was decided to submit a resolution to the City Council, 
suggesting that a commission of three engineers be 
appointed, to consider the whole question of the watershed 
area, its development and future control, and to report 
to the Council so that prompt action could be taken to 
preserve the rights of the citizens. 

The Secretary of the B-anch was appointed to repre- 
sent The Institute on the Civic Re-construction League. 

A vote of condolence was passed to be sent to the 
relatives of the late Colonel Bodwell, and express the 
sympathy of the Branch in the loss of an esteemed 
colleague, and a true representative of the Canadian 
Engineers who have served the Empire. 

From the last statement of membership the strength 
of the Branch is as follows: Members 47; Associate 
Members, 72; Juniors, 7, Students, 4; To.al, 130; and 
ou of this number the following have served or are 
still serv ng the country, in Army o Navy: Members, 14; 
Associates, 23; Juniors, 3; Students, 3; Total, 43. 



Montreal Branch 

Frederick B. Brown, M.E.I.C, Sec'y.-Treas. 

The Montreal Branch programme fo; the session, 
January to April, 1919, has been issued showing that a 
mee ing will be held every Thursday evening at 8.15, 
this being the catchword used on the programme and 
also on , he announcements of weekly meetings, the only 
exception being February 13th, when the Professional 
Meeting in Ottawa will be held. 

On January 9th an interesting paper on Fire Pre- 
vention was read by Cieorge H. Greenfield. On January 
16th, B. O. Eriksen, A. M.E.I.C, read a paper, prepared 
by himself and S. H. Deubelbeiss, A.M.E.I.C, which 
was completely illustrated by slides, on The Design and 
Construction of Reinforced Concrete Viaducts at 
Mileages 0.9 and 1.8 North Toronto Sub-Division, 
Canadian Pacific Railway. Following this paper, W. F. 
Chipman, K. C, chairman of the National Reconstruction 
Committee, gave an eloquent address on the problems 
facing Canada, in which he pointed out the necessity for 
not only a broader policy but for immediate action. 

On January 23rd the meeting of the Branch was held 
at the headquarters of The Institute, with R. M. Hannaford 
in the chair, when J. A. Burnett, A.M.E.I.C, read a paper 
on Coaling Plant for Locomotives, followed by a treatise 
on Industrial Illumination, by George K. McDougall. 

The programme for the remainder of the session, as at 
present outlined, is: — 

Jan. 30— Coal Briquetting, by Paul Seurot, M.E.I.C. 
Coal is King (a motion picture), by R. E. Cleaton Com- 
pany. 

Feb. 6 — Some Problems in Ocean Transportation, by 
A. W. Robinson, M.E.I.C. Manufacture of Nitro- 
Benzol and Aniline Oils, by G. J. Caron, J.E.I.C 

Feb. 20 — Construction of Canadian Northern Railway 
Tunnel, Montreal, by J. L. Busfield, A.M.E.I C 

Feb. 27 — The Effect of Ice on Hydro-Electric Plants, 
by R. M. Wilson, A.M.E.I.C. 

March 6— Air Drills, by N. M. Campbell, A.M.E.I.C. 
The Halifax Explosion from a Chemist's and Physicist's 
\'iewpoint, by Dr. Howard Bronson, F.R.S.C Burroughs 
Adding Machines (a motion picture), by Burroughs 
Adding Machine Company. 

March 13— Electrical Welding, by C V. Holslag. 
Patents and Engineering by Hanbury A. Budden, A.E.I.C. 

March 20— Ball Bearing Jacks, by W. H. C Mussen. 
A.E.I.C Peat, by Ernest V. Moore, A.M.E.I.C. 

March 27 — Some Notes on the Design and Construc- 
tion of Reinforced Concrete Covered Reservoirs, bv 
R. deL. French, M.E.I.C. 

April 3 — The Operation of Railways as an Engineering 
Problem, by V. I. Smart, M.E.I.C. 

April 10 — Waterproof Paper Productions and their 
Industrial Possibilities, by J. A. DeCew, A.M.E.I.C. 

April 17 — Quebec Bridge, by Phelps Johnston, 
M.E.I.C, G. H. Duggan, M.E.I.C, George F. Porter, 
M.E.I.C. 

April 24 — Continuation of Paper of April 17th. 



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JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OP CANADA 



133 



Calgary Branch 

C. M. Arnold, M.E.I.C., Sec-Treasurer. 

The Annual General Meeting of the Branch was held 
in the Board of Trade rooms on the afternoon of Saturday, 
December 7th, 1918. 

The meeting was preceded by a luncheon, at which 
twenty-five members were present. During the interval 
between the luncheon and the meeting, the candidates 
for Mayor gave short addresses, touching on matters 
particularly of interest to the engineer. 

A. S. Dawson was elected to act as Chairman in 
the absence of Mr. Pearce, and owing to the indisposition 
of the Secretary, the position was filled by the Assistant 
Secretary, M. H. Marshall. 

The Chairman called the meeting to order and called 
for the minutes of the last general meeting to be read. 
These were adopted and signed by the Chairman. 

Communications were read from the Secretary of the 
Parent Institute, dealing with badges and new certifi- 
cates, and also canvassing for Associates. 

Accounts. — Septimus Burnand, $1.50. 
Campbell Floral Co., $10.00. 

Moved by P. Turner-Bone, seconded by G. N. 
Houston, that these be approved. 

Applications to join the Branch were received from 
four candidates with results of elections as noted : — 
George S. Deslandes Elected Associate of Branch. 

T T-. ivi /- II fElected with status of Associ- 

J^^f !"• M'^Call I atg of Branch, with recom- 

cnarles Howartn . mentation for election to 
George Phillip Frederick] j.,^^ institute as Associate 
^o^se [ Members. 

Reports. — A. S. Dawson, Chairman of the 
Concrete Committee, stated that he had not as yet 
prepared a written report, but would do so. He gave a 
short resume of the work that had been done to date. He 
wished to nominate R. S. Stockton as a member of 
this Committee to fill the vacancy caused by the death of 
Mr. Sidenius. Moved by Mr. Peters, seconded by 
Mr. Marshall, that Stockton be elected. Carried. 

Mr. Peters, Chairman of the Legislation Committee' 
stated that he had not prepared a report as the matter was 
fully discussed at the recent general meeting of the Branch. 

In the absence of Mr. Arnold, Secretary-Treasurer, 
his Annual Report was read by the Assistant Secretary, 
and is appended as part of these minutes. 

A financial statement was submitted showing that 
the Branch was in a good financial position. 

On the motion of the Chairman, seconded by Mr- 
Houston, the report was adopted, and the financial report 
was approved subject to auditor's certificate being given 

Elections. — The ballots for Officers for the ensuing 
year were counted by Scrutineers Gillespie and Chapman, 
who reported the following officers elected: — 

Chairman G. W. Craig Member. 

Sec-Treasurer CM. Arnold 



t- „„. X- fWm. Pearce Member. 

E'^^^^^^^ive |a. S. Dawson. . . .Past Chairman. 

F. H. Peters Member. 

B. L. Thorne 

A. S. Chapman. . .Assoc. Member. 

Executive Alberta/F. H. Peters Member. 

Division \S. G. Porter 

A„^;+«,.o /J- S. Tempest. . . .Assoc. Member. 

^^^^^^^^ \R. C. Gillespie. ... " 

Mr. Craig was given a hearty reception upon assuming 
his new duties and made a short address, dealing with the 
desirability of publicity on engineering matters. This 
branch News seems to be crowded up more than the 
others. 

General Business.— Mr. Marshall drew attention to 
the fact that one of the most important matters to come 
before the new City Council was that of Sewage Disposal, 
and suggested that this was a question that could very well 
engage the attention of the Branch this session. After 
some discussion, Mr. Craig promised to present a paper on 
the subject, and it was arranged after the matter had been 
fully discussed to give one or two public lectures, presented 
in a manner intelligible to the ordinary citizen. 

The Branch will also take an active interest in any 
town planning or housing scheme the city may undertake. 

It was announced that W. J. Gale, Associate 
Member, offered a mounted beaver to the Branch, and 
suggested that it be placed in a prominent public place 
as " The First Engineer." The Secretary was instructed 
to thank Mr. Gale for his offer, which was accepted, and a 
suitable inscription would be arranged for. The matter 
would be dealt with by the E.xecutive. 

On the motion of Mr. Dawson, it was decided to send 
a Greeting to members of the Branch on Active Service. 
It was decided to leave the matter in the hands of the 
Chairman and Secretary to do what was considered best. 

The meeting adjourned at 4 p.m. 



J 



(2[T THE SASKATOON 
ivi MEETING THE PRESENCE 
OF LADIES, WIVES AND 
FRIENDS OF MEMBERS WAS 
APPRECIATED. A SPECIAL 
PROGRAMME OF ENTERTAIN- 
MENT HAS BEEN ARRANGED 
FOR VISITING LADIES BY 
WIVES OF OTTAWA MEMBERS, 
OTTAWA, FEB. Uth, 12th and 13th. 






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134 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



PERSONALS 



Sask. 



the 



O. W. Smith, M.E.I C. (a member of the 
Branch) is spending the winter at Victoria, B.C. 

E. W. Murray, A.M.E.I.C. (a member of 
Sask. Branch) has gone to Montreal for the winter. 

W. A Mather, A.M.E.I.C , has been appointed 
general superintendent, C. P. Ry., at Moose Jaw, Sask. 

C. H. Fox, A.M.E I.e., who has recently returned 
from overseas, has been appointed to Mr. McKenzie's 
position as resident engineer C. P. Ry., Regina. 

A. V. Redmond, A.M.E.I.C, has been moved from 
Cochrane to Winnipeg, as district engineer of the Canadian 
National Railways, his district extending from O'Brien, 
Que., to Brandon, Man. 

Murdoch McKenzie, A.M.E.I.C, until recently 
resident engineer, C P. Ry. at Regina, has been 
appointed engineer in charge of a locating party from 
Swift Current, Sask., eastward. 

A. W. Haddow, A.M.E.I.C, city engineer of Edmon- 
ton, has been appointed professor of Civil and Municipal 
Engineering at i he University of Alberta, succeeding the 
late Processor Wm. Muir Edwards. Professor Haddow is 
a member of the Executive of the Edmonton Branch, and 
was Branch Secretary for 1917. He will still devote part 
of his time to the city's engineering department. 

Stewart F. Rutherford, A.M.E.I.C, one of the most 
active members of the Montreal Branch, in which he has 
taken a prominent part from the start, being Chairman 
of the Industrial S.^ction, has been elected on the new 
Council of the City of Westmount at the head of the poll. 
Those who know Mr. Rutherford predict that he will do 
credit to his new position. 

W. S. Harvey, A.M.E.I.C, has received an appoint- 
ment with the Toronto Harbour Commission as engineer 
of sewers and will prepare plans for the drainage of the 
.Ashbridge's Bay Industrial Area and extensions to the 
city's main sewer ou lets beyond the fill along the water- 
front. This wo k will be done under the direction of 
George T. Clark, A.M.E.I.C, designing engineer to the 
Harbour Commission. Mr. Harvey has just been elected 
Secretary of the Toronto Branch of The Im^titute for 1919. 

Dr. J. A. L. Waddell, M.E.I.C, Consulting Engineer 
of Kansas City, U.SA., and a member of this Institulc 
since 1903, has been elected a corresponding member of 
the Academy of Science of France. Only nineteen 
corresponding members, including Dr. Waddell, have 
been elected from the United States since the founding 
of the Academy in 1795, and of these there are living at 
the present time Drs. Pickering and Hale, astronomers 
and Dr. Davis, geographer. 

W. F. Drysdale, B.Sc. (McGill), A.M.E.I.C, reached 
New York on the Lorraine on December 6th, from 
France, and after a conference on busines matters arrived 
in Montreal where he renewed former acquaintances. 
Mr. Drysdale is a Canadian who is occupying one of the 
big positions in industrial affairs in Europe, being the 



European representative of the American Locomotive 
Sales Corporation, and the Montreal Locomotive Works, 
Ltd., with headquarters at Paris, his territory being 
Cont'nental Europe. He proposes sailing for F"rance on 
February 10th. 

Major William Geo. Swan, B.A.Sc. (Univ. Tor.), 
A.M.E.I.C, has recently added further laurels to his 
already distinguished military career. He has been twice 
mentioned in despatches, was decorated with the Croix 
de Guerre last year, and has just been invested with the 
Distinguished Service Order. Major Swan, previous to 
going overseas, was on the engineering department of the 
Canadian Northern Ry. at Vancouver, with which 
Company he was for the past fifteen years, his latest 
position before enlistment being divisional engineer in 
charge of construction C N. Ry., from Steveston to Hope, 
B.C. He is a graduate of the Toronto University, and 
was a lecturer in the School of Science for two years. 
He enlisted with the 131st Battalion, and upon arrival 
overseas was transferred to the Railway Troops. For 20 
months he was with the Imperial ,\rmy, and later trans- 
ferred to the Canadians. 




G. H. DUGGAN, M.E.I.C. 
Newly elected President of the Dominion Bridge Co. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



135 



OBITUARIES 



JaiiKx lîiisscll W'ovd, B.Sc. 

James Russell Wood, B.Sc. (McGill), A.M.E.I.C., 
of Peterboro, died of pneumonia following influenza, on 
October 29th, 1918. The late Mr. Wood graduated from 
McGill University in 1911 in civil engineering, his first 
position being assistant engineer on construction of the 
Magog Power Plant. Later he was ass stant on con- 
struction, Monreal Harbour Elevator, No. 12, and in 1913 
went to Welland where he was doing general enginering 
work. 

The late Mr. Wood was born at Rockland, Ont., 
August 1st, 1884, and was transferred from Student to 
Associate Member of The Institute, October 20th, 1914. 

Captain John Atkinson Tuzo. 

Captain John Atkinson Tuzo, A.M.E.LC., was killed 
in action in German East Africa, April, 1918, word of 
which was received from his mother from Warlingham, 
Surrey, England, on January 13th. The late Captain 
Tuzo, was born on September 15th. 1874, and was a 
graduate of Leeds University, England. He came to 
Canada in 1897, where for eight years he engaged in 
mining in the Yale district, B.C., and later took up railway 
work in the Northwestern States and in British Columbia. 
In 1907 he was resident engineer of the Spokane, Portland 
and Seattle Railway, Washington, and 1910 was resident 
engineer, Kettle River Valley Railway, with headquarters 
at Midway, B.C. 

When war broke out he returned to England and 
received a commission as Captain with the Imperial 
Forces, and was engaged with them in the successful 
struggle which ended in the defeat of the German forces 
in East Africa. 

Major Alfred deCourcy Meade, M.C. 

Major Alfred deCourcy Meade, A.M.E.LC, M C, 
was killed in a motor accident at Painstown near Droheda, 
Ireland, on Saturday, December 14th. The motor car in 
which Major Meade was being driven collided with a 
hackney car. 

Previous to enlisting, in 1914, in the Royal Engineers, 
Major Meade was engaged in railway construction work 
in Western Canada. He went to France in March, 1915, 
and won the Military Cross on December of the same year. 
He left France on the signing of the armistice, having 
seen three and a half years in the fighting line. 

This information was conveyed to The Institute by 
J. C. Meade, A. M.E.I C, of Regina, a brother of Major 
Meade, to whom, as well as to the widow and infant son, 
the sympathy of The Institute goe ; out. 

The late Major Meade was born on November 3rd, 
1884, and wa elected an Associate Member of The 
Institute in November, 1912. He was also an Associate 
Member of the Institution of Civil Engineers of Great 
Britain. 

Lieut.-Col. Howard L. Bodwe'l, C.M.G., D.S.O. 
The circumstances surrounding the death of Lieut.- 
Col. Howard Bodwell, A.M.E.LC., were particularly 
sad, as he died in St. John, from pneumonia, while 



returning from the front, and while his wife was on 
the road from Vancouver to meet him. The late Lieut.- 
Col. Bodwell, who was honoured by receiving the C.M.G., 
D.S.O. , Croix de Guerre, was one of the shining examples 
of a successful military career, having been assistant 
director of light railways in the military area in France. 
Born at Ingersoll, Ontario, October 13th, 1881, Howard 
Lionel Bodwell was educated at and a graduate of 
the Royal Military College, Kingston. 

Lieut.-Col. Bodwell's engineering career was for the 
most part on railway work and particularly with the Grand 
Trunk Pacific Railway. Later he was instructor in 
Civil Engineering at Royal Military College and in 1907 
was appointed resident engineer of the Canton, Hankow 
Railway, Kwong Tung, China, which position he held 
for two years. Returning to Vancouver he took up his 
residence at the Coast where he was living when war 
broke out. 

Lieut -Col. Bodwell was associated in railway work 
in British Columbia with J. W. Stewart and his rise in the 
service was on a par with the distinguished services 
rendered by his chief, who is now Brigadier-General, 
and in charge of all railway operation on the western front. 

He was wounded at St. Eloi in April, 1916, and after 
ten weeks in the hospital, returned to the firing ine. 
In September of that year he was awarded the D.S.O. 
for building a piece of roadway under heavy shell fire. In 
December, 1916, Lieut.-Col. Bodwell was made assistant 
director of light railways. In January he was made a 
Companion of St. Michael and St. George, " for services 
rendered in connection with military operation." ' 

Lieut. -Co". Bodwell received the Croix de Guerre 
from the French Government. The official Gazette says: 
" Lieut -Col. H. L. Bodwell, C.M.G., D.S.O., has directed 
with great competence and sustained energy and carried 
to a successful completion in the minimum of time, in 
spite of conditions of working which were often difficult, the 
construction and putting into operation of a new system of 
sixty kilometres of railway which has greatly facilitated 
supply of the French troops." 

He was a msmber of the well known Bodwell family 
and a cousin of the late E. V. Bodwell, K.C. His father 
was Eliphalet Bodwell, of Ingersoll, Ont. His widow was 
formerly Miss Dulcie Hornby, and she is left with two 
children to mourn his loss. 

Lieut.-Col. Bodwell returned to Canada on the 
Scandinavian, his death occurring at St. John, N.B., on 
Wednesday, January 15th. 



EMPLOYMENT BUREAU 



Situations Vacant 

I'J ngi neevi n g Sales ni a. n . 

Splendid opening for a graduate engineer with a large 
industrial organization. Must be young man, not long 
out of college ; must speak French fluently ; be thoroughly 
reliable; have business instincts which will enable him to 
develop salesmanship of a high order. This is a very 
desirable position for an ambitious man of the type 
required. Address Box No. 26. 



136 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Preliminary Notice of Application for Admission 
and for Transfer 

The By-Laws now provide that the Council of the Society shall 
approve, chissify and elect candidates to membership anci transfer 
from one grade of membership to a higher. 

It is also provided that there shall be issued to all corporate members 
a list of the new applicants for admission and for transfer, containing 
a concise statement of the record of each applicant and the names of his 
references. 

In order tliat the Council may determine justly the eligibility of 
each candidate, every member is asked to read carefully the list 
submitted herewith and to report promptly to Secretary any facts 
wliich may affect the classification and election of any of the candidates. 
In cases where the professional career of an applicant is known to any 
member, such member is specially invited to make a definite recom- 
;..e:.dat:G:; as lo ihc proper classification of the candidate* 

If to your knowledge facts e.xist which are derogatory to the personal 
reputation of any applicant, should be promptly communicated. 

Communications relating to applicants are considered by 
the Council as strictly confidential. 



The Council will consider the applications herein described in 
February, 1919. 

Fbaser S. Keith, Secretary. 

•The professional requirements are as follows: — - 

Every candidate for election aa MEMBER must be_ at least thirty years of age, 
and must have been engaged in some branch of engineering for at least twelve years, 
which period may include apprenticeship or_ pupilage in a qualified engineer's office 
or a term of instruction in some school of engineering recognized by the Council. The 
term of twelve years may, at the discretion of the Council, be reduced to ten years 
in the case of a candidate who has graduated in an engineering course. In every case 
the candidate must have had responsible charge of _worlc for at least five years, and this 
not merely as a skilled workman, but as an engineer qualified to design and direct 
engineering works. 

Every candidate for election as an ASSOCIATE MEMBER must be at leaat 
twenty-five years of age, and must have been engaged in some branch of engineering 
for at least six years, which period may include apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified 
engineers' office, or a term of instruction in some school of engineering recognized by 
the Council. In every case the candidate must have held a position of professional 
responsibility, in charged work aa principal or assistant, for at least two years. 

Every candidate who is not a graduate of some school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, shall be required to pass an examination before a Board of Examiners 
appointed by the Council, on the theory and practice of_ engineering, and especially 
inoneofthefoilowingbranchesathisoption Railway, Municipal, Hydraulic, Klechanical, 
Mining, or Electrical Engineering. 

This examination may be waived at the discretion of the Council if the candidate 
has held a position of professional responsibility for five years or more years. 

Every candidate for election as JUNIOR shall be at least twenty-one years of 
age, and must have been engaged in some branch of engineering for at leaat four years. 
This period may be reduced to one year, at the discretion of the Council, if the candidate 
is a graduate of some school of engineering recognized by the Council. He shall not 
remain in the class of Junior after he has attained the age of thirty-five years. 

Every candidate who is not a graduate of some school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, or has not passed the examinations of the first year in such a course, 
shall be required to pass an examination in the following subjects Geography, History 
(that of Canada in particular). Arithmetic, Geometry Euclid (Books I.-IV. and VI.), 
Trigonometry, Algebra up to and including quadratic equations. 

Everj* candidate for election as .ASSO(i;iATE shall be one who by his pursuits, 
scientific acquirements, or practical experience is qualified to co-operate with engineers 
in the advancement of professional knowledge. 



The fact that candidates give the names 
of certain members as references does not 
necessarily mean that their applications 
are endorsed by such members. 



FOR ADMISSION 

BROWN — GEORGE J., of Wimiipeg, Man. Born at Lamberton, Minn., Jan. 
4th 18S1. Educ. , Elec. engr , Univ. of Minnesota, 1908. Elec. dftsman and asst. 
supt. for W. I. Gray & Co., elec. contrs., Minneapolis (6 moe.): elec. dftsman with 
Chas. L. Pillsbury Co., conslt. engrs., Mpls. (3 mos.): asst. engr. with Electric Con- 
struction Co., St. Paul, Minn., (2 yrs.); ch. dftsman of Lt. & pr. dept., of Portland 
Ry. Lt. <t Pr. Co.. Portland, Ore. (1 yr.); 1912-16, vice-pres. & supt. of constrn. & 
erect., for Schumacher Gray Co., Winnipeg, 1916^18, asst. elec. engr., Prov. of Man. : 
191S-10, asst. engr. of mech. services, prov. of Man. 

References: J. M. Lcamy, E. V. Caton, M. A. Lyons, J. Rochetti, G. L. Guy, 
F. H. Farmer. 

CHRISTIE— GERALD MOFF.\T, of Kamloops, B.C. Born at Moosamim, Man. 
Aug. 15th, 1.S8S. Educ, D.L.S. & B.C.L.S., 1910-14 with Christie, Dawson & Hey- 
wood. Civil Engr?., of Kamloops, in chg. of parties on survey of land, mines, and 
timber and city sub divs. & survey of toAvnsites: 1914 practicing as a land surveyor 
in Kamloops; engaged chiefly in making .'jurvcys of right of way for CN.Ry., through 
B.C., also irrigation work. laying out flumes, ditches, etc. 

References: F. J. Dawson, W. H. Powell, P. Philips, F. W. Anderson. A. Lighthall, 
H. L. Johnsoa, E. P. Heywood. 



COURTICE— EDMUND DEAN WADE, of Hamilton, Ont. Born at Holmcs- 
villc. Ont., Sept. 11th, 1892. Educ. B.A.Sc. Toronto Univ. 1914. Apprentice 
G.T.R., shops, .Stratford, Ont. ('i mow.); with Clinton Motor Car Co., 4 mos.; 191.'ï, 
asst. in dept. of waste water prevention, Toronto, (2 mos.): 1914-1910, asst. & acting 
supt. of constrn. with the City of Toronto: 1910 asst. oner, with Hare Eng. Co. (.'ï mos.) : 
191S, engr. with Gordon Hutton of Hamilton, Ont. (2 mos), from .Sept. 191C, chief 
of Dept. of Mechanical & .\rchitectural Drawing, Hamilton Tech. and .\rt. School. 

References: E. R. Gray, C. L. Fellows, F. W. Paulin, E. II. Darling. 

DENIS— LEOPOLD GERMAIN, of Ottawa, Ont. Born at Gomont, France. 
May 20th, 1878. Educ. B.Sc, McGill Univ. 1899. 1897, elec. ry. surveys, central 
station asst.: 1.S9S-1899, testing dept.. Royal Elec. Co.; 1900-10. ch elec. engr. of 
Jacques Cartier Elec. Co., Quebec; 1910 to present time, hydro elec engr., Comm. of 
Conservation, Ottawa. 

References: J. White, A. A. Dion, J. B. Challics, R. deB. Corriveau, W. J. Dick. 

DUPERRON— ARTHUR, of Montreal. Born at Nicolet. Que, Sept. 2fltli. 
18.S9. Educ. B.A.Sc, Polytcch. school, Laval Univ., 1911. On survey work during 
vacations, wth W. E. Boucher, const engr. April 1911-,Sept. 1911. with E. I.,oiKnon, 
as dftsman., hydro, elec. & bidg. constrn.; 1911, Jan. 1912, with Central Ry. of Can 
as topog. on location, Hawkesbury to Ottawa: Jan. 1912-Sept. 1912, under W. K. 
Bishop, on hydro, elec. survcvs on the St. Francis River & on constrn. work at 
Drummondville, Que : Sept. 1912-May 1913, with C.P.R , ofTire of constrn. dept. 
Montreal; Jlay 1913-Junc 191.Ï, bridge dept. C.P.R., design work & preparation of 
plans; Aug. 191.5 to date with Quebec Streams Comm., aa follows: 191.5 ch. of party 
on survey of Lake St. John: 1910 in chg. of constrn. of superstructure. Sauvage River; 
Jan. 1917 to date in chg. of design. 



References: 
H. Massue. 



O. Letebvre, A. Surveyor, W. I. Bishop, B. O. Eriksen. J. B. D'Aeth, 



EAGER— ALBERT HENRY, of Winnipeg. Afan. Born at Waterloo, Que , 
July 15th. ISOS. Educ. High School: entered railway service June Ist, 1885, June 1st. 
1893, Machinist apprentice, Southeastern Railwav and C.P.R. Farnham, (jue.; i89,'i- 
1899, Machinist, C.P.R., Farnham, Que.; Aug. lS99-Mach. 1903, Locomotive Foreman, 
C.P.R., Farnham. and Mcgantic. Que.; 1903-1906. Genera! Foreman. C.P.R., Cran- 
brook, B.C. and Calgary, Alta.: 1907-190S, Dist. Master Mechanic C.P.R., Kenora. 
Ont.; 1908-1910, Locomotive Foreman, C.P.R., Calgary, .\lta.; 1910-191.5, Sup. of 
«Shops, Canadian Northern Railway. Winnipeg; .\ug. 1st. 1915 to Dec 1918, Asst. 
Supt. of Rolling .Stock, Western Lines, Canadian Northern Railway, Winnipeg; at 
the present lime, mech. supt. Western Lines, Can. National Rys. W'innipeg. 

References: J. G Legrand, E. C. Hanson, J. G. Sullivan, G. Pratt, W. G. Chace, 
G. L. Guy, T. Turnbull. 

GR.\Y— ANDREW JACK, of Hamilton, Ont Born at Victoria, B.C., Sept., 
15th, 1890. Educ. B.A Sc. Toronto Univ. 1913. 1907-09. apprentice; 1913-14. 
asst. engr . Marine Iron Works: 1914-17. on active service; 1917-lS, asst. engr.. Marine 
Iron Wks, ; 1918, mech. engr. & dftsman. Steel Co. of Can. 

References: E. R. Gray. E. H. Darling. C. F. Whitton. R. L. Latham, W. Janney. 

HARPER— RICHARD DOB.SON, of Winnipeg, Man. Born at Bavfield, N.B , 
March 30th. 1890. Educ, high school, 2 yrs. Mt. Allison. * I.C.S. 1905-09. rodman. 
topog.. levelman. transitman. res. engr. dftsman.: 1909-10, instrumentman on constrn.. 
N.T.C.Rv. (4 mos.); 1910. transitman with G. Rois. Sydney. N.S . (3 mos.); Sept. 
19n-June 1912. trans man. C.N.R.; June I912--\pril 1913. highway engr. Man. 
Public W'orks, 1913-June 1914. munie, engr. Rosser Municip.; June 1914-Sept. 
1914: highway engr. Man. Good Roads Board; Jan 1915-June 1915, dftsman, 
C.G.Rv.,. Moncton, N.B.: June 1915-May 1917. with C.G.Ry.. as ch. dftsman. 
etc.: May 1917-Sept. 1918. munie engr.. St. Francois Xavier.Man.; Sept. 1918 
to date, dist. engr., with Good Roads Board, Man. 

References; C. B. Brown, .\. V. Redmond, A. McGillivray, E. P. Goodwin* 
M. A. Lyons. 

HUBBARD— FRANK WILLIAM, of Hamilton, Ont. Born at Geneva, Ohio, 
Sept. 14th, 1882. Educ Geneva High school. 1902-04 with L.S. & M.S.Ry.; 1904-06, 
rodman. L.S. & M.S.Ry.; 1900-13. instrumentman, L.S. & M.S.Ry. ; 1913 to present 
time asst. engr.. T. H. & B. R,v.. had chg of constrn. of E. & O. branch (Smitbville 
to Port Maitland. Ont.); Port ilailtand Harbor facilities, including slip dock & apron, 
Bridgcburg yard, etc. 

References: R. L. Latham, E. R. Grav, A. S. Going, H. A. McFarlane, F. W. 
Paulin, E. W. Oliver. 

HUNGERFORD— SAMUEL JAMES, of Toronto, Out. Born near Bedford, 
Que, July 16th, 1S72. Educ. high school. May 18S6-Feb. 1891, mach. apprentice, 
S..E.Ry. & C.P.R., Farnham, Que; Mav lS91-Aug. 1894, machinist in Que, Ont. et 
Vermont; Sept. 1894-1S97, with C.P.R., Montreal: Aug. 1897-Apr. 1900, asst. foreman; 
C.P.R.. Farnham: Apr. 1900-Feb 1901. locomotive foreman, C.P R. Megantic. Feb. 
Sept. 1901. gen. foreman, CP.R.; Sept. 1901-Feb. 1903. loco, foreman. C.P.R. Gran- 
brook. B.C.; Feb. 1903-Jan. 1904. master mech.. C.P.R.. Calgary; Jan. 1904-Feb. 
1910. with C.P.R. Winnipeg; Mar. 1910- Nov. 1917. supt. of roll, stock, with C.N.R ; 
Nov. 1917-Dec. 1918. gen. mgr., C.N.R., Toronto, Dec. 1918 to date, asst. \-icc-pres., 
C.N.R., C.G Rys. Toronto. 

References: H. H. Vaughan, J. M. R. Fairbairn, W. H. Winterrowd, E. W. 
Oliver, M. H. Macleod, H. K. Wicksteed, H. Cameron. 

JOSLYN— CECIL EARLE, of Ottawa, Ont. Born at Hartney, Man., Nov , 
24th. 18.S9. Educ. B.Sc. (Honors) (iueen's Univ. 1916. D.L.S. 1916. 1914. asst. to 
G. H. Blanchet. D.L.S.. on base line surveys. Alta. 1915. asst. to A. L. Cummings, 
D.L.S., on sub. div. suneys. So. Alta ; 1916, asst. to G. A. Bennet, D.L.S., on reclama- 
tion work, Sask.; 1917 to present time, asst. to Inspector of shell components, Imp. 
Min. of Munitions. 

References: N. P. Dalziel, E. A. Stone, H. W. B. Swabey, D. Wyand, H. R 
Y'ounger, J. M. M. Laforest. 

NEWM.\N— JOHN J.\MES, of Windsor, Ont. Born at Mersey Township, 
Ont., March 10th, 1872. Educ. S.P.S. Toronto, 1890-97; apprenticed for OL.S. in 
1897, passed final exam, and admitted to practice in 1898. Since Apri 1900, engaged 
in and responsible charge of gen. surveying also engr. practice in vicinity of Windsor 
particularly engaged in drainage and paving At the present time; town engineer 
of Leamington, .Vmhcrstburg. anil Township Engineer of .\ndcrson. Sandwich West, 
Colchester South, Tilbury North and Tilbury West. 

References: 0. McKay, M. E. Brian, A. J. Stevens, G. A. McCubbin, J.' A. Bell, 



1 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



137 



NEWMAN — WILLIAM, of Winnipeg, Mon. Born nt Essex County, Ont., 
Jan 22nd, 18G0. Educ. C.E., S.P.S. Toronto, ISUl. Jan. 189;i- Mar. 1900. gen. eng. 
practice & city engr., of Windsor, Ont.; 1900 to date, liead of VV. Newman Co., Ltd., 
Winnipeg. 

References: W. P. Brercton, VV. G. Chacc, T. H Deacon, J. Haddiii, 11. X. 
liuttan, W. M. Scott. 

RANDLESOME— HUGH GOFFEN (Lieut.) of Vancouver, B.C. Born at 
Hcedliam, Eng., Dec. 20th, 1SS2. Educ. Grammar & pub. schools. 1906-07 on Dom. 
surveys, topog. and instrument work; 1907-O.S, topog. and instrumcntman. White 
P:u>« & Yukon Ry.; 1908. instrumcntman. B.C.E.Ry.: 1908-09. surveys Prince Rupert 
Harbor and townsitcs. B.C.; 1909. in ehi;., work ro.ad & bridge constrn.. Prince Rupert; 
1010. res. engr. and locator. Portland Canal; 1911-12. n.sst. eng., Powell River Paper 
& Pulp Mills & hydro elec. development, clig. of portion trans-provincial road recon- 
nai.ssanco & location; 1913-1.'). private work; 1911, in chg. of party. Govt. Water 
lïighta; 1916-19, on active service with (^an. Engineers. 

References: E. A. Cleveland, M. J. Leahy. J. .\. Kilmer. W. R. Pilsworth, D. O. 
Lewis, J. R. Grant, F. G. Aldous, J. B. Iloldcroft. 

ROBERTS— STANLEY OXLEY, of Ottawa, Ont. Born at Cleckheaton, Eng., 
July 26th, 1889. Educ. high school Eng., priyatc study , Winnipeg, survey. & mapping 
course, Halifax Tech. Coll. 1914, rodman. D.L.S. work, also instrument, levelling, 
transit, etc., work; Oct. 191G-June 1918 in chg. of radio apparatus on H.M. C.S. ships, 
at the present time, dftsman. in radio branch. Naval Service, Ottawa. 

References: J. H. Thompson, J. Murphy, A. B. Lambe, C. P. Edwards, J. B. 
Challies. 

SCHOLES— JOSEPH, of Regina, Sask. Born at Chadderton, Eng.; May 19th, 
1S76. Educ. Tideswell coll. 189.3, private tuition and articled pupil, 3 years with 
Chambers Colliery Co. afterwards manager's asst. for nine years and later manager: 
1909-16 Supt. P. W.D. Weyburn, Sask., 1917-18 acting city engr.; Sept. 191S to date 
-supt. of works Regina, Sask. 

References: N. Murray, G. Power, E. M. Proctor, X. E. K. Bunnell, C. R. 
.Murdock. 

STOUT— CLIFFORD VIER. of Winnipeg. Man. Born at Winnipeg, May 12th. 
1.S.84. Educ. B.C.E., Univ. of Man., 1910. 2 yrs. in Arts. 1908-09. survey work; 1910. 
testing laboratory work (4 mos.l; 1910-11. with CNR.; bridge dept. (6 raos.); 1911- 
12. engr. of constrn. of trestles & foundation. C.N.R. ; 1912-1.5. in chg. of contstrii. 
of bridges on Yellowhead div., C.N.R.; 1915-17, farming; 1917 to present time with 
C.E.F. 

References; H. A. Dison. E. Brydonc-Jack, .\. W. Smith. W. Walkden, J. A. 
(I'Rielly, W. Aldridge. 

TARR— CHARLES WINTHROP. of Windsor. Ont. Born at Lawrence. Mass. 
Dec. 14th. 1876. Educ. scientific dept.. Phillipps Andovcr. 1897-1902. eng. asst. .with 
Metropolitan Water Board. Boston: 1903. asst. engr., with Comm. investigation, water 
supply for N.Y.C., from Long Island; 1904. asst. engr. with Hering & Fuller, in chg. 
of constrn.. design. &c.; 1905, asst. engr. with Hudson Cos., during constrn. of tunnels 
under Hudson River; 1906, res. engr. for Cape May Real Estate Co., in chg. of hydrauUc 
rlrcdging. and bldg. of townsite, etc.; 1907-08. asst. engr. with Board of Water Supply, 
N.Y.C.. on further investigations: 1909. asst. ch. engr.. Dept. of Water Supply. Gas 
& Elec. Brooklyn, 1912-13. office engr., in chg. of design, plans, reports. &c.. in connec- 
tion with bldg. tunnels, dams, intakes, &c.. in Puebla. Mexico; 1914-15 supt. of constrn. 
& operation with Aetna Chem. Co., at Oakdale. Pa.; 1916 asst. engr. with Morris 
Kiiowles, Pittsburgh, Pa.; 1917-18, vice-pres. & gen. mgr., Morris Knowles Ltd., 
Windsor, Ont., in chg. constrn. ,dsgn., reports. &c. 

References; J. V. Davies, J. Forgie, M. Knowles, F. C. McMath, O. McKay, 
M. E. Brian, R. Hering, J. S. Nelles. 

TEMPLE MAN— GEORGE EARL,' of Montreal. Born at Waubaushene. Ont, 
June 26th, 1S79. Educ. High school, matric. 1st yr.. S.P S., Toronto, 1896. 1900-02 
gen. operating experience on hydro elec. & transmission lines in BC; Jan, -Oct. 1903, 
direct current testing dept. of Western Elec Co., Chicago; Oct. 1903-Oct. 1904. alter- 
nating current test. work. Can. Gen. Elec. Co.. Peterboro. Out.; 1904-12. with Allia 
Chalmers Bullock Ltd., as follows: 1904-07. erect, engr,; 1907-08, gen. foreman of test. 
»fc winding depts.; 1908-10, supt. of constrn.; 1910-11 gen. supt. of works; 1911-12. 
ften. engr. on hydro elec. work; 1912-14, in partnership, Dietrich Ltd., contr engrs., 
supervision of al! contracts; 1915 to present time with Elec. Comm. of Montreal, as 
follows; 1915-July 1917, supt. of constrn. & maintenance; July 1917 to date. ch. engr. 

References: L. A. Herdt, R. H. Balfour, G. M. Mynn, F. B. Brown, R, S. 
Kclsch. 

VIENS— EPHREM, of Ottawa, Out. Born at Ange Gardien. Que,. Jan. 19th, 
1896. Educ, B. A., McMaster Univ., 1905., part of M. A. course 1905-06, and course 
of C.E. with I.C.S. 1906-07. with Int. Portland Cement Co.. Hull. Que. (5 mos.): 
Apr. 1907 analytical chem. and ph.vsicist. D.P, W.; winter 1913-16, acting director of 
the Laboratory for' Testing Materials, D. P. W., Ottawa. May 1916 to date, 
date, director of same. 

References: A. B. Lambe, J. Murphy, C. R. Coutlee, A. St. Laurent, E. D. 
Lafleur, R. deB. Corriveau, J. B. McRae. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF ASSOCIATE MEMBER 
TO THAT OF MEMBER 

EMR.\— FREDERIC HARCOURT{Capt.) of London, Eng. Born at Salisbury 
Eng., June 13th, 1881. Educ, prep, school, Bromsgrove school. Eng. 1904-08. with 
T.C.Ry.. on constrn.. &c.. 1910-11. res. engr.. with T.C.Ry. 191.5. asst. dist. engr.. 
S.E.L.C. & D.Ry.; July 1915-Oct. 1916, on active service; Aug. 1917, invalided to 
England; at present time asst. ch. engr. Ministry of Shipping & Extensions Dept. of 
the .\drairalty, London, Eng. 

References: C. H. Keefer, W. P. .\nderson, D. MacPherson, F. Moberly. V. E. A. 
Bélanger, E. P. Goodwin. 

McKENZIE— BERTRAM STUART, of Winnipeg. Man. Born at Almonte. Ont. 
July 3rd. 1876. Educ. B.A.. 1900, B.Sc. 1901. McGil Univ. 1.896-97, munie, 
work, Brookline, Mass,; 1898-1900, hydraulic and ry. work, T. Pringle & Sons; 1901, 
exploratory work, Algoma Commercial Co., Soo, Ont.; 1907, ch. dftsman, C.P.R., 
bridge dept.; 1907-09. asst. div. engr., C.P.R., East, Div.; 1910-12, a.sst. bridge engr. 
G.T.P.Ry., Wpg.; 1912 to date, eonsl. engr. 

References: J. G. Legrand, C. N. Monsarrat, W. M. Scott, W. G. Chacc, \V M. 
Macphail, W. P. Brerefcon. 



S WABEY— HAROLD WILLIAM BIRCHFIELD. of Ottawa. Ont. Born at 
Wohurn Sands. Eng., July 20th, 1879. Educ. Crystal Palace Engr. School & English 
Coll., Bruges, Belgium. Jan. 1900-.\ug. 1901. asst. engr. with Baldry & Yerburgh. 
on constrn. of L. & Y.Ry. (England); .'\ug. 1901-June 1902. asst. engr. with Naylor 
Bros., on constrn. of Dcarne Valley Ry. (Eng.); Jan. 1903- Feb. 1901, engr. in chg. of 
measuring and laying out work, with T. Wrighley & Sons, contrs.; Feb. 1904-Jan. 1906. 
engr. with Baldry & Yerburgh. Canada Branch Dock, Liverpool, Eng.; June 1906, 
1911. engr. in dig. of constrn. with New Canadian Co, on A.Q. & W.Ry, ; Jan. 1911. 
April 1912, acting ch. engr. on same; April lf)12-Oct. 1912, res. engr. Que. & Sag. Ry,; 
Oct. 1912- May 1914, res. engr.. Ont. Lake Shore line. C.P.R.; Aug. 19U-Dec. 1911. 
Inspection of lusnhalt pavement. City of Verdun; April 1915 to date, officer in chg. of 
inspec. of steel (Canada) for Ministry of Munitions. 

References: N. P. Dalzicl, G. R. Ballock, A. F. Stewart, E. S. M. Lovelace, 
J. It. I.armonth, R. J. Durley, Sir Alex. Bertram, P. B. Motley. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF JUNIOR TO HIGHER GRADE 

CALVERT— DAVID GORDON, of Dayton, Ohio. Born at N:ipicr. Ont., Oct. 
13th. 1888. Educ. 2!'2 yrs. Toronto Univ.. S.P.S., 1900-07 (.summers) survey work 
for Dom. Gov,; 1907-OS. testing dept., Toronto St. R.R.; 1909-12, instr. man, T.C. 
Ry.. Cochrane, Ont. 1912-13, with Geo. Fuller Constrn. Co., Winnipeg.; 191.3-14, 
asst. engr., C.P.R., Tr.anscona, Man.; 1914-17, engr. for Con. Stewart Co. Ltd., 1917-18. 
engr. in chg. of constrn. & maintenance, with Dayton Wright Airplane Co., Dayton, O 

References: N. D. Wilson, E. G. Ilcwson, W. E. Janney. F. Goedike. A. W'. 
l,amont. J. R. W. Ambrose. 

HUNT— WILLIAM HAROLD, of Winnipeg. Man. Born at Lcnnoxville. Que,, 
Nov. 24th, 18.84. Educ, B,C.E., Man. Univ. 1913. 1902-05, apprentice machinist. 
Northern Iron Works. Winnipeg; 1905-07, with C.P.R.; 1907-11, ong. student, employed, 
during summer months on ry. surveys and constrn.. with Hudson's Bay Co.. C.P.R., 
and C.N.R.: 1912, asst, engr.. C.N.R.. bridge dept,; 1913-15, asst. city engr., Moose 
Jaw, Sask.; 1910 to present time, road engr., Prov. of Man., Dept. of Pub. Wks. 

References: E. Brydone-Jack, A. JIcGillivrav, N. B. MacTaggart, M. A. Lyons, 
T. W. White. 

McCULLY— ROBERT CHESLEY. of Sarnia. Ont. Born at Shediac.N.B., 21st, 
Dec. 1888. Educ. B,Sc (C.E.) McGill, 1916. B.A. 1909. Mt. Allison Univ., M.A. 
1910. July 1910-Nov. 1911, with Topo. Surveys. Ottawa; 1911-14. asst. to chief 
astronomer. Ottawa; Mar. 1915-Nov. 1915. asst. Surveyor on D.L.S. Prov, of Man,, 
in chg, of party; May 1916-Dec. 1916. asst. surveyor on L.D.S,. Prov, of Sask,. dig. 
of stadia field party; Jan. -Feb. 1917. instr. man with Foundation Co. Ltd., Port 
Colborne. Out., laving outlines & grades for constrn. of Internat. Nickel Co. plant: 
Feb, 1917. received comm. as D.L.S.; .\pril 1917-Feb. 1918. inspector in chg. of constrn. 
G.W.WD.; Feb. 1918-Aoril 1918, dftsman for G.T.R.. Wpg.; M.ar. 191,S-0ct. 1918. 
in chg. of constrn. with Imperial Oil Ltd., including testing, bearing power, design, of 
foundations, etc. ; Oct. 1918 to present time, designing and estimating concrete structures 
under supervision of ch. engr. 

References: G. F. Richan D. L. McLean, G. M. Pitts. E. M. Salter. H. W. 
Harris. 

PORTER— .lOHN EARLE. of Windsor. Ont. Born at Wingham. Out,, Dec, 0th, 
1891. Educ. BASc, Toronto Univ. 1915. Summers 1912 & 1913 with A.C.Ry., 
as rodman. timekeeper. &c; summer 1914, instru. man, D.P. W,. Wiiidsor,Ont,; May- 
1915- May 1918. asst. engr. D.P, W,. Dist. of Western. Ont., in chg. of various surveys 
in connection with harbor developments, improvements, estimates, prep, of plans, etc; 
May 1918 to present time, field engr,. Can, Steel Copr., Ojibway, Ont., in chg. of 
surve.vs, icspec of constrn., &c. 

References: A. J. Stevens, H. B. R. Cr,aig, W. P. Merrick, H. Thorne. R. Carlylc. 
C. R. Young. 

VALIQUETTE — JOSEPH HENRI, of Montreal, Que. Born at La Conception, 
Que, .Ian. 24th, 1884. Educ B.A.Sc, C.E.. Laval Univ.. 1907. 1906, tran. man 
with Shaw. Water & Power Co.; 1907-13, inspec. of mines, Prov. of Que., in chg. of 
road constrn.; 191.3-15. const, engr., Montreal; 1913-18, engr. in chg. of West, div., 
P. W.D,, Montreal, and at present time asst. engr., in chg., Dept. of Surveys & Design, 
City of Montreal. 

References: G. R. MacLeod, J. A. Bernier, A. B. Normandin, F. C. Laberge, 
P. E. Mercier, J. C. Gwillim, A. Walls, J. R. Barlow. 

WATSON— McCLELLAND BARRY, of Toronto. Ont. Born at Toronto 
Jan, 22nd. 1889. Educ, B.A.Sc, 1910, C. E., 1918, M.E., 1918, Toronto Univ, 
1903-07, asst. engr.. Munie. Power System, Weston, Ont.; 1908, asst. engr., C.N.Ry. 
(5 mos. vac); 1910, asst. engr.. Can. Westinghouse Co. (5 mos. vac); May 1911-Oct. 
19J2. res. engr., for Chipman & Power, in chg. of dsgn., installation, sewerage, etc., 
Dauphin, Man.; Nov. 1912-JuIy 1913, asst. mech. engr., Toronto Power Co.; Aug. 
191.3-Aug. 1914, asst. engr,, Dept. of Pub. Highways, Prov. of Ont.; Aug. 1914-Sept. 

1917, military eng. work, lient.. Royal Engineers, both in Eng. and France; Dec. 

1918. aviator & flight comm.. Royal Air Force, employed as ch. instructor in Aeroplane 
design, etc, in School of Aeronautics. At the present time asst. engr Dept. of Pub. 
Highways, Toronto. 

References: W.'A. McLean, R. P. Fairbairn, G. Hogarth, P. Gillespie, W. Huber 
G. C. Parker, R. C. Muir, J. A. P. Marshall.. 

FOR TR.\NSFER FROM THE CLASS OF STUDENT TO HIGHER GRADE 
SMYTH — EDWARD STANLEY^ of Kitchener, Ont. Born at Kitchener. Ont.. 

Julv 7th. 1891. Educ. B.Sc. (honors) Queen's Univ. 1912. Summer 1910. dsgning. 

and drafting on reinforced concrete; 1911. asst. town engr.. Waterloo. Ont,; May-Oct. 

1912, res. engr. in chg. of constrn. on sewerage work, with Chipman & Power; Oct. 

1912, with Malcolm & Rudd, Guelph. in chg. of concrete constrn.; April 1913-Oct. 1914. 

with Chipman & Power, as res. engr,; in chg. of constrn. of sewerage & waterworks. 

at Waterous.Sask.; .\pril 1913-Oct.l913; April 1914-Oct. 1914. on elec light and power 

installation; Dec 1st. 1913-.\prit 1914, making plans and surveys for storm water 

sewerage system. London. Ont.; Nov. 1914-March 1918. on active service, lient.. 

Can. Engrs.. C.E.F ; April 1918 to present time, dist. vocational officer, with Dept. 

of Soldiers, Civil Re-Establishment, 

References: W. Chipman, H. E. T. Haultain, J. A.MoPhail.W. H. Breithanpt, 

C. R. Murdock. 

TRUDEL— PHILIPPE, of Quebec, Que. Born at St. Irenée, Que., 28th Feb. 
Feb. 1896. Comm. course, Levis Coll., and Ecole Poly., 2\.i yrs. course. Summers 
1914-16, instrumentman with Tremblay & Bélanger; 1917-19, 1st asst. to E . W. 
Gauvreau, ch, engr. of Que. Roads Comm,, on highway constrn. 

References: A. Tremblay, A. Pepin, J. O. Montreuil, R. Savary, J. A. Lefebvre, 
J. P. Heroux, G. Henry. 



138 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



ENGINEERING INDEX 

/// (his department will be published froifi iiionih to month the titles of current engineerinf} papers with the oulhors 

and source and a brief extract of the more important. It is designed to give the menihers 

of The Institute a survey of all important articles relating to the engineering 

profession and to every branch of the profession. 



PHGTOSTATIC PRINTS 

Pholostatic copies may be obtained of any of the articles listed in this section. 
Price of each print {up to 11 x 14 in. in size), 25 cents, tlus postage. A separate 
print is required for each page of the larger-size periodicals, but where possible two pages will 
be photographed together on the same prtnl. Bill will be mailed with the prints. 
Orders should be sent to 

Ifarrisson J/'. Crater, Director, 

Engineering Societies Library, 
JO West Thirty-ninth Street, New Y'ork, N. >'. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 

AIR MACHINERY 

TfRDO-Ru>wKiis. CoppuB Turbo Blower. Indus. Management, vol. 57, no. 1, 
Jan. 1019, pp. 74-75, 2 figs. Mechanical features of machine constructed by 
Coppua Eng. & Equipment Co. 

Combined Motor and Turbine Driven Blast-Furnace Blower. Iron & 
Coal Trades Ucv., vol. 47, no. 2645, Nov. 8. 1918. p. 523, 1 fig. Operation 
of unit consisting of synchronous motor driving blower, this motor being 
operated in addition as a power-factor adjuster on a 3000-volt ôO-cycle supply. 

Vkntilators. The Largf.st Round Ventilator in the World. Metal Workers, vol. 91, 
no. 1, Jan. 3, 1919. pp. 2S-29, 3 figs. Details of special construction to withstand 
wind pressure and secure permanence and service. 

CORROSION 

AincKAFT Pakts. Corrosion Prevention on Aircraft Metal Parts, H. A. Gardner. 
Aviation, vol. 5, no. 9, Dec. 1, 191S. pp. 565. Quotes standard procedure of 
N&vy Department for protection or iron, steel and aluminum aircraft parts. 

Pipe. Investigation of Pipe Corrosion in Chicago Buildings, with Special Reference 
to Durability of Pipe Materials, Thomas J. Claffy. Mun. & County Eng. 
vol. 55, no. 6. Dec. 1918. pp. 20S-210. Data secured from inspection of 63 
buildings. Rating of cast iron, wrought iron and steel. 

FORGING 

Dknsity of Steel. Does Forging Increase Specific Density of Steel? H. E. Doerr. 
Bui. Am. Inst. Min. Engrs , no. 14.5, Jan. 1919. pp. 79-81, 2 figs. Table of 
specific densities of ten ingots of basic open-hearth steel both before and after 
forging show.s little or no change in density with steel initially free from cavities 

Drop Forgin<;. Drop Porging in Automobile and Aircraft Work. Part VI. Auto- 
mobile Engr., vol. 8. no. 120. Nov. 1918. pp. 328-3:^1, 13 figs. Det.iiis of typical 
plant, with description of modern tools and methods. 

Gun Forcings. Making Gun Forgings Under War Demands. K. C. Kreutzberg. 
Iron Trade Rev., vol. 63. no. 22, Nov. 28. 1918, pp. 1240-1242. 6 figs. General 
character of work done by Tacony Ordnance Coprs., Philadelphia. 

Oi'EiiATiON'. Recommendations for Economical Operation of Iron Works (Dispositions 
gônf-rales qui peuvent ("-tre recommandées dans les installations de forges). 
O. Duperrou. Gene Civil, vol. 73, nos. 20 and 21. Nov. 16 and 23. 1918.. 
pp. 3S7-3H9 and 404-407, 3 figs. Concerning regenerative device.-*, use of powder- 
ed fuel, continuousness of operation, use of compressed air. Plans of ideal 
modern smithy. 

FOUNDRIES 

liKAsa Meltin(i. Melting Brass in a Rocking Electric Furnace, II. W. Gillett and 
A. E. Rho.id?. Department of Interior. Bur. of Mines. Bui. 171. Min. Tech- 
nology 23. 131 pp., 6 figs. Sets forth in detail possibilities and limitations of 
electric brass melting and compares various types of furnaces. .Mso Water 
, & Gas Rev., vol. 29, no. 6, Dec. 1918, pp. 9-11. 

CiiAPLKTS. Obtaining Best Results from Use of Chaplets. Ernest Schwartz. Foundry, 
vo. 47, no. 317, Jan. 1919. pp. 14-15. 14 figs. Removal or prevention of rust 
and precautions against excessive moisture essential to prevent blowholes; 
choosing types and sizes for various purposes. 

Core Room. Core Room of T. H. Symington Co., Rochester. Donald S. Barrows. 
Can. Foundrymnn. vol. 9, no. 12. Dec. 1918. pp. 296-299. 9 figs. Arrangement 
intended to provide good ventilation and lighting. 

Efficiency in tho Core Room, J. B. Conway. Am. Mach., vol. 50. no. 1. 
Jan. 2, 1919, pp. 11-14. 6 figs. Conclusions reached as result of investigation 
into conditions of efficiency and production in aoutliern factory and remedies 
applied. 

Cri'OLA. Operation of a Cupola, William Lauten. Metal Trades, vol. 9. no. 11. 
Nov. 1918, pp. 4r»l-463, 2 figs. Account of experiments with colums charging, 

loirNDRiEfl. Continous Two-Story Foundrv Proves Economical, J. F Er\'in. 
Foundry, vol. 47. no. 317. Jan. 1919. pp. 40-42, 2 figs. States that extensive 
handling operations in modern foundry arc most readily performed in building 
of nudti-story design. From paper before .\m. Foundrymen.s .Vssn. 



Unique Features of an Illinois Foundrv, Charles I.undberg. Iron Age. 
vol. 102, no. 26. Dec. 26, 1918. pp. 1.563-1569, 13 figs. Electric steel, gray 
iron and semi-steel departments; continuovis operations with large production 
in small space; use of molding machines. Description of plant of Avery Co., 
Peoria, 111. 

MoLiji.sc. How Gear Cases for Tractors Are .Molded. Foundry, vol. 47, no. 317, 
Jan. 1919, pp. 2-5, 8 figs. Molding machines of large capacity an»! special' 
core- room equipment are employed; special rigging for economies. 

Patterns and Their Relation to Molding Problems, Joseph A. Shelly, 
Machy.. vol. 25, no. 4. Dec. 1918, pp. 310-314, 12 figs. First of series of article» 
dealing with construction and application of patterns, including use of wood- 
working tools, art of joinery, and various methods of building patterns and core 

boxes. 

.Sai. VACE WofK. Reclaiming Wealth in the Foundry Yard, F. B. Hicks. Can. 
Foundryman, vol. 9, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 302-303. Salvage work conducted 
by a superintendent of Sawyer- Masaey works. 

Wah Dkmand . Shell Need Found Foundries Ready. Iron Trade Rev., vol. 63, 
no. 22. Nov. 28. 1918, pp. 1229-1236. 15 figs. Methods developed in American 
foundries to meet increased demand of production. 

S.-e also ELECTRICAL EXGIXEERIXG, Furnaces {Industrial Furnaces, 
Steel Furnaces). 

FUELS AND FIRING 

Blast-Fik.nack Gas. The Use of Blast-Furnace Gas for Heating Boilers and 
Metallurgical Apparatus (L'emploi du gaz pour le chaufîagc des chaudièro 
et des appareils mi'tallurgiques), H. Thiry, Génie Civil, vol. 73, no. 21, Nov. 23, 
1918. pp. 401-401. S figs. Precautions necessary to insure successful operation 
of Cowper system. .Abstract of discussion before South Wales Inst. Engrs. an<l 
Cleveland Inst. Engrs. 

Bhiotetting. The Economy of Briquetting Small Coal. J. A. Ve.idon. Trans. 
Instn. Min. Engrs., vol. 56, part 1, Nov. 1918. pp. 31-34 and (discussion!, 
pp. 34-36. Considerations on conservation of coal and utilization of wasi'- 
materials; advantages of briquetting; method of manufacture; rectangular 
and ovoid forms of briquets. - 

Chimney Design. Saving the Wa-ste in the Chimnev, Robert Riblev and Chas. 
H. Delany. Jl. Eiec., vol. 41, nos. 10 and 11. Nov. 15 and Dec' 1, 1918. pp. 
463-464 and 511, 4 figs. Nov. 15; Fundamental laws of chimney design as 
applied to economic operation of oil-fired power plant. Dec. 1 ; Draft formula for 
modern power plant. 

CoMBisTiON Characteristics of Coal. Combustion Characteristics of Coals. 
Blast Furnace, vol. 6, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 495-497. 5 figs. Factors entering 
into success of equipment selected for burning different kinds of coal; perform- 
ance of various types of stokers; data on grades of coal. 

Generation of Heat from Bituminous Coal and It.s Absorption by the 
Boiler. Henry Misostow. Power, vol. 48. no. 25. Dec. 17. 1918. pp. 898-899, 
3 figs. From paper before National Assc. of Statiouarv Engrs., Cincinnati, 
Sept. 1918. 

Combustion Characteristics of Coal, Joseph G. Worker. Ry. Rev., vol. 63, 
no. 23, Dec. 7, 1918, pp. 824-827. Behavior of different grades of stationary 
boiler plant fuel with reference to type of mechanical stoking apparatus best 
suited for it. Fuels treated range from small sizes of anthracite through several 
grades and qualities of bituminous and lignites. 

Conibustion Characteristics of Coals and Selection of Suitable Stoker 
Equipment. Joseph G. Worker. Railroad Herald, vol. 23, no. 1, Dee. 1918. 
pp. 9-14, 7 figs. Results of tests on overfeed type of stoker with smaller size? 
of nos. 1, 2 and 3 buckwheat coal and tables giving performance of underfeed 
stoker as applied to various sizes of boilers and burning different grades of conl. 

FiEi, (Conservation. The Fuel Situation in New England. B. B. Pollock. Official 
Proc. N. Y, R. R. Club, vol. 29, no 1, Dec. 1918. pp. 545.5-54.56. Measures 
taken to meet coal shortage by Federal Administrator, floston & Maine R. R. 

Some Important Points in Fuel Conservation, Robert Collett. Ry. Ago. 
vol. 65. no. 25. Dec. 20. 1918. pp. 1121-1123. Why we must still save fuel; 
plan of organization; lessons learned from personal experience. From papi-r 
before New England Railroad Club. 

Hand-Fired Plants. Fuel Economy in Hand-Fired Power Plants — V. Power Plair 
Eng.. vol. 22, no. 24, Dee. 15, 1918, pp. 987-989. Feed water heating and 
purification. Abstract of circular 7, Umv.Tll. Eng. Experiment Station. 

Indiana Coaus. Burning Indiana Coal on the Chain Grate, T. A. Marsh. Pow- : 
vol. 49, no. 1, Jan, 7, 1919, pp. 17-1*^. 7 figs. Characteristics of Indiana scrcci 
ings from four seams supplying mott of steaming coal; need of large grate area. 
large furnace volume ann strong draft to give capacity, and long, high-pitched 
arches. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



139 



Iowa Coais. Burning the Low-GracJo Coal of Iowa, T. A. Marsh. Towor, vol. IS. 
no. 27, Dec. 31, 1918, pp. 940-941, 4 Grs. Burning Iowa coal on chain grate 
Being low in heat value, high in aah and of clinkcring, non-coking variety, 
thia coal requires, for successful burniuK. practically continuous ash disposal 
and non-agitation of fire. Also Elec. World, vol. 72, no. 25, Dec. 21, 1018. 
pp. 1166-1168, 4 figs. General considerations to observe in selecting atokera and 
in designing furnaces; specific changes which can be made in order to adapt 
existing stokers to low-grade fuels. 

Lignites. The Firing of Pulverized Lignite. M. C. Hatch. Jl. Elec, vol. 41, 
no. 12, Dec. 15, 1918, pp. 5:î9-541. Advantages in pulverizing; methods of 
handling furnace design for pulverized fuel; caculation of total coat. 

Notes on Lignite. Its Characteristics and Utilization, S. M. Darling. 
Power House, vol 11, no. II. Nov. 1918. pp. 328-331. Abstract of U. S. Bureau 
of Mines paper. 

Powdered Coal. Pulverized Coal and Ita Preparation, J. M. Wadsworth. Jl. 
Elec, vol.41, no. 11, Dec 1, 1918, pp. 511-512, 2 figa. Arrangement of machinery 
in small coal pulverizing plant. Compiled for Western needs by technical 
staff of Fuel Administration. First of series. 

Stokers. Power Plant Management VI Mechanical Stokers, Robert June, Refrig. 
World, vol. 53, no. 12, Dee. 1918, pp. 2325, 3 figs. Efficiency of stokers; 
smoke alleviation; characteristics of individual chain-grate stokers. 

Storage. Effect of Storage on Coal (II), Coal Trade Ji.. year 50, no. 51, Dec. 1918 
pp. 1481-14S2. Analytical data acciunalated during weathering tests made 
by Eng. Experiment Station of Univ. of III. Tests covered period of sis years. 
Coals used were from Illinois field. (Continuation of serial.) 

Wood. Waste Wood as a Fuel Possibility, O. F. Stafford. Jl. Elec, vol. 41, no. 12, 
Dec. 15, 1918, pp. 541-543. Suggests conversion of wood waste into ethyl 
alcohol, direct fuel and powdered charcoal which might be sued directly in 
specially designed Diesel engine. 

FURNACES 

Annealing Furnaces. Continuous Type Annealing Furnace, Philip D'H. Dressier. 
Iron Trade Rev., vol. G3, no. 25, Dec 19, 1918, pp. 1416-1417, 5 figs. Deals 
specially with a form of continuous car-type annealing furnace. Disscusion of 
H. E. Diller's paper before Am. Foundrymen's Assn. 

Heat Treating. Equipment Data on Heat Treat Furnaces, Am. Drop Forger, 
vol. 4, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 437-439, 6 figa. Discusses refractory materia!, 
fuel-oil burners and other furnace equipment. 

Insulation. Value of Heat Insulation in Furnaces, A. W. Knight. Am. Drop 
Forger, vol. 4, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 451-453. Discusses particularly use of 
insulation as applied to annealing ovens. 

Pressures. Graphical Examination of Pressures of Hot Gases and Vapors in Furnaces 
and Chimneys (Etude de quelques cas généraux de pression de gaz chauds et 
fumées dana les fours et cheminées par représentation graphique), J. Seigle. 
Bulletin et comptes rendus mensuels de la Société de l'Industrie Minérale, 
series 5, vol. 14, 3d issue 1918, pp. 133-151, 17 figs. Variation of pressure at 
different points of enclosure containing hot gases when (1) enclosure is open 
at top (2) open at bottom, and when (3) it connects with another enclosure 
by conduit at top. 

HANDLING OF MATERIALS 

Dumper. Dumper at Sewalla Point Handles Two Cars at Once. Eng. Newa-Rec, 
vol. 81, no. 24, Dec. 12, 1918, pp. 1086-10S8, 5 figs. New facilities of Virginian 
Ry. at coal pier near Norfolk alao incude cars of 120 tons capacity, and long 
incline. 

Double Car Dumper for Handling Coal, A. F. Case. Iron Age, vol. 102, 
no. 24, Dec. 12, 1918, pp. 1435-1438, 7 figs. Description of new Sewalls point 



plant of Virginian Ry. 



HEAT TREATING 



Malle.a^lb Iron. Teats in AnneaUng Malleable Iron, H. E. Diller. Iron Trade 
Rev., vol. 63, no. 25, Dec. 19, 1918, pp. 1414-1416, 4 figs. Experiments conduct- 
ed to determine time necessary for annealing; study of results and indication of 
possibility of annealing in 48 hr.: microphotographs, description of continuous 
car-type heating furnace. Paper at annual meeting of Am. Foundrymen's 
Aasn. 

STEEL 

Steel. Art of Heat Treating. D. N. A. Blacet. Ry. Jl., vol. 25, no. 1, Jan. 1919, 
pp. lS-20. Economical aspect of adding metalurgiat to personnel of plants 
manufacturing steel parts; general considerations regarding selection of 
specifications. From Jl. Am. Steel Treaters' Soc. 

Surface Combustion. Application of the Surface Combustion Process to Heat 
Treating and Similar Work. John H. Bartlett, Jr. Proc Steel Treating Soc, 
vol. 1, no. 11, pp. 18-32. 12 figs. Generation and application of heat; propor- 
tioning of gas and air mixture; description of several installations for heat treat- 
ing; automatic heat-treating furnaces for large-size shells. 

HEATING AND VENTILATION 

Circulating Heating. Heating Shop Floors by Circulation. Metal Worker, 
vol. 90, no. 24, Dec. 13, 1918, pp. 662-663, 6 figs. Scheme to draw cold air 
form the floor. 

Factort Heating. Fuel Wastes in Factory Heating.» Charles L. Hubbard. Indus. 
Management, vol. 57, no. 1, Jan. 1919, pp. 23-2.5. Sources of losses; suggestions 
for economies; means for temperature control suited to different systems of 
heating. 



lIospiTVLS. Heating and Power Plant Economies for Hospitals, J. D. Kimball. 
Modern Hospital, vol. 11, no. 6, Doc. 1918, pp. 437-439. Fundameotals and 
recommendations of National Economy Program. Paper for convention of 

Am. Hospital Assn. 

Moisture Removal. The Removal of Moisture from Special Rooms and Buildings. 
Charles L. Hubbard. Domestic Eng.. vol. 85, no. 8. Nov. 23. 1918, pp. 283-285 
and 313-315, 6 figs. Notes on installation of ventilating systems in laundries, 
dye houses, paper mills, foundries, flax mills, etc. 

Office-Building, Ventilation. Air Supply for a I^arge General Office Building, 
Samuel R. Lewis. Heat & Vent. Mag., vol. 15, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 21-26, 
16 figs. Past and present practice illustrated in remarkable installation for 
Swift & Co., Chicago. 

Radiators. Figuring Direct Radiator Heating Service, W. B. Gray. Metal Worker, 
vol. 90, no. 24, Dec. 13, 1918, pp. 653-655 and 658, 2 figs. Describes method 
said to insure correctness and to be of practical application by heating 
contractors. 

Rector System of Gas Heating. New Heating System, Geo. S. Barrows. Gas 
Indus., vol. 18, no. 12. Dec. 1918, pp. 363-369, 7 figa. Extensive description 
of Rector system of gas heating. 

Steam Heating. Care of Heating and Ventilating Equipment, Harold L. Alt. Power, 
vol. 48, no. 26, Dec. 24, 1918, pp. 910-912, 3 figs. Describes gravity one-pipe 
steam system. (Sixth article.) 

HOISTING AND CONVEYING 

Cablewayb. Aerial Cableways Successful in Northwest Shipyards. Eng. News- 
Rec, vol. 82. no. 1, Jan. 2, 1919, pp. 37-40, 5 figs" Similar to loggers cableways: 
abiUty to get men expert in handling them ia one secret of success; well-planned 
installations are fast and flexible. 

Cranes. Stothert-Pitt 35-Ton Ivocomotive Crane (Grue-locomotive de 35 tonnes 
système Stothert et Pitt.) Génie Civil, vol. 73. no. 11, Sept. 14, 1918. pp. 
201-203, 5 figs. General arrangement and plans showing dimensions. 

HYDRAULIC MACHINERY 

Conduits, Loss op Pressure Head. On the High Velocities of Water in Conduits 
(Sur les grandes vitesses de l'eau dans les conduites), C. Mamichel. Revue 
Générale de l'Electricité, vol. 4. no. 21. Nov. 23, 1918, pp. 788-790, 1 fig. Experi- 
mental results said to have demonstrated loss of pressure head for velocities 
up to 260 ft. per sec, to be the same as for velocities of 30 ft. per sec. 

Penstock Pipe. Sa\-ingtheWaste in Penstock Pipe Design (U), B. F. Jakobsen. Jl. Elec, 
vol. 41, no. 11, Dec 1, 1918, pp. 504-505, 2 figs. Presentation and discussion 
of various formulse to determine manner in which available money should be 
distributed among different items in order to get maximum economy. (Con- 
tinued from Nov. 1, issue.) 

Water Hammer. Maxima Excess Pressures Produced by Water Hammer (Sovra- 
pressioni massime nei fenomeni die colpo d'ariete), Maurice Gariel. Abstract 
of article published in Revue Générale de l'Electricité, Sept. 2J, (See Eng. 
Index, Jan., Mech. Eng., Hydraulic Machy. , Water Hammer.) 

Notes on the Size and Location in Forced Conduits of Water Hammer 
Relief Devices. (Remarques au sujet des conditions à remplir par certains 
dispositifs destinés à atténuer les coups de bélier deas les conduites forcées), 
Compte de Sparre. Revue Générale de l'Electricité, vol. 4, nos. 19 and 20, 
Nov. 9 and 16, 1918, pp. 685-690 and 731-740, 1 fig. Nov. 9: Mathematical 
analysis of phenomena taking place, by reason of elasticity of water and conduit, 
in surge tank which opens a compensating orifice when water hammer reaches 
a certain value, the orifice having such dimensions that water hammer will 
never exceed a permissible maximum. Nov. 16: Application of principles 
established in proceding installment to calculation of permissible minimum 
dimensions of surge tanks which will insure a constant value of water hammer 
during compression. 

INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES 

Buckeye Barrett Engine. Buckeye Barrett Crude Oil Engine. Indus. Manage- 
ment, vol. 57, no. 1. Jan. 1919, pp. 72-73, 2 figs. Low-compression type burning 
hea\-ier grades of fuel and designed for service where an engine must run for 
weeks under full load without a stop. 

Design. The Working Process of Internal Combustion Engines, E. H. Sherbondy. 
Aerial Age, vol. 8, no. 11, Nov. 25, 1958, pp. 564-568, 7 figs. Historial review 
of inventions which have tended to improve engine efficiency. 

Internal Combustion Engine Development, R. E. Neale. Eng. Rev., 
vol. 32. no. 5, Nov. 15, 1918, pp. 130-132. _ Indicates lines open to further 
development particularly in direction of lightening low-speed engines by 
adoption of higher piston speeds. (To be continued.) 

Diesel Engine Fuel Pumps. The Design and Construction of Diesel Engine Fuel 
Pumps, G. L. Kirk. Engineering, vol. 106, no. 2759, Nov. 15, 1918, pp. 549-551, 
10 figs. Four systems of oil distributon; system of regulation; determina- 
tion of clearances; constructional details; control lever. 

Ignition. Operation of Internal-Combuation-Engino Magnetos (Sul funzionamento 
del magneti di accensione dei motori a scoppio), Emilio Biffi. L'Elettrotecnnica, 
vol. 5, no. 29, Oct. 15, 1918, pp. 407-411, 6 figs. Various aspects of spark; 
study of its oscillatory character; conclusions in regard to magneto operaion., 
(Concluded.) 

Ignition Timing and Valve Setting, Vermont Wells. Am. Blacksmith, 
vol. 17, no. 12, Sept. 191S, pp. 291-293, 4 figs. Rules for timing ignition in 
different makes of cars. 

British Magneto Manufacture. Gas & Oil Power, vol. 14, no. 158, Nov. 7 
1918, pp. 20-22, 3 figs. General dimensions and brief outline of magneto 
manufactured by British Lighting and Ignition Co. 

Dixie Standard Aircraft Magnetos. Automotive Indus., vol. 39, no. 23, 
Dec. 5, 1918, pp. 954-957, 6 figs. Type which may be adapted to various 
engines; methods used in manufacture of magneto magnets. 



140 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Semi-Diksel Enginks. Scnii-Dicscl Oil EnEÎncs. F. D. Wcbcr. Jl. EIcc, vol. 41. 
no. 12, Dec. 15, 1918, pp. 549-550, 4 figs. Types being UBcd to equip auxiliary 
wooden schoo era of 500 to 3000 tons capacity and straight motor schooners 
up to 1000 tons capacity. 

The Semi-Diesel Oil Engine, James Kichardson. GaA& Oil Power, vol. 14, 
no. 158, Nov. 7, 191S, pp. 2.'i-25. 9 figs. Development and operation. From 
paper before Diesel Engine Users' Assn. Also Mary. Market, no. 044, Dec. 6, 
191S, pp. 17-lS, 9 figs. Definition; comprcâsion pressure; flexibility; range of 
working. 

Val VIS, Poppet, Air-Flow Through. Air Flow Through Poppet Valves. Auto- 
motive Indus., vol. 39, no. 25. Dec. 19. 1918, pp. 1047-1051, 5 figs. Experimental 
investigation from which writer concludes that co-efficiont of efflux is practically 
constant for all pressure drops and nearly the same for valves of different sizes, 
at dual lifts expressed in per cent, of their respective diameters; considerations 
on n»imber of inlet valves to use. 

Air Flow Through Poppet Valves. Automotive Eng., vol. 3, no. 10, 
Dec. 1918, pp. 401-403, 1 fig. Data on valve fizes; investigation of merits of 
multiple valves. {To be continued.) 

W'lNTON Marine Engine. The Latest Winton Mariuc Oil Engine. Automotive Eng., 
vol. 3, no. 10. Dec. 1918. pp. 447-450. 5 figs. Rc\icw of mechanical details 
of 500 and 25()-hp. units of Diesel-tvpe revirsible mitor. 

See also ELECTRICAL ENGISEERING, EUctrophysics {Spark Plug 
Insulators). 

LUBHICATION 

Bearing De.<*ign. Oiling System and Bearing Designs. A. E. Windram. Tran. 
Inst. Marine Engrs.. vol. 30, no. 238, Oct. 1918. nr>. 209-210. 13 figs. Method 
of making main bearing, crankpin and erossheaa brafses oiltight by means of 
drilling crank webs into oil rings or grooves turned round center of journal, 
and corresponding oil ring or groove in center of brasses connected with pipes 
from bra.sses to brasses, which are made oiltight by scaling rings on ends of 
brasses. 

Oils. Properties of Oils and Their Relation to Lubrication (Propiedades de los aceites; 
su relacion eon la lubricacion). Boletin de la Sociedad de Fomento Fabril, 
year 35, no. 8, Aug. 1918. pp. 537-542. S^nificance of tests for acidity, carbon- 
residue, oxidation, volatility, surface tension, emulsion, heat and density. 
See also MARINE ENGINEERING. Ships {Lubrication): 

MACHINE ELEMENTS AND DESIGN 

Cbankshafts. Hair- Line Defects in Crankshafts, P. J. Piccirilli. Automotive 
Industries vol. 39. nos. 25 and 26, Dee. 19 and 20 ,1918. pp. 10^1-1044. 1104-1105 
and 1122, 15 figs. Metallographic study and physical tests of chromenickel 
steel crankshafts to determine nature and effect of so-called hair-lined efeets 
on their physical strength. 

Springs. A new theory of Plate Springs, David Landau and Percy H. Parr. Jl. 
Franklin Inst., vol. 186, no. 6, Dec. 1918. pp. 099-721. S figs. Mathematical 
generalization of propositions advanced in first paper, vol. 185, Apr. 1918, 
p. 481. Special attention given to effect of tapering ends and constructing 
springs so that leaves continue in contact everywhere on application of load. 
(To be concluded.) 

The Springs of the Car (IV) F. M. Paul. Am. Blacksmith, vol. 17, no. 12 
Spt. 1918, pD- 298-299, 9 figs. Considers effect of thickness in regard to 
deflection and load. 

MACHINE SHOP 

Chisei.. The Cold Chisel, J. A. Lucas. Power, vol. 48. no. 24, Dec 10, 1918. pp. 83S- 
841, 27 figs. Description of various t>-pes of cold chisels and their uses. 

Cylinder MANVFAcrfHE. Cylinder Boring and Reaming. Franklin D. Jones. 
Machy., vol. 25, no. 5. January 1919, pp. 383-394, 20 figs. First of series of 
articles dealing with boring, reaming and grinding of cylinders, and tools, 
fixtures and machines used. 

Manufacture of Cvlinders for the Hall-Scott Aeroplane Engine. Richard 
Vosbrink. Metal Trades, vol. 9, no. 12, Dec. 1918. pp. 475-479, 11 figs. 
Operations followed at California plant to produce accurate results. 

Di3iGN. Novel Plant of .\raerican Tool Company, C. L. Smith. Iron Age, vol. 103, 
no. 1. Jan. 2, 1918, pp. 29-33. 10 figs. Latest ideas in heating and ventilating, 
lighting feature.*', transportation facilities, sanitation, handling turnings; unusual 
drive for planers; machine foundations. 

Designing a Shop for Present Day Needs, C. E. Edmund. Am. Drop 
Forger, vol. 4, no. 11. Nov. 1918, pp. 431-433. Considerations on location, 
construction and operation of forge plant. 

Gages. Notes on the Computing of Gage Tolerance-s, M.H.Potter. Can. Machy, 
vol. 20. no. 24, Dec. 12, 1918. pp. 670-672, 6 figs. CIassifie.<f and studies the more 
frequent troubles experienced with gages and gives rules and formulœ for comput- 
ing allowable tolerances for varioas gages. A square hole gage and a depth 
gage are referred to but the rules proposed apply in general to all gages. 

Apparatus for Checking Screw Threads. Automotive Indus., vol. 38, 
no. 24, Dec. 12. 1918, pp. 1008-1010. 4 figs. Methods of operating machines 
u.sed for inspection of plug and ring thread gages and similar threaded parts 
requiring great accuracy. 

Flush-pin. Sliding Bar and Hole Gages. Erik Obcrg. Machy. vol. 25, 
no. 5 Jan. 1919, pp. 404-412. 34 figs. Principles involved and procedure, 
followed by Pratt & Whitney Co. in developing gaging systems for interchange- 
able manufacture. Fourth article. 

Contour or Profile Gages, Erik Oberg. Machy.. vol. 25. no. 4, Dec. 1918, 
pp. 301-308, 31 figs. Principles involved and procedure followed in developing 
gaging systems for interchangeable manufacture. Based upon experience of 
Pratt & Whitney Co. in furnishing gaging equipment for small arms and heavy 
ordnance work. Third article. 

Gear Cctting. The Manufacture of Spiral Bevels. Automobile Engr., vol. 8, 
no. 121, Dec. 1918, pp. 336-339, 6 figs. Description of Gleason machine for 
that purpose. 

Problem of the Theoretically Correct Involute -Hob. Nikola Trbojevich. 
Machy., vol. 25, no. 5, Jnn. 1919, pp. 429-433, 3 figs. Mathematical theory 
developed . 



Grinding, Grinding of Hardened Work, C. H. Norton. Proc. Steel Treating 
Research Soc, vol. 1. no. 11, pp. 15-17. Norton Grinding Co.'a experience; 
suggestion in regard to grinding. 

Grinding Operations on " Caterpiller " Tractor Parts. Frank A. Stanley* 
Am. Mach.. vol. 50, no. 1, Jan. 2, 1919, pp. 1-417 figs. Grinding operations 
include finishing of great variety of gears, bushings, shafts, piston pins, case 
covers, etc.; details of wheels, limits of accuracy, etc. 

Grinding Round Work Without Centers. Am. Mach., vol. 50, no. 1, 
Jan. 2. 1919, pp. 4-5, 4 figs. Describes new grinding machine built by Detroit 
Tool Co. 

Pistons and Rings. The Manufacture of Pistons and Rings. A. Thomas. Auto- 
mobile Engr.. vol. 8, no. 121, Dec. 1918, p. 358, 3 figs. Notes on operation of 
Potter-Johnson automatic machine. 

Repair Work. .Vutomotive Repair Work in the Machine Shop, Donald A. Hampson. 
Can. Machy., vol. 20. no. 24, Dec. 12, 1918. pp. 005-068. 7 figB. Practical 
observations on methods of increasing pedal leverage, making a working clutch, 
inserting cotters in unseen holes, fitting rings in cylinder, increasing size of cant 
iron parts, reaming under.->ize in east iron and other similar operations. 

The Renair Shoo, Automobile Engr., vol. 8, nos. 120 and 121, Nov. 1918 
and Dec. 1918, pp. 312-315 and 341-345. 25 figs. Nov. 1918; Note-; on heavy 
vehicle design from viewpoint of repair and maintenance. Radiator; engine; 
clutch; engine suspension; gear box; universal joints and brakes. Dec. 1918; 
peals with rear axle; road wheels and bearings; chassis lubrication, spring and 
pins; frame; steering and front axle; controls. 



MACHINERY. METAI^ WORKING 

Boring Mill. Blomquist-Eck Horizontal Boring Mill. Machy., vol. 25, no. 5, 
Jan. 1919, pp. 465-406, 2 figs. General description with illustrations. 

Lathes. Large Lathes for Machining Turbine Spindles, A. M. M. Machy, vol. 25, 
no. 5, Jan. 1919, pp. 439-442, 3 figs. Illustrated description of some large 

lathes. 

Planer. Newton Upright Generating Planer, Machy.. vol. 25. no' 5. Jan. 1919. 
pp. 473-474, 4 figs. Description of machine built by Newton Kfachine Tool 
Works, Inc., Philadelphia, Fa. 

Reamers. Types of Reamers and Their Use, E. C. Peck. Machy.. vol. 25. no. 4, 
Dec. 1918, pp. 335-337, 6 figs. Description of various types of reamers. 

Relieving M.\chine. Universal Relieving Machine for Hobs and Cutters. Machy., 
vcl. 25. no. 5, Jan. 1919, pp. 467-468, 2 figs. Description of machine built 
by T. C. Mfg. Co., Harrison, N.J. 

Steel High-Speed. The Evolution of a High-Speed Steel Tool, T. L. Thorne. Proc 
Steel Treating Research Soc. vol. 1, no. 11, pp. 33-43. Analyses of several 
high-speed steel specimens; influence of silicon, manganese, sulphur, plospborus 
chromium, vanadium and tungsten on characteristic properties of steel; practice 
followed in its manufacture; forms of furnaces used; heat-treating and tools. 

A New Air-Hardening High-Speed Steel. Am. Drop Forger, vol. 4, no. 1 1. 
Nov. 1918, pp. 435-430. 2 figs. Experiences of users of a steel made without 
tungsten by Cuyahoga Crucible Foundry Co. 

Stellite. Stellite and High-Speed Steel Compared. Iron Age, vol. 102. no. 26, 
Dec. 26, 1918, pp. 1584-1585. 2 fig. Hardness at different temperatures; 
stellite softer in raw state; relative cutting tests on three materials. 

See also RAILROAD ENGINEERING, Shops (Tools, Brass- IForkini:): 
MUNITIONS AND MILITARY ENGINEERING, Tools for Shell 
Manufacture. 

MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF MATERIALS 

Notched Bars. Some Experiments on Notched Bars, H. T. Philpot. Jl. Soc 
Automotive Engrs., vol. 3, no. 6, Dec. 1918, pp. 347-357. 3 figs. Tests to 
obtain dimensions and shapes for round notched bar for use in acceptance testa 
on heat-treated steels in place of standard square tjTpe A test piece. Paper 
befor Instn. Automobile Engrs. of Great B itain. 

Hardness. The Ludwik Hardness Test, W. Cawthorne Unwin. Jl. Instn. Mech, 
Engrs.. no. 6. Nov. 1918, pp. 485^92. Traces relationship between indentation 
hardness tests of ductile metals. 

The Value of the Indentation Method in the Determination of Hardnes-s, 
R. G. C. Batson. Jl. Instn. Mech. Enger., no. 6, Nov. 1918. pp. 463-483. 
6 figs. Deals with determination or hardness by means of indentation produced 
by a static load and by impact of a ball or cone. 

Malleable Iron. Mallealilc Iron in Engineering Construction. H. A. Schwartz. 
Foundry, vol. 47, no. 317. Jan. 1919. pp. 19-24, 16 figs. Engineering properties 
and characteristics of malleable iron which recommend it for wide range of uses. 
From paper before Am. Foundrjinen's Assn. 

Optical Stress Determination. Stress Optical Experiments, A. R. Low. Flight. 
vol. 10. nos. 48-49, Nov. 28 and Dec. 5, 1918. pp. 1355-1356 and 1379-1381. 
12 figs. Determination of stress by optical methods. Nov. 28; Elementary 
theory; changes in uniform field as stress increases: null method of measurement; 
appearances in non-uniform field; enutral, isochromatic and isoclinic lines 
Dec. 5; Simplifications in case of bar under fiexure; error of obliquity ; observation 
of errors of parallax; general accuracy of optical obsevations of stress. Paper 
before Royal Aeronautical Soc. (To be continued.) 

RtJBBER. Ageing cf Vulcanized Plantation Rubber, Henry P. Stevens. Jl. Soc. 
Chem. Indus., vol. 37. no. 21. Nov. 15. 1918. pp. 305T-306T, 4 figs. Tests 
or ordinary pale rolled sheet and unrolled sheet. 

Testing Machines. Testing Machines in Industrial Laboratories H. S. Primrose 
and J. S. Glen Primrose. Can. Machv., vol. 20. nos. 23 and 25, Dec. 5 and 19, 
1918, pp. 64-647 and 696-699, 17 figs. * Necessity of estabUsbing specifications 
properly controlled by analysis and test in purchasing engineering materials 
and features of various testing machines. From Engineering. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



141 



Tkstino of Matkriaus. The Experimental Study of the Mechanical Properties of 
MatenaU. W. Cawthornc Unwin. Jl. Instn. Mcch. Kngr»., no. G, Nov. 191S, 
pp. 40j>-439. 13 figs. Early researches: chain-cable testing machines; large testing 
machines; Emery testing machine at Bureau of Standards; teats of reception 
tension tests, Wohler test, hardness tests, notched-bar tests. 

Wood Son\e Tests of Douglas Fir after Long Use. Arthur C. Alvarez. Univ. of 
Cal. PublicationsiuEni;..vol. 2, no. 2. Nov. IS, 191S. pp. 57-118, 17 figs. Results 
of 1201) tests on strength, elastic properties and moi.sture content; includes 
27 tables of measured and computed mechanical cocfHcients. 

MEASUREMENTS AND MEASURING APPARATUS 

Calibration. On the Choice of a Uniform Temperature for the Calibration of 
Measuring Instruments (Sur le choix d'un degré uniforme de température 
pour rétalonnage des instruments de mesure). Ch. Cochet. Revue Générale 
de l'Electricité, vol. 4, no. 20, Nov IG. 1918, pp. 740-742. Report of Commission. 
de Normalisation des Ingénicvirs des Arts et Métiers de Boulogne-sur-Seiiio, 
recommending adoption of deg. cent, as standard. 

CiLORiMETERS. Calorimetric Metliods and Deviccs, Walter P. White. JI. Am. Chetn. 
Soc., vol. 40, no. 12, Dec. 1918. pp. 1SS7-1S80. 3 figs. Application of rules for 
calorimetric precision derived by writer to jacket covers and stirrers; vacuum- 
jacketed vessels: adiabatie method; aneroid or dry calorimeters; double or 
differential calorimeters; measured-shield calorimeters. 

Coke Testing. Coke Factors Affecting Furnace Operation, G. D. Cochrane, Blast 
Furnace, vol. 6, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 502-.5O4, and 512 1 fig. Coke-testing 
machine employed in experiment for determining coke hardness, Mechacinal 
condition of coke an important factor in furnace operation. 

PiCNOMETER. A Picnomctcr Operated as a Volumeter, H. G. Schurecht. Jl. Am. 
Ceramic Soc., vol. 1, no. 8, Aug. 1918, pp. 550-558, 1 fig. Same as ordinary 
picnometer but of .suflBciently large size and opening to permit introduction of 
a briquet into the bottle. Volume of briquet determined from standard 
formula in terms of weight and specific gravity of liquid. 

S \LiNOMETERS. An Instrument for Recording Sea- Water Salinity, A. L. Thuras, 
JI. Wash. Acad. Sci-, vol. S, no. 21, Dee. 19, 1918. pp. 676-687, 3 figs. Surface 
salinity of ocean determined by measuring ratio of resistances of sea water in 
two similar electrolytic cells. Accuracy limited by that with which salinity 
of standard sea water carried in sealed cell is known. Table given showing 
conductivity of sea water throughout range of concentration found in open 
ocean. 

Scales. Oscillations in Scales. Eugene Motchman. Scale Jl., vol. 5, no. 3, Dec- 10, 
1918, pp. 7-9, 4 figs. Use of modern lôO-ton beam apçlied to railroad track 
scales without loose weight. (Continuation of serial.) 

MECHANICAL PROCESSES 

Boilers. Boiler Making in an English Shop, A. L. Haas. Boiler Maker, vol. IS, 
no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 333-337, 11 figs. Hopwood, Cornish, Lancashire and 
Britannia types; shop conditions; position drilling; combustion chamber crown; 
seven-hour tests. 

Manufacturing Marine Steam Boilers, E. A. Suverkrop. Am. Mach., 
vol. 49, no. 26. Dec. 26. 1918. pp. 1155-1163, 21 figs. Description of building 
operations of single-ended, three-furnace Scotch marine boilers at shop of 
Sun Shipbuilding Co., Chester, Pa., where production has reached as high as 
nine per month. 

Cass. A Modern Can- Making Plant in a Baking Powder Factory, J. V. Hunter. 
Am. Mach-, vol. 49, no. 26, Dec. 26, 1918, pp. U73-1176, 11 figs. Description 
of process of making tin cans. 

Chains. The Manufacture of Diamond Transmission Chain, J. V. Hunter. Am. 
Mach., vol. 49, no. 23, Dec. 12, 1918, pp. 1077-lOSO, 14 figs. Assembling 
work. Fourth article. 

Clocks. Applications of Magnetic Gears in Electric Clockmaking (Engrenages 
magnétiques. Application .^ l'horlogerie électrique), Pierre Sève. Comptes 
rendus des séances de l'Académie des Sciences, vol. 167, no. 19, Nov. 4, 1918, 
pp 681-683. Mutual action of two disks having magnets attached at regular 
intervals in their perpheries; disposition to provide magnetic escapement. 

Engines, Oil. Quantity Production of Engines at the Skandia Pacific Plant, Geo. 
N. Somerville. Metal Trades, vol. 9. no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 429-434, 10 figs. 
Operations in various sizes of oil engines. 

Lubricator. Manufacturing a Mechanical Lubricator, M. E. Hoag. Am. Mach., 
vol. 49, no. 26, Dec. 26, 1918. and vol. 50, no. 1, Jan. 2. 1919, pp. 1183-1185 
and 23-26, 18 figa. 

Plates. See Rolling MiUs below. 

Quarrying. Rock Quarrying for Cement Manufacture, Oliver Bowles. Department 
of Interior. Bur of Mines, bul. 160, min. technology 22, 160 pp., 31 figs. Chief 
types of cement; growth of cement industry in U. S.; character of raw materials 
used; quarrying method and equipment with special reference to drilling and 
blasting; rock mining and prospecting. 

Radiators. Building Radiators for Automobiles and Other Purposes, Ellsworth 
Sheldon. Am. Mach.. vol. 49. no. 20. Doc. 26. 1918. pp. 1165-1169. 18 figs. 
Description of certain processes involved in manufacture of cellular type of 
radiator. 

Rolling Mills. Design of Rolls for Making Ship and Boiler Plates. S. W. Staniford. 
Machy., vol. 25. no. 5, Jan. 1919, pp. 396-400, 1 fig. Rolling-mill practice; 
drafts of slabbing and plate-mill rolls; universal mill; surface speed of rolls, 
rolling tin plate. 

The Liberty Mill of the Carnegie Steel Company, Charles A. Menk and 
F. L. Hunt. Elec. Jl.. vol. 15, no. 12, Dec. 1, 1918. pp. 483-489. IS figa. Layout 
of buildings and equipment of completely electrically-driven plate mill. 



Valley Companv Now Rolls Plates. Iron Trade Rev., vol. 63, no. 25, 
Dec. 19, 19"l8, pp. H03-140'i, 3 figs. Operation and details of clcctrically- 
driven steel plant with annual capacity of 350,000 tons. 

Selecting Proper Size Mill Roll?. F. Johnson. Iron Trade Rev., vol. 63, 
no. 26, Dec. 26, 1918, pp. 1406-146S, 7 figs. Outline of relative advantages 
obtained by using rolls of small or large diameter for effecting a given reduction; 
cficct of cold-working on physical properties of various metals. From paper 
before Birmingham Metallurcical Soc, Engknd. 

A New Departure in Rolling Mills. Iron Age, vol. 103, no. 1, Jan. 2, 1919, 
pp. 41-44, 6 figs. Neither lifting tables nor reversing drive employed; design 
developed by Mackintosh, Hemphill & Co. 

Lukens Plate Mill is Largest in the World. Iron Age, vol. 103, no. 1, 
Jan. 2. 1919, pp. 56-59, 5 figs. Description of the mill. 

Brier Hill Steel Co.'s New Plate Mill. Iron Age, vol. 102, no. 25. Dec. 19, 
1918, pp. 1521-1524, figs. World's largest mill building: houses and 84 and 
132-in. units; power entirely electric; boiler plant dispensed with. 

Blooming Mill Now Rolling Plates. Iron Trade Rev., vol. 63. no. 23, 
Dec. 5, 1918, pp. 1285-1288, 4 figs. Account of rebuilding of mill, orginally 
designed for breaking down ingots, to air rapid transformation from shell steel 
to peace-time commercial product. 

Sawmills. Small Sawmills: Their Equipment, Construction and Operation, Daniel 
F. Seerey. U. S. Department of Agriculture, bul. 71S, Dec. 17. 1918, 68 pp. 
Suggestions to portable sawmill operators regarding methods of organization, 
milling, and lodging which have been proved by experience to give the best 
results. Written particularly for operator^? in National Forest timber. 

Shell and Ivory Articles. Making Shell Buckles and Brooches, Robert Maw?on. 
Am. Mach., vol. 50. no. 1. Jan. 2, 1919. pp. 20-22. 13 figs. Making of buckles 
and brooclies from shells and ivory performed as far as possible on machines, 
but some operations are done by hand. 

Shovels. Shovels Made Out of Old Locomotive Tires, W. S. Standiford. Can. 
Machy.. vol. 20, no. 25, Dec. 1918. pp. 693-695, 3 figs. Description of 
manufacturing process. 

Tanks, Pressure. Tables for the Design of Pressure Tanks. John A, Cole. Boiler 
Maker, vol. 18, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 349-351. Specifications for cylindrical 
pressure tanks; single-riveted lap girth seams, for use when girth and longitudinal 
seams are the same size; safe working pressures for cylindrical tanks of various 
diameters; safe working pressures on convex and dished heads. 

Tractor. Manufacturing of Farm Tractor, M. E. Hoag. Am. Mach., vol. 49, 
no. 25, Dec. 19, 1918, pp. 1135-1137. Description of shop arrangement of MoUne 
Plow Co. 

MECHANICS 

Balancing. Dynamic and Static Balancing .Edward K. Hammond. Machy., 
vol. 25. nos. 4 and 5, Dec 1918 and Jan. 1919. pp- 285-292 and 422-426, 26 figs. 
Two articles explaining conditions which must be fulfilled in balancing machine 
members, and methods of conducting work. 

Stress Theory. The Specification of Stress, Part V, R. F. Gwyther, Memoirsà Proc. 
Manchester Literary & Phil. Soc, vol. 62. part 1. Aug. 7, 1918, pp. 1-11. Formal 
solution of elastic stress equations; theory of displacements of materials bodies 
as consequence of stress; results of hypothesis that nine elements of stress may 
be functions of nine first differential co-efficients of components of some vector; 
fundamental equations estimating forces causing rate of change of momentum 
and expression of corresponding rate of change of momentum. 

Vibration. Vibration: Mechanical, Musical and Electrical. Edwin H. Barton. 
Sci. Am. Supp-, vol. 87, no. 2244. Jan. 4, 1919, p. 5. Analogies and experimental 
verification of laws governing vibratory motion. Discourse delivered at Royal 
Instn. From Engineering. 

MOTOR-CAR ENGINEERING 

Acceleration Determined by Mechanical Differentiometer. Automobile 
Performance Analyzed by Mechanical Differentiation. Armin Elmendorf. 
Automotive Indus.', vol. 40, no. 1, Jan. 2. 1919, pp. 11-46, 17 figa. Determina- 
tion of accelaration from time and distance observations by means of mechanical 
differentiometer. 

Carburetors. Carburetor Adjustments of Twenty Leading Automobiles. George 
H. Murphy. Am. Blacksmith, vol. 17. no. 12, Sept. 1918. pp. 301-303. 9 figs. 
Instructions for making adjustments. (To be concluded.) 

Design. Post-War Chassis. Automobile Engr., vol. S, nos. 120 and 121, Nov. and 
Dec. 1918, pp. 304-305 and 339-340. Nov. 1918; possible effects of aircraft 
engine experience and other factors bearing upon design. Piston?; valve position 
and actuation; valves. Dec. 1918, Valve springs; valves rockers; connecting 
rods; crankshafts; lubrication. 

Analvsis of Gas and Gasoline High-Speed Engine Design, Harry R. Ricardo 
Int. Mar.Eng., vol. 23. no. 12, Dec. 1918. pp. 673-677. Gorups of mechanical 
losses depend upon form of pipe work; volumetric efficieny and piston design. 
Second article. 

Differentials. The Allen Self-Locking Differential. Automotive Indus., vol. 39 
no. 26, Dec. 26, 1918, p. 1099, 2 figs. Device embodying reversible ratchet 
principle. Drive on curves is through inner wheel. 

Engines. Used Airplane Engines for Automobile Installation. Frank F. Tenney. 
Automotive Eng., vol. 3 no. 10, Dec. 1918, pp. 457 and 463. Why engines 
which have outlived their usefulness in air service may still be of service of other 
uses. 

Exports. Export Opportunities for Automotive Products, (11). Automotive F^ng», 
vol. 3j no. 10, Dec. 1918, pp. 454-456. Export of American combustion engine 
from 1914 to 1917; motor boats and marine machinery in Siam; demand for 
motor boats in Denmark; high fuel limits in South America; market tractors in 
Cuba; tractors in farming sctions of Waives. Continuation of serial.) 

Cultivating Japanese Automotive Field (III), Tom O. Jones. Automotive 
Indus.^ vol. 39, no. 23, Dec.5. 1918, pp. 970-971. Typos of automobiles desired ; 
equipment and finish; automobile building in Japan. (To bo continued). 



142 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



riiANCE. Tho Automobile after the Wor, GcorKCs Côtf . Automotive Indus , vol. 39, 
no. 2.), Dec. 19, 1918, pp. 1057-1058 and 1075. Views and sugEcstions to 
automobile manufacturera of France as to means and methods of mooting 
reconstruction problems and foreign competition. 

Fuels. Benzol Superior to Onsoline as .\uto Fuel. Gas .Aee, vol, 11!. no. 11.', Dec. lU, 
19 IS, iip. 548-550, 2 figs. Result of comparative tests made h.v Automobile 
Club of .\merica; 90 per cent benzol said to give higher brake hp- at less fuel 
consumption by the motor. 

Liberty Fuel. Liberty Fuel. A Chemical Marvel. E. W. Roberts. Gas Eng. 
vol. 21. no. 1, Jan. 1919, pp. 1-4, 8 figs. Description of fuel with rcportof 
U. S. Govermncnt tests. 

Properties of Liberty Fuel and Results of Economy Tests. Power, vol. 49 
no. 1, Jan. 7, 1919, pp. 9, 2 figs. Particulars as to nature and characteristics 
of new fuel. 

IIEADLIOBTS. Headlamp Glare. Jl. Soc. .\utomotivc Engrs.. vol. 3, no. 0, Dec. 1918, 
. 364-36(j. ,\ccount of work done and bases followed by committee of Ilium. 
Êfng. Soc. in preparation of headlight specifications. 



Eat 



M.\NUFACTCRiNa PROBLEMS. Why So Many Motor Models? George F. Crouch. 
Motor Boat, vol. 15, no. 23, Dec. 10, 1918. pp. 18-20, 3 figs. Osberves that 
concentration by manufacturer on fewer sizes would mean better moters, better 
service and lower cost. 

Radiators. Principles of Tractor Radiator Design, E. Gnldberger. Automotive 
Indus., vol. 3S, no. 24, Dec. 12, 1918, pp. 1000-1003. 3 figs. Equations ahowmg 
dependence of radiator capacity on temperatures, rates of flow and inherent 
characteristics; advantages of thermosiphon cirulation in tractor work. 

Steam Vehicles. A New British Coke-Fired Steam Commercial Vehicle. Auto- 
motive Indus., vol. .39. no. 22, Nov. 28, 1918, pp. 919-922, 6 figs. Three-ton 
chassis having aiitomatic control of steam-generating functions and manual 
control of devices arranged as on a gasoline vehicle. 

SOSPENSIOS. Houdaille Brings Out Adjustable Car Suspension, F. W. Bradley 
Automotive Indus., vol. 38, no. 24, Dec. 12, 1918, pp. 1004-1005, 2 figs. Device 
which permits moWng points of attachment of sprmgs to ear frame. 

Trictors. S. W. H. Tractor, a New Cleveland Product. Automotive Indus., vol. 39, 
no. 26, Dec. 26, 1918, pp. 1085-1088. 5 figs. Three-plow machine with pressed- 
steel semi-frame bolted to front end of transmission housing; engine and trans- 
mission independent. 

The Auto-Tiller, a Two-Horse Team Replacement Unit. Automotive 
Eng., vol. 3, no. 10, Dec. 1918, pp. 473-477, 5 figs. Field of unity and mechanical 
details of motor tractor for farm work operated by one man from a fixed position. 

Tro CKS. Regulation of Speed, Weight, Width and Height of Motor Trucks Discussed, 
George M. Graham. Eng. New.s-Rec. vol. 81, no. 25. Dec. 19, 1918, pp. 1109- 
1112. Regulation, while necessary, should not restrict expansion of motor 
truck: table of proposed dimensions, speeds, weights, and fees presented. From 
paper ijefore Joint Highway Congress. Chicago, Dec. 1918. 

Double Reduction Gear Drive for Heavy Duty Trucks. .\m. Blacksmith, 
vol. 18, no. 2, Nov. 1918, pp. 32-33. Operation of drive in new 3 and 5-ton, 
White models. 

Wheel. An Ela-stie Wheel (La roue élastique I. D.). Génie Civil, vol. 73, no. 20 
Nov. 10, 1918, pp. 393-394, 2 figs. Design which by means of helical springs 
attached to rim permits tangential effort on wheel to be distributed over a 
number of contact points of spring. 

PIPE 

See MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Corroucn (Pipe). 

See also MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Mechanical Processes 
(Radiators); Internal Combustion Engines (.Buckeye Barrett Engine); Machine 
Shop ^Repair Work). 

POWER GENER.\TION 

EXHADST Steam. Utilization of Exhaust Steam in Collieries for the Generation of 
Electrical Energy (Considérations sur l'utilisation des vapeurs d'échappement 
dans les houillères en vue de la production d'énergie électrique), A. Barjou. 
Industrie Electrique, year 27, nos. 621, 623, 627, 631 and 634. May 10, June 10, 
Aug. 10. Oct. 10 and Nov. 25, 1918. pp. 166, 171, 212.217, 2,87,293,373,379 
and425-430. 26 figs. May 10: theoretical aspect of problem. June 10: systems 
of regulating exhaust steam. Aug. 10: utilization of exhaust steam in low- 
pressure turbines. Oct. 10: Westinghouse-Leblanc system of condensation. 
Nov. 25; Brequet-Delaporte condenser. 

I'lUKs. Tides as a Source of Mechanical Power (Etude sur l'utilisation des njarées 
pour la production de la force motrice), F. Maynard, Revue Générale de l'Elec- 
tricité, vol. 4, nos. 19, 20 and 21, Nov. 9, 16 and 23, 1918, pp. 097-715, 749-762 
and 793-802, 14 figs. Brief description of 87 patents granted in France con- 
cerning devices for utilization of tidal energy and analyses of their practical 
values. (To be continued.) 

POWER PLANTS 

Boiler Water. Control of Concentrated Boiler Water is Essential, Hartley LeH. 
Smith. Elec Ry. Jl., vol. 52, no. 25, Dec. 21, 1918, pp. 1087-1091, 1 fig. 
Methods used for control of concentration in boilers; how ratio of concentration 
from headwater to boiler water i? determined ; calculation of boiler concentration 
control charts. 

Coal Economt. Coal Economy in a Small Steam Generating Station. Elec. Rec., 
vol. 24, no. 6, Dec 1918, pp. 27-28, 3 figs. Results secured in 290-kw. plant 
given as example of coal 8a\^ng. 

I'lub-Gas Analysis. Controlling Efficiency of Combustion, E. A. Uehling. Power, 
vol. 48, no. 26, Dec. 24, 1918, pp. 921-923. Use of flue-gas analysis for 
controlling combustion. 



FoRNACB Indicating Instruments. Meters and Gagt^s in Boiler Operation, E. A. 
Uehling. Power, vol. 48, no. 24, Dec. 10, lOls, pp. 842-811. Use of meters 
and gages in diagnosing condition of furnace. 

Hand Firing. Power Plant Management; Hand Firing, Robert June. Power 
House, vol. 11, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 315-317, 3 fiç:8. Standard practice; 
proper combustion conditions; thickness of fire; minimization of smoke. 

Individual Plants. Stcam-Goncrating Equipment of Mark Plant, Gordon Fox 
and V. E. Grenley. Power Plant Eng., vol. 22, no. 24, Dec. 15, 1918, op. 981- 
894, 3 figs. Description of certain features of new plant of .Steel &. Tube Co. 
of America. 

Power Plants in 1918. Review of the Year in the Power Field. Power, vol. 49. 
no. 1, Jan. 7, 1919, pp. 2-S. What has been new and of especial interest during 
1918. 

Scale in Boilers. Scale in Water-Tube Boilers. Monthly Jl. Utha Soc. Engrs., 
vol. 4, no. 9, Sept. 1918, pp. 175-176. Results of cleaning a 400-hp. Babcock 
&. Wilcox boiler after operating it or six months, with table indicating the 
amount of scale taken from each of its 14 sections. 

Transmission Losses. Wasting Power in the Using, L. W. .\Iwvn-Schmidt. Power 
Plant Eng., vol. 22, no. 24, Dec. 15, 1918, pp. 984-987. Transmission losses, 
waste of power at machine and methods suggested for overcoming them. 

Turbogenerator Plants. Operating Methods That Increase Economy, C. F. 
Hirshfeld and C. L. Karr. Elec. World, vol. 72, no. 24, Dec. 14, 1918. pp. 
1120-1124. 2 figs. Apply to turbo-generator plants: distribution of loads on 
boilers and turbines and economical operation of auxiliaries discussed. 

Economic (operation of Steam Turbo-Electric Stations, T. C. Hirshfeld 
and C. L. Karr. Elec. Rev., vol. 73, nos. 23 and 24, Dec. 7 and 14. 1918, pp. 88(V- 
890 and 923-928, 5 figs. Bureau of Mines Technical Paper discussing fuel- 
economy factors, load, distribution between units, boiler room and auxiuairies 
operation. 

Waste Heat. Waste Heat for Steam Generation . Thomas B. Mackenzie. Engineer- 
ing vol. 106 no. 2759 Nov. 15 1918 pp. 567-569, 2 figs. Utilization of waste 
heat from open-hearth furnaces for generation of steam. Paper before Iron 
& Steel Inst. Sept. 1918 

PRODUCER GAS 

Kiln Gas-Fired. Heat Balance on a Producer-Gas Fired Chamber Kiln, R. K. 
Hursh. Jl. Am Ceramic Soc. vol. 1 no. 8, Aug. 1918, pp. 567-577, 1 fig. 
Data ba.sed on tests of a kiln of 10 chambers, each holding 50.000 standard 
sized brick and on three 6-ft. water-sealed gas producers of the pressure type. 

Open-Hearth Furnaces. Waste Heat from Open Hearth Furnaces, Thomas B. 
Mackenzie. Blast Furnaces, vol. 6, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 48.8-492. 3 figs. 
Analysis of producer gas supplied to furnace; theoretical principles governing 
operation of waste-heat boilers; suggestions concerning layout of plant and boiler 
setting. Paper before British Iron & Steel Inst. (Concluded.) 

Wood. The Production of Power-Gas from Wood, Leslie B. Williams, Min. Mag., 
vol. 19, no. 5, Nov. 1918, pp. 246-250. Discusses composition of power gas 
from wood and methods of obtaining largest amounts of most effective 
components. 

PUMPS 

Motor-Driven Pumps. High Efficiencies Shown by Motor-Driven Water Works 
Pumps at St. Paul, Minn. Mun. & County Eng., vol. 55. no. 6. Deo. 1918, 
pp. 202-204, 2 iigs. Results obtained from tests of two 12-in. centrifugal 
pumps. 

REFRACTORIES 

Classification. Refractories. Clay- Worker, vol. 70, no. 6, Dec. 1918, pp. 504-505. 
Reasons for classification into acid, basic and neutral: construction, enectivenesa 
and uses of each of these classes; properties of some refractory clays. 

Firebrick. HoW Slag Temperatures Afifect Firebrick, Raymond M. Howe. Iron 
Trade Rev., vol. 63. no. 23, Dec. 5, 1918, pp. 1288-1289. Penetration of slag 
into brick was determined after allowing bricks, which were previously heated 
to required temperature, to retain in cavity 35 grams of slagfor 2 hrs.; tables 
given for various temperatures. Paper before Refractories Mfrs. Assn. 
Also Blast Furnace, vol. 6, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 484-485. 

Silica. Silica Refractories, Donald W. Ross, Jl. Am. Ceramic Soc.. vol. 1, no. 7, 
July 1918, pp. 477-499. 6 fifs, and (discussion) pp. 499-501. Experimental 
data on raw materials, manufacture and burning of silica brick, and properties 
of burned ware. 

REFRIGERATION 

AMMONIA. What Becomes of the Ammonia in Refrigerating Systems? George L. 
Reuschline, Am. Soc. Réfrig. Engrs. Jl., vol. 5, no. 3, Nov. 191S. pp. 161-167. 
Production of ammonia from normal sources; amount used in ice and refrigerating 
plants: actual needs and unavoidable losses: actual ammonia loss per ton of 
ice made: avoidable losses and how to stop tem: purging: piston-roa leakage; 
bonus system. 

Ammonia. Compression System. The .\mmonia Compression Refrigerating System — 
XXV. W. S. Doan. Refrig. World, vol. 53, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 33-34. 1 fig. 
Testing of huricating oil: petroleum oils: necessary quantity to feed bearings. 
(To be continued.) 

.\mmonia Piping. Discussion of the Topic — Size of and Proper Vapor Velocity in 
.\mmonia Suction and Discbarge Mains. Am. Soc. Refrig. Engrs. Jl.. vol. 5, 
no. 2 Sept. 1918, pp. 120-124, 1 fig. Discussion at Milwaokee meeting. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



143 



FoREcooLiNG. DiscusâioD of the Topic — AdvantaRcsof ForecoolinK Liquid Ammonia 
lîetwcen Receiver and Expansion Valve with Coldest Water Available. Am. 
See. Refrig. Engrs. Jl.. vol. 5 no. 2. Sept. lOlS, pp. 12ri-130. Disciis<*ion at 
annual meeting, New York. 

HoiSEHOLi) UFFniaERATiNa M.^CHINK. Tlie Household Refrigerating Machine 
John E. Starr. .\m- Soc Refrig. Engrs. Jl., vol. 5 no. '^, Nov. 1918, pp. 
157-100. Attribïites difficulty of designing commercial type of stnall rompres- 
sio» machine to leakage at stuffing box small quantity of liquid circulated per 
minute and gradual projection of hibricant from high-pressure to low-pressure 
side. 

Ice Manufactuhe. Ice Plant Investments, George E. Wells. Am. Soc. Refrig. 
Engrr. Jl., vol. 5, no. 3. Nov. 1918, pp. 145-152. Detailed ice-manufacturing 
costs in 1915 of 20 aoutliwestern ire plants using Corliss steam engines. 

Power and Labor Requirements of Detroit Type Ice Plant Donald Cole. 
Am. Soc. Rpfrig. Engrs. Jl., vol. 3 no. 2, Sept. 1918 pp. 110-115 and (discus- 
sion) pp. 1 1.5-1 10. Operation of electrically driven raw-water plant. low- 
pressure, drop-pipe system having in conjimetion an ice storage house holding 
full output of thirty to one hundred days. 

Motor Driven Raw Water Ice Plant. George E. Chamberlin. Am. Soc. 
Refrig. Engrs. Jl.. vol. 5 no. 2, Sent. 1918. pp. 87-109, 11 figs. Description 
of electrically driven high-pressure plant making 120 tons of ice per day. 

Low-Temperatube Compression System. The Low-Temperature Compression 
System in Practice, H. Sloan. Power, vol. 48, no. 25, Dec. 17, 191S. pp. S96-897. 
2 figs. From paper before Am. Soc. of Refrig. Engrs., Milwaukee. 

RESEARCH 

British. National Laboratory for Industrial Research, Richard T. Glazebrook. 
Contract Rec. vol. 32, no. 47, Nov. 20, 1918. pp. 924-926. Need of sepcial 
laboratories for research work: research for trade associations; study of industrial 
problems in central laboratory. From lecture delivered at Royal Inatn. 

Science and the Future, A. A. Campbell Swinton. Machy, Market, 
no. 944, Dec. 6, 1918, pp. 19-20. From address to Roy. Soc. Arts. 

National Research Council, U. S. The Engineering Work of the National Re- 
search Council, Henry M. Hoa'c. Bui. Am. Inst. Min. Engrs., no. 144, Dec. 
1918, pp. 1715-1719. Purpose, status in October. 1918, and character of 
researches on pyrometry and electric welding. 

STANDARDS AND STANDARDIZATION 

Engine-Testing Forms. Standard Engine Testing Forms. Jl. Soc. Automobile 
Engrs.. vol. 3. no. 6, Dec. 1918, pp. 378-3S1, 3 figs. Four sheets: one giving 
rules and direction for use of forms and three providing means for giving 
information regarding engine conditions of test and plotting curve? of result-s. 

Casoune. Government Standard Gasoline and Oil Specifications. Jl. Soc. Auto- 
motive Engrs., voL 3, no. 6, Dec, 1918, pp. 405-406. Specifications for aviation 
gasoline, motor gasoline, and fuel, gas and bunker oils, adopted by Committee 
on Standardization of Petroleum Specifications. 

Oils, Illuminating. Specifications for Illuminating Oils. Oil & Gas Jl , vol. 17. 
no. 31, Jan. 3, 1919, pp. 50-52. Methods of test and specifications adopted by 
Committee on Standardization of Petroleum Specifications. Rules were 
drafted with view to allow making of products from any satisfactory crude 
petroleum. 

STEAM ENGINEERING 

Boilers. Modern Boilers fLes chaudières modernes), L. Conge. Revue Générale 
de l'Electricité, vol. 4, no. 19, Nov. 1918, pp. 715-718, 11 figs. Several French 
and American types are considered as usuable in large central turbo-electric 
stations. 

Feeding and Circulating the Water in Steam Boilers, John Watson. Trans. 
Inst. Marine Engrs., vol. 30, no. 239, Nov. 191S, pp. 225-246 and (discussion) 
pp. 246-264, 7 figs. Historical account of schemes evolved and experimental 
work undertaken; analysis of present practices in the various types of boilers; 
effect of maxing hot boiler water with incoming feed in proportions up to 200 
per cent, boiler water. 

Mechanical Department Circular No. 11, U. S. Ry. Administration Frank 
McManamy. Ry. Jl., vol. 25, no. 1, Jan. 1919, pp. 21-22. 1, fig. Rules and 
instructions for inspection and testing of stationary boilers. 

How to Design and Lay Out a Boiler — II, William C. Strott. Boiler 
Maker, vol. IS, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 353-354, 5 figs. Calculation of proper 
tube expansion; purpose of beading; use of scant tube lengths; figuring " line-up." 
(To be continued.) 

Condensers. Keeping Up Condenser Performance. Hartley LeH. Smith. Power, 
vol. 48. no. 25, Dec. 17, 1918, pp. 868-870. 4 figs. How to determine economy 
which should be obtained and how to correct causes of low vacuum. 

Steam Pressure, High. High Steam Pressure and Superheat, Eskil Berg. Power, 
vol. 48. no. 24, Dee. 10, 1918, pp. 832-835. 3 figs. From a paper before joint 
meeting of Western Soc. of Engrs., Chicago Section of Am. Soc. of Mech. Engrs. 
and Am. Inst, of Elec. Engrs. 

Turbines. Steam Turbines for Natural Steam. Power Plant Eng., vol. 22, no. 24, 
Dec. 15, 1918, p;>. 990-993, 7 figs. Power plant at Larderelio. Italy, operating 
large turbine units with natural steam taken from crevices and fissures in ground. 

Turbine Engines for Cargo Vessels. Marine Rev., vol. 49, no. 1, Jan. 1919, 
pp. 31-."Î4, 6 figs. Mechanical features of the geared drives. 

Steam Turbine Progress and Possibilities. Blast Furnace, vol. 6, no. 52, 
Dec. 1918, pp. 4S1-4S3, 5 figs. Higher bciler pressures; intermediate steam 
reheating in large multiple-cylinder machines; feedwater heating; use of 
economizer. 

The Historical Development of Steam Turbine \.l). Power House vol. 11, 
no. 11, Nov. 1918 pp. 311-314, 10 figs. Growth in capacity and in size of 
individual units during last 30 years. (To be continued.) 



Valves Balanced Slide. Balanced Slide Valve for Andrews-Cameron Steam Engine 
(Tiroir équilibré pour machine il vapour système Andrews et Cameron). Génie 
Civil, vol. 73, no. 17, Oct. 26, 1918. pp. 333-334, 8 figs. Description of two 
types, one with two and other with three parts. 

Set also MECfMXlC.il. E.\(;i X liERIXG, Motor-Car Ent'inetrxni 
{Steam Fehicles.) 

THERMODYNAMICS 

Heat Transmission. Heat Transfer Tests of Building Materials L. M. Arkley. 
Jl. Eng. Inst. Can. vol. 1,, no. 8, Dec. 1918 pp. 380-393 6 figs. Account of 
testa (1) to determine selection of proper materials to be used in buildings, 
(2) to determine effect on transfer of heat through a 12-in. hollow tile well of 
laying it up. first with hollow spaces horizontal and second with hollow spaces 
vertical and directly over each other, (3) to investigate heat-insulating qualities 
of a number of materials suitable for refrigerating room including buil-up 
walls, cork walls, and ordinary building papers. 

New Heat Transmission Tables, William R. Jones. Heat. & Vent- Mag.. 
vol. 15, no. 12. Dec., 1918, pp. 36-40. Third series of tables. 

WELDING 

Aluminum. How to Use a "Chill" on Aluminum Welding. David Baxter Jl. Acetylene 
Welding, vol. 20, no. 6, Dec. 1918, pp. 280-282, 3 figs. Method of backing up 
hole in aluminum crankcase with plate of heavy galvanized iron and welding 
across to fill hole with aluminiun, the iron acting as a sort of chill. 

Arc-Welding Tool. Improved Arc Welding Tool. Aerial Age, vol. S. no. 12, 
Dec. 2, 1918, pp. 619-634, 2 figs. Designed to m.ake operation of changing 
electrodes definite to permit any amount of pull when electrode freezes to work 
and capable of eperating for voluntary relerise. 

Electric Welding. Comparisons of Processes of Electric Butt Welding, J. B. 
ClappCi. Boiler Maker, vol. 18. no. 12. Dec. 1918, pp. 345-346. Operations 
in butt welding; transformer control; strength of butt weld; application of 
point and spot welding; u.sp of resistance process. 

Modern Welding by Use of Electricity, Elec. Rev., vol. 73. no. 25, Dec. 21, 
1918, pp. 959-962. 3 figs. Principles of electric are and spot welding; advantages; 
methods of application; recent developments; extent of field. 

Some Recent Developments in Machines for Electric Spot Welding ae a 
Substitute for Riveting, J. M. Weed. Gen. Elec. Rev., vol. 21, no. 12. Dec. 
1918, pp. 928-934, 9 figs. Writer claims hia experiments have demonstrated 
that the thickness of parts to be welded is governed by capacity of apparatus 
available for doing the work.. 

Electric Welding — A New Industry. H. A. Hornor. Contract Rec., 
vol. 32. no. 47. Nov. 20. 1918, pp. 931-934. Status of industry; uses of alternat- 
ing current; methods of welding and of testing a joint: developments. Paper 
before Am. Inst. Elec. Enger. 

Comparative Characteristics of Arc Welders, J. F. Lincoln. Elec. World, 
vol. 72, no. 24, Dec. 14, 1918, pp. 1119-1120. Discussion to bring out comparative 
advantages and costs of a. c. and d. c. welders. 

Features of Arc Welding Development, O. A. Kenyon. Elec. Rev,, vol. 73, 
no. 25. Dec. 21, 1918, pp. 963-905, 2 figs. Control of welding heat; selection 
of kind and size of electrodes: kinds of joints and their characteristics; systematic 
planning of welding method to be used. 

The Constant-Energy Arc- Welding Set. P. O. Noble. Gen. Elec. Rev., 
vol. 21, no. 12, Dec. 1918. pp. 938-940, 6 figs. Type of equipment designed to 
facilitate maintenance of a short arc and to make it difficult to continue a long 
one. 

Electric Welding at the Erie Works, General Electric Company, H. Lemp 
and J. R. Brown, Gen. Elec. Rev., vol. 21, no. 12. Dec. 1918, pp. 915-918, 12 figs. 
AppUcations of process to welding saws, butt-welding high-speed steel to shank 
of machine steel in manufacture of machine tools, and various other mechanical 
purposes. 

A Review of Electric Arc Welding, John A. Seede. Gen. Elec. Rev., 
vol. 21, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 8S1-886, 10 figs. Evaluation of present practice, 
with special consideration of carbon electrode welding, metallic electrode, 
welding electrodes, fluxes, holders, a. c. arc welding, automatic welding and 
apparatixs employed. 

Inspection of Welds. Inspection of Electric Welds, O. H. Escholz. Power, vol. 48. 
no. 25, Dec. 17. 1918, pp. 872-873, 3 figs. Describes various tests and their 
efficiencies. 

Inspecting Metallic Electrode Arc Welds, 0. S. Escholz. Am. Drop 
Forger, vol. 4, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 448-450, 4 figs. Comments on significance 
and value of visual inspection, adhesion of deposit, penetration and electrical 
testa. 

Joints. Lloyd's Experiments on Electrically Welded Joints, H. Jasper Cox. Gen. 
Elec. Rev., vol. 21, no. 12, Dec. 1918. pp. S64-S70. 16 figs. Results concerning 
modulus of elasticity, approximate elastic limit, utimate strength, ultimate 
elongation, alternating stresses, chemical and microscopic analysis, and strength 
of welds. 

Non-Ferrous Metals. The Butt Welding of Some Non-Ferrous Metals, E. F. 
Collins and W. Jacob. Gen, Elec. Rev., vol. 21, no. 12, Dec. 1918. pp. 958-961, 
5 figs. Describes process said to be outcome of search for satisfactory method 
of connecting end rings to rotor bars of induction motor. 

Oxidation. The Welding of Iron and Steel, W. H. Cathcart. Iron Age, vol. 102, 
no. 26, Dec. 26, 1918, pp. 1587-1.583. 10 figs. Principles governing smithy 
and forge; effect of oxidation; use of a flux; annealing essential; conditions to 
be fulfilled. From article in Apr., 1918, issue of Jl. of West of Scotland Iron 
and Steel Inst.. Galsgow. 

Oxt-Acetyleke Welding. Oxy-Acetylene Pipe Welding and Cutting. Gas Age, 
vol. 42, no. 12. Dec. 16, 1918, pp. 51.5-516, 5 figs. Practical suggestions on 
manipulation of blowpipe. (Contmuation of serial.) 

Handling Acetylene Welding Outfits. E. Wanamaker. Ry. Rev., vol. 63, 
no. 25. Dec. 21, 1918, pp. 869-871. Discussion of acetylene and oxygen gases 
and instructions for handling outfits in shops. Paper before Ry. Fire Prevention 
Assn. Chicago. 



144 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



RBSEARcn. Research in Spot WcIJing of Heavy Flutes. W. L. Merrill, Gen. Elcc. 
Rev., vol. 21. no. 12, Dec. 19IS. pp. 019-922. 7 figs. Record of experiments 
with specially built welding machine of .'l(i tons pressure ciipaticy and 100,000 
amperes current capacity, showing probability that new 6elu of application for 
spot welding will be developed. 

Structure of Iron. Microstructure of Iron Deposited by Electric Arc Welding. 
George F. Comstock. Bui. Am. Inst. Min. Engra.. no. 145. Jan. 1019, pp. 43-50, 
10 figs. From microscopic examination of a weld writer concludes that pale 
crystals typical of steel fusion welds arc not cenientitc or martensite or any 
similar caroidc product, but probably nitride of iron. Discussion of S. W. 
Miller's paper. (Bui. A. I. M. E.. Fcb.-May, 191S.) 

A Study of the Joining of Metal;^. J. A. Capp. Gen. Elcc. Rev., vol. 21, 
no. 12. Dec. 1918. pp. 947-95l>, 30 figs. Microscopic study of wekls nuuh; 
(1) with high current applied for long periods, (2) smaller current applied for 
shorter time, and (3) curfent just large enough to procure welding temperature 
when apphcd for minimum time; made to determine best practice in making 
butt welds bv Thompson electric welding machine. 

The Me'tallurgj- of the Arc Weld, W. E. Kuder. Gen. Elcc. Rev., vol. 21. 
no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 941-946. 15 figs. Notes based on microscopical examina- 
tion of crystal structure, gas holes, slag inclusions, impurities, and composition. 

Tank M.\niifacturk. Electric Arc Welding in Tank Construction, R. E. Wagner. 
Gen. Elec. Rev., vol. 21, no. 12, Dec. lUlS. pp. 899-911, 20 fi?s. Qualifications 
of successful operator; value of intelligent study of work in hand and its prepara- 
tion for welding; application of arc welding to tank construction; tabular data 
for determining cost of process. 

Welded Seams. Welded Seams Correct Faults in Converters. Boiler Maker. 
vol. 18, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 347-348. (i figs. Experiments on welded-typc 
heaters; difficulties in weldmg materials of varying thicknesses; automatic 
cutting machine. From Jl. Acetylene Welding. 

Welding. Principles and Practices of Fusion Welding. S. W. Miller. Am. Soc. 
Refrig. Engrs. Jl.. vol. 5. no. 3, Nov. 1918. pp. 1G8-215. 83 figs. Differences 
between various systems; principles of successful welding; composition of 
weld; testing welds: welding practices and materials; metallurgy and heat 
treatment of welds; variety of welds. 

See also ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING. Trajisformers, Converters 
Frequency Changers {IVelding, Transfonners for): MARINE ENGINEERING 
Yards (ffelding): RAILROAD ENGINEERING {irelding). 

VARIA 

Metric System. Reflexions on the Arguments For and Against the Metric Sy&tera 
(Réflexions sur les pour et les contre du système métrique). Ch. Ed. Guillaume. 
Industrie Electrique, year 27, no. 624. June 25, 1918, pp. 225-227. Question 
of fundamental xmits; decimalization; possible adoption by Anglo-Saxon nations; 
arguments based on present situation. Remarks on Atkinson's communication 
to Instn. Elec. Engrs. 

Opportunities for Engineers. Broader Opportunities for the Engineer, Charles T, 
Main. Jl. Am. Soc Mech. Engrs.. vol. 41, no, 1. Jan. 1919, pp. 6-11. Fields of 
activity opened to engineering societies and individual eno;ineers in consequence 
of technical and social poportunities which have been created with the advent 
of world peace. Presidential address delivered at annual meeting of tlie 
Society. 

Packing Machinery. The Problem of Packing. Cassier's Eng. Monthly, vol. 54, 
no. 5, Nov. 19 IS pp. 257-262, 6 figs. Suggestions in regard to packing machinery 
for home market and export. 

Society Engineering. Aims and Organization of the Society, L. C. Marburg. 
Jl. Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs., vol. 41, no. 1, Jan. 1919, pp. 12-15. Relations of 
the mechanical engineer to hia work, to the community and other engineers. 
Report of Committee on Aims and Organization of the Society. 

Technical Writing. Obtaining Ideas for Technical Articles, Albert M. Wolf. 
Wis. Engr., vol. 23, no. 2, Nov. 191S, pp. 40-41. Value of observation and 
diligent application of menta faculties to gathering technical date. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 

ELECTROPHYSICS 

A. C. Circuits. The Calculation of Alternating Current Circuits, Gordon Kribs. 
Power House, vol. 11, no. 11, Nov. 1918. pp. 318-321, 2 figs. Tables of constants 
offered as readily usable in computing size of wire in a. c. 25-and 60-cycle circuits. 

Harmonic Analysis. Harmonic Analysi? of Alternating Currents by the Resonance 
Galvanometer ^Sur l'analyse harmoniciue des courante alternatifs par le galva- 
nomètre de résonnance), André Blondel Comptes rendus des séances de 
l'Académie des Sciences .vol. 167, no. 20. Nov. 11, 1918. pp. 711-717, 1 fig. 
Characteristics of method proposed as modification of Pupin's and Armagnat's 
Considers (1) non-inductive resistances in circuits of galvanometer, and (2) a 
circuit having one or several capacities connected in série?. 

Spark Plug Insulators. Resistance of Hot Spark Plug Insulators. R. H. 
Cunningham. Automotive Indus., vol. 39, no. 22. Nov. 2S, 1918, pp. 907-911, 
8 figs. Experimental tests to determine loss of resistance at working tem- 
peratures; how such loss affects action of plug. 

Vapor Ahcs. Low- Voltage Arcs in Metallic Vapours, J. C. LeT.ennan. Proc. Phys. 
Soc, Lond., vol. 31, no. 176. Dec. 15, 1918. pp. 30-48, 6 figs. Repetition of 
experiments by Millikau and Hebb whose results writer believes to be in conflict 
with quantxim theory. Results showed that quantum relation holds good 
with moderately heated incandescent cathodes and a moderate supply of metallic 
vapor. It was possible to obtain questioned phenomena, however, by increasing 
temperature of incandescent cathode. 



ELECTROCHEMISTRY 

Copper Plating. Automatic Copper Plating, Joseph W. Richardp. Bui. Am. 
Inst. Min. Engrf., no. 145, Jan. 1919, pp. 27-31, 4 figs. Patented process. 
Basic principle involved lies in application of plating copper while iron sheet 
is cold and then melting metal under conditions favorable to formation of 
plating. 

FURNACES 

Electric Furnace Improvements During 1918, A. V. Farr. Blast Furnace, 
vol. 7. no. 1, Jan. 1919. pp. 20-24. 9 figs. Efforts to increase output; linings, 
lilting apparatus and eoolmg; power supply; comparative date. 

Electrodes. Electrodes for Electric Furnaces: Their Manufacture, Properties, and 
Utilization (II). Jean Escard. Gen. Elec. Rev., vol. 21. no 11, Nov. 1918, 
pp. 781-792. 37 figs. Form, dimensions, grouping, and composition of electrodes, 
and their arrangement in the various types of furnaces; life, wear, and protection 
of electrodes; electrode holders, cooling systems, and methods of attaching 
connections. Trnaslated from Le Génie Civil. 

Industrial Furnaces. Electric Heated Industrial Furnaces, George J-Krikga-'ser. 
Indus. Management, vol. 57. no. 1. Jan. 1919. pp. 26-32. 14 figs. Type of 
furnaces and accessory apparatus used in melting irons, brasses and bronzes 
in foundries; for heat-trenting metal parts; in the manufacture of special alloys; 
for annealing, hardening and tempering tools; and for determining decalescent 
and rccalescent points in tool steels. 

Nituogen-Fixation Furnace. Nitrogen Fixation Furnaces. E. Killburn Scott. 
Gen. Elec. Rev., vol. 21. no. 11, Nov. 1918. pp. 793-804, 16 figs. Salient points 
of difference between electric furnaces for fixation of nitrogen and those for 
metallurgical purposes. Discussion of various features in operation, such as 
phase balance, starting, losses, electrodes, stabilizing arc, power factor, air 
supply, preheater, absorption, cooling the gas, and theory of reaction. Abstract 
of paper before Electrochemical Soc. 

Steel Fur.naces. The Status of the Electric Steel Industrv. Edwin F. Cone. Iron 
Age, vol. 103. no. 1, Jan. 2. 1919. pp. 60-62. United States still leads in out- 
put with 287 furnaces- ; progress since 19 10; furnaces in world's industry probably 
over 815. 

Electric Furnaces for the Production of Steel and Fcrro- Alloys, J. O. Scode. 
Gen. Elec. Rev., vol. 21, no. 11. Nov. 191S, pp. 767-780. 28 figs. Fundamental-^ 
of high-grade steel manufacture; author perfers electric furnace to all other 
types; classification and sketches of important furnaces. 

Addf Electric Unit to Melting Equipment. Iron Trade Rev., vol. 63, 
no. 24. Dec. 12, 1918. pp. 1353-1354. 10 tigs. Installation in which power is 
supplied through bank of two single-phase, 500-kva. transformers connected 
to a 2.300-volt, 3-phase, 60-cycle supply line. Furnace hearth acts as neutral 
electrode, bottom connection being made to central point on transformer. 
Arcs are formed independently of one another. 

Electric Furnaces in Metallurgy. Elecn.. vol. SI, no. 2113, Nov. 15, 1918, 
pp. 588-590, 7 figs. Description of Héroutt furnace. 

The Electric Furnace in the Grev Iron Foundry. Can. Foundr>-man, 
vol. 9, no. 12, Dec. 1918. pp. 291-292 and 295, 4 figs. Work being done by 
Bowmanville Foundry Co. Meclianical feature and electrical control of 
furnace. 

Electric Furnace Data for Ferro-Tungsten. Robert M. Keoney. Blast 
Furnace, vol. 6, no. 12, Dec. 191S, pp. 486-487. Data and description of 
ferro-tungsten production; smelting of ferberite concentrate; possibilities of 
making in one single operation ferro-tungsten containing less than one per 
cent carbon. Paper before Am. Inst. Min. Engrf. 

GENERATING STATIONS 

Canada. Electric Power Generation in Ontario on Systems of Hydro-Electric Power 
Commission, Arthur H. Hull. Can. Engr.. vol. 35. no. 25. Dec. 19, 1918. 
pp. 532-533. Details of generation and electrical distribution: Rideau and 
Magara systems: Queenstown development. (Concluded.) 

Centralization of Power. ^Vholesale Power, F. P. Royce. Stone & Webster Jl., 
vol. 23, no. 5, Nov. 1918, pp. 357-360. Conditions favorable to centralization 
of electric power. Memorandum of statement made at meeting of New England 
Section of Nat. Elec. Light Assn. 

Hydroelecthic Stations. Electric Power Generation in Ontario on Systems of 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission, Arthur H. Hull. Can. Engr., vol. 35, 
no. 24. Dec. 12. 1918. pp. 520-523. Paper before Toronto Section Am. Inst. 
Elec. Engrs. Also Elec. News. vol. 27. no. 23, Dec. 1. 1918. pp. 25-29, 1 fig. 
General plan and particulars of canal development work and power generation. 

The Present Status of Hetch Hetchy, Rudolph \V. van Norden. Jl. Elec , 
vol. 41, no. 10, Nov. 15, 1918, pp. 348-443, 8 figs. Survey, score and present 
progress of water and power project undertaken by city of San Francisco. 

Data Existing in Regard to the Construction of Hydroelectric Power 
Plants (Sur les données actuelles en matière de construction d'usines hydro- 
électriques), Denis Eydoux. Annales des Ponts et Chaussées, year 88, vol. 4, 
no. 18, July-Aug. 1918. pp 7-96. 34 figs. Résumé of theroetical considerations, 
general equations and present practice, with special reference to groups of 
French plants in Dauphmé and the arrangement existing between water-courses 
of the Société Pyrénéenne vToulouse and Tarn) with those of the Société Méridi- 
onale (Aude and Hérault). (To be continued.) 

Steam-Electric St.vtions. A Good Instance of Utilization of Italian Products in 
Argentine ("Uno forte irapronta dei produttori italiani nelT Argentina). L'lndus- 
tria, vol. 32. no. 21. Nov. 15. 1918. pp. 638-464, 13 figs. Details and plans 
of steam-turbine central station distributing 30 miUion kw.hr. at 7000 volts 
to five substations. Substation also described. 

GENERATORS AND MOTORS 

Dynamical Theory. The Dynamical Theory of Electric Engines, Elecn.. vol. 81, 
no. 2114. Nov. 22, 1918, pp. 616-617, 4 figs. Abstracted from 10th Kelvin 
lecture delivered by L. B. Atkinson before Inst, of Elec. Engrs. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



145 



Alternators. High-Frequencv Alternatorg (Lea alternateurs i\ haute fréquence), 
O. Bilieux. Revue Générale do l'Electricité, vol. 4. no. 21, Nov. 2.3. 1918. 
pp. 80;i-S05, 5 figs. Principles of these machines, particularly of the Alexander- 
fon type Urequeucy, 30,000 per sec), built for experimental purposes by the 
Société Française Radio-électrique. 

Generators. Construction and Use of Generators Driven by Waterwlieels. Elec. 
Rcc, vol. 24, no. C, Dec. 191S, pp. G0-6fi, 24 figs. Important features m both 
vertical and horizontal types. 

iNnucTiON Motors. Reconnecting Induction Motors — -For Change in the Number 
of Poles, A. M. Dudley. Power, vol. 49, nu. 1, Jan. 7, 1919, pp. 9-14, lo figs. 
(Third article ) 

Rotors. Turbo- Alternator Rotors: Features of Mechanical Design [U), S. F. Barclay. 
Power House, vol. 11, no. U, Nov. 191S, pp. 32:1-327, 17 figs. Suggested 
specifications for guidance in purchasing equipment. 

Syxcuromous Motors. Magnetization Curves for Synchronoas Motors. (Fatkurvor- 
diagram och magnetiaeringakurvor for fierfasiga aynkronroaskiner), John 
Wennerberg. Teknisk Tidskrift, Elextrotekiiik, vol. 48, no. 11, Nov. G, 191S 
pp. 13S-14ti. 

LIGHTING AND LAMP MANUFACTURE 

Fixtures. Linking Science and .\rt. in Lighting, M. Luckiesh. Elec. Rev., vol. 73, 
no. 23, Dec. 7, 191S, pp. S'S4-SS.3. Sugge^^tions for fixture dealer in demonstrat- 
ing lighting effects. Third article. (First and second appeared in Elec. Rev. 
Oct. 5 and Nov. 2.) 

Lamps, Manufacture, Methods of Manufacturing Incandescent Lampj, H. M. 
Robins. Wis Engr., vol. 23, no. 3, Dec. 1918, pp. 67-76, 6 figs. Description 
of required operations with reference to advantageou"? working conditions of 
manufacturing establishments. 

Light Generation .\.nd Distriiujtion. Light Electricity and the Shop C. E. 
Clewell. Am. Mach. vol. 49 no. 24 Dec. 12 1918 pp. 1031-1055 10 figs. 
From coal pile to machine too! and lamp losses are consiacred. 

MEASUREMENTS AND TESTS 

Loader. The Loader Ross B. Matcer. Jl. Elec. vol. 41 no. 12 Dec. L", 191S, 
p. 553, 4 figs. Suggests composite symbol to indicate lead center, density 
and character of load served. 

Meters. Three-Wire D-5 Meters. Jl. Elec, vol. 41, no. 10, Nov. 15, 191S, pp. 
474-475. Wiring diagram and features of watthour meter consisting of two- 
and three-wire elements placed side by side in common base and registering on 
common recording train so that sura of revolutions of both elements will be 
added and indicated on dial. 

Power-Factor Indicators. Removing Obstacles to Power-Factor C'harge, Will 
Brown. Elec. World, vol. 72, no. 26, Dec. 28, 1918, pp. 1220-1222, 1 fig. 
Necessity o standard method of measuring power factor and instrument that 
would be universally applicable; examination into methods now employed in 
widely separated plants. 

Calibration of Power Factor Indicators. Walter Wescott Hoke. Elec. 
World, vol. 72, no. 23, Dec. 7, 191S. po. 1076-1078. 4 figs. Method of calibrating 
polyphase power-factor indicators of which resistances of potential circuits are 
not equal; also applies to indicators in which current coil is in one phase of a 
two-phase line. 

Rdbber-Goods Testing. Safeguarding Electrical Employees. Elec. World, vol. 72. 
no. 26, Dec. 2S, 1918, pp. 1223-1226, 5 figs. How companies which take active 
interest in well-being of their employees have made use of protective devices 
to guard against personal injuries; care and testing of rubber goods. 

Transmission Factor for Glass. The Measurement of Transmission-Factor, 
M. Luckiesh and L. L. Mellor. Jl. FrankUn Inst., vol. 186, no. 5. Nov. 1918, 
pp. 529-545, 8 figs. Investigation of various arrangements of apparatus designen 
to determine transmission factors for several diffusive glasses for illuminatiod 
(1) by a narrow beam of light directed perpendicularly to surface of specimen, 
and (2) uniformly diffused light reaching specimen from all directions; examina- 
tion of effect on value of transmission factor of position of specimen with respect 
to light and character of side, smooth or rough, upon which light strikes it. 

POWER APPLICATIONS 

Alloy Production. New Materials Developed in Germany for Electrical Industry 
(Les nouveaux matériaux dans l'industries électrique en Allemagne), S. Frid. 
Industrie Electrique, year 27, no. 624, June 25. 1918, pp. 227-250. Application 
of alloys such as electron (10 Al -|- 90 Mn), magnahum, duralumin and other 
compositions; regulation governing material to be used in various types of 
electric lines; inatruments and apparatus; machines and transformers. 

Dairy Farms. Use of Electricity on Dairy Farms to Increase Production. Elec 
Rev-, vol. 73, no. 26, Dec. 28, 1918, pp. 995-997. 3 figs. Proper lighting and 
use of electric fans in Georgia farm stables result in greater quantity and better 
quality of product. 

Electrochemical Processes. Electricity Releases Chemistry's Power, James 
M. Matthews. Gen. Elec. Rev., vol. 21. no. 11. Nov. 1918, pp. 727-750, 46 figs. 
Some of the uses of electricity in the chemical industry are illustrated witli 
descriptions of uses of electric furnaces and electrically-driven motors and 
installations of electrolytic works. 

Electrolytic and Electrothermie Processes and Products. Gen Elec 
Rev., vol. 21, no. 21. no. 11, Nov. 1918. pp. 756-766. 12 figs. Brief outline of 
sodium, calcium, magnesium and aluminum ; more detailed description of electric- 
furnace methods of manufacturing calcium carbide, carborundum, silicon, 
graphite, alundura. fused silica and carbon bisulphide; methods of fixation of 
atmospheric nitrogen and oxidation of nitrogen; sketches ^i Birkland-Eyde, 
Schonherr, and Pauling furnaces. 



GoïD Dredges. Use of Eleetricty on Gold Dredges. Elec. Rev., vol. 73, no. 23, 
Dec. 7, 1918, pp. 881-8S3, 3 figs. Description of typical dredge; value of 
central-station service for work ; points to observe in selecting apparatus required ; 
description of electrical equipment used. 

Harbors. Extensive Use of Electricity for San Francisco Harbor. Klcc. Rev., 
vol. 72. no. 26, Dec. 20, 1918, pp. 1001-1005, 4 figs. Pier, dock and street 
lighting; electric clock system; harbor lights and fog signals; fire-alarm and 
telephone system; electric repair and maintenance service; features of wiring. 

Shipbuilding. The .\pplication of Electricity in Ships and Shipbuilding. J. F. Nielson. 
Elecn., vol. 81. no. 2114. Nov. 22. 1918. pp. 621. Abstract paper before 
Scottish Local Section of Inst, of Elec. Enrgs., Nov. 19 IS. 

Steel Mills. Operating-Electrically-Driven Steel Mills, J. T. Sturtevant. Iron 
Trade Rev., vol. 03, no. 23, Dec. 5. 1918, pp. 1292-1293. 4 tigs. Layout, equip- 
ment, power cousumptioD, tonnages and capacities of 11 installations at Lehigh 
plant of Bethlehem Steel Co. 

TELEGRAPHY AND TELEPHONY 

Antenna. The Vertical Grounded Antenna as a Generalized Befsel's Antenna, 
A. Press. Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs.. vol. 6, no. 6, Dec. 1918. pp. 317-322, 1 fig. 
General expression for current at any point of antenna formulated by taking 
account of variable distribution of inductance and capacity; particular solution 
for current and voltage distribution in case of antenna having zero current at 
top and maximum current at bottom. 

Capacity of a Horizontal Antenna (Capacité d'une antenne horizontale), 
J. B. Pompey. Revue Générale de l'Electricité, vol. 4. no. 21, Nov. 23, 1918, 
pp. 790-792, 1 fig. Modification of original derivation of Pederson's formula. 

Duplex Polar Transmission. Improving Polar Duplex Transmission. Telegraph 
& Telephone Age, no. 24, Dec. 16, 1918, pp. 564-565, 5 figs. Diagrams of five 
different schemes tried in long lines operated polar duplex. 

Photogr.vfhs, Wireless Transmission of. The Design and CouEtruction of 
Apparatus for the Wireless Transmission of Photographs. Marcus J. Martin. 
Wireless World, vol. 6. no. 69, Dec. 1918, pp. 509-513, 7 figs. Describes system 
outlined in handbook on the Wireless Transmission of Photographs as at present 
developed. Writer's intention is to provide practical groundwork for improve- 
ments. (To be continued.) 

Radio Telephony. Some Aspects of Radio Telephony in Japan, Eitaro Yokoyama. 
Wireless World, vol. 6. no. 69. Dee. 1918, pp. 484-487, 5 figs. Influence of gas 
clearance, dimensions and shape of electrodes upon discharge. From Proc. 
Inst. Radio Engrs. (Continuation of serial) 

Radio Transmitter. On the Electrical Operation and Mechanical Design of an 
impulse Excitation Multi-Spark-Group Radio Transmitter, Bowden Washington 
Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs., vol. 6, no. 6, Dec. 1918, pp. 295-315, 31 figs. Discussion 
of impulse excitation; description of three forms of gaps suitable for extreme 
quenching; oscillograms showing operation of such gaps; operation of actual 
0.5-kw. and 2-kw. sets. 

Spark Discharges. The Revolving Mirror and Spark Discharges, Lindlay Pyle. 
Wireless World, vol. 6, no. 69, Dec. 1918. pp. 489-490. 1 fig. Shows diagram- 
matically and describes briefly method of observing and photographing oscillatory 
nature of " wireless " spark. From Electrical Experimenter. 

Spark Gap. A Ventilated Spark Discharge Gap. Wireless Age, vol. 6, no. 3, Dec. 
1918, pp. 44-45, 3 figs. Internal construction and action of apparatus said to 
be silent in operation and to maintain a predetermined operating characteristic. 
On the Possibility of Tone Production by Rotary and Stationary Spark 
Gaps. Hidetsugu Yagi. Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs.. vol. 6, no. 0, Dec. 1918, 
pp. 323-343, 17 figs. Results produced by needle and spherical gaps with 
a. c. transformer, spark-gap method and with high-tension d. e. spark-gap 
method; brief treatment of transient conditions existing before establishment 
of stable tone régime. 

Telephone, Sodnd-Detecting Device.s. Telephone Service Standards. Telephony, 
vol. 76, no. 1. Jan. 4, 1919. pp. 22-23, Investigation of service and transmission 
standards and experimental work on sound-detecting devices by telephone 
section of Bureau of Standards, from 1917-1918 report Secretary of Commerce. 

Telephone Troubles. How to Locate Telephone Troubles, J. Bernard Hecht. 
Telephony, vol. 76,ino. 1, Jan. 4, 1919, pp. 26-27. Care and maintenance of 
primary batteries. Instructions to managers, wire chief and troublemen of 
local battery telephone exchanges. Sixth article. 

Vacuum-Tube Electrodes. A Method of Constructing Gas-Free Electrodes. 
Wireless World, vol. 6. no. 09, Dec. 1918, pp. 488-489. Process of manufacturing 
vacuum tube in which anode consists of coating of metal sprayed on inside of 
bulb by incandescing rafractory metallic conductor, such as tungsten, in partial 
vacuum. From Wireless Age. 

Time Signaling. Wireless Time-Signaling Device. Wireless Age. vol. 6. no. 3, Dec. 
1918, pp. 13-14. 3 figs. Apparatus for synchronizing time elock.'^ from one 
main radio station, permitting at predetermined intervals a correction of errors 
encountered in clock mechanisms. 

TRANSFORMERS, CONVERTERS, FREQUENCY CHANGERS 

Radio Frequency Changers. Radio Frequency Changers, E. E. Bûcher, Wireless 
Age, vol. 6, nos. 3 and 4, Dec. 1918 and Jan. 1919, pp. 20-22 and 20-22, 13 figs. 
Reported progress in their application to wireless telegraphic and telephonic 
communication Control of antenna currents. 

Rectifiers. Incandescent-Cathode Are Device for the Rectification of Alternating 
Currents. Wireless Age. vol. 6, no. 3, Dec. 1918, pp. 14 and 43-44, 3 figs. 
Construction and electrical connections of tube; are started by means of a 
high-voltage discharge from a pointed cathode. 

An Enclosed Rectifier. Wireless Age, vol. 6, no. 3, Dec. 1918, pp. 12-13, 
3 figs. Incandescent cathode type. Argon at considerable pressure is injected 
into enclosed medium. 



146 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



RoTART coNVKnTERs. The Effect of Power-Factor on Outptit of Rotary Converters 
with JteaclJinco Control, R. G. Jakcman. Elecn., vol. SI, no. 2111, Nov. 22, 
1918, pp. 014-G16, 4 fiRS. Dealing with effect of power-factor on tizc of converter. 

Transformer Dimensions. Dimension.'? of Transformera, A. R. Low. Elecn., 
vol. 81. no. 2113, Nov. 15, 1918, pp. 597-599. Object of article is to classify 
principal problems of transformer discussion and compare certain aysumptions, 
methods and results. 

Transformek Oil. Transformer Oil. W. S. Flight. Elecn., vol. 81, no. 21I.'i, 
Nov. 20. litis, pp. 0.iG-<i3S, 4 figs. Author di.scussion types and characteristics 
of oiKs; formation of sludge; minor tests. 

Wklding, Transfoumeus for. Transformers for Electric Welding, W. S. Moody. 
Gen. Elcc. Uev., vol. 21, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 935-937. Rcquircmenta of 
thopc used for spot welding and for arc welding; construction found best to fulfill 
sor\'ice specifications of each tj*pe. 



S« also ELECTRICAL 
Control {Transformer Losses). 



ENGINEERING, Transmission, Distribution, 



TRANSMISSION. DISTRIBUTION. CONTROL 

Central Station Service. Twenty-Seven Thousand Dollar Saving in Manhattan 
Building Plant. Power, vol. 48, no. 26, Dec. 24. 1918 pp. 918-919. By u.sing 
Edition off-peak service during aiunmcr months, substituting motor-driven 
elevator pumps for inefficient steam pumps» installing a feedwater heater and 
a stoker. 

Frequency Control. Better Frequency Control, Henry K. Warren. Gen. Eler. 
Rev., vol. 21, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 810-819, 3 figs. Method which records 
revolutions, thus indicating mean frequency and enabling operator to adjust 
governor- regulating mechanism to maintain average frequency at its normal 
value practically exact. 

Growth of Electric Systems. The Growth of Electric Systems. Julian C. Smith. 
Can. Engr., vol. 35, no. 25. Dec. 1918. pp. 539-540. Evolution since 1882: 
direct and alternating transmission systems; why the "hydro" is 25 cycles; 
thnist bearings and vertical units. From one of the J. E. Aldred lectures on 
engineering practice, Johns Hopkins University. 

Interconnection. Interconnection of Power System?. Proc. Am. Inst.. Elec. 
Engra.. vol. 37, no. 12. Dec. 1918, pp. 1207-1333, 12 figs. Technical features 
of interconnection of electric power systems of California; electric power in 
northern and central California; function of Pacific Gas and Electric Co. in 
interconnected operation of power companies of central and northern California. 
Symposium at meeting of San Francisco Section Am. Inst. Elec. Engrs, 

Power Factor. Location for Power-Factor Corrective Apparatus, Will Brown. 
Elec. World, vol. 72, no. 24, Dec. 14, 1918, pp. 1125-1128, 3 figs. Experience 
with static condensers; dissimilarities in synchronous machines; using idle 
altçrnators as condensers; bset motor rating for correction; effect of condenser 
location on result. 

Improvement of Power-Factor by the Operation of Synchronous Motors 
(Note sur l'emploi des moteurs synchrones pour améliorer le facteur de puis- 
sance), Paul Rieimier. Revue Générale de l'Electricité, vol. 4, no. 21, Nov. 23, 
1918, pp. 771-788, 15 figs. Mathematical and graphie study of equation, 

St. Lawrence River Transmission Line. 111,000-Volt Transmission Line Over 
the St. Lawrence River, S. Svenningson. Elcc. News, vol. 27, no. 23, Dec. 1, 
1918, pp. 31-34. Crossing consists of central span 4801 ft. long supported by 
two 350-ft. towers. Author gives special attention to cables, insulators, ice 
protection and sag calculations. Paper before Toronto meeting of Am. Inst. 
Elec. Erigrs. 

Sdbstations. Effect of a Tie-Line Between Two Substations, H. B. Dwight. Elcc. 
Rev., vol. 73. no. 25, Dec. 21, 1918, pp. 966-968, 1 fig. Methods of calculating 
effect of tie-lines upon current and voltage; several formula? given. 

The Modern Outdoor Substation, ^L IL Samuels. Elec. World, vol. 72, 
no. 23, Dec. 7, 1918. pp. 1008-1073. 20 figs. Apparatus developed until it is 
as reliable as indoor equipment; station design not greatly improved: notes on 
transformers, oil circuit breakers, lightning arresters, air-break switches and 
bus supports. 

A Two-Unit Automatic Substation. Walter C. Slade, Elec. Ry. Jl., vol. 52, 
no. 24, Deo. 14, 1918, pn. 1038-1044, 13. figs. Description of Rhode Island Co.'s 
substation at Oakland illustrating latest practice. Economics of automatic 
substation application. 

Synchronous Condensers. Synchronous Condenser in Fuel Conservation, T^. N. 
Robinson. Jl. Elec. vol. 41, no. 10. Nov. 15. 1918. pp. 456-458. 2 figs. Possi- 
bilities due to quadrature phase relation of energy and wattless components 
of current in virtue of which a synchronous condenser can deliver, under given 
line regulations, wattless current corresponding to 10,000-kv-a, and simul- 
taneously absorb as motor or deliver as generator 10.000 kw. with total current 
corresponding to only 14.100 kv-a. 

Transformer Losses. Influence of Distributing System on Transformer Losses 
in Large Networks (Pertes dans les transformateurs des grands réseaux suivant 
le système de distribution employé). Revue Générale de l'Electricité, vol. 4, 
no. 19, Nov. 9. 1018. pp. 721-724, 5 figs. Study and comparison of losses in 
two systenïs; (1) uniform distribvition at 20,000 to 30.000 volts and f2) distribu- 
tion at 30,000 to 50.000 volts in main network with reduction to 6.01X) to 20.000 
volts in secondary lines. From Electrotochnische Zeitschrift. 

See also ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, GeneraiitxR Stations (Steam- 
Electric Stations). 

\AIUA 

Uattkrv Chahring, A. C. High-Tension Battery Fed with Altrrnnting Current 
fSur une batterie à haute tension alimentée à courant alternatif). Industrie 
Electrique, year 27, no. 633. Nov. 10, 1918, pp. 41(V417. 1 fig. Principle and 
diagram of apparatus which by an arrangement of Grïptz valves and condensers 
<!Onnectod to secondary winding of transformer permits conversion of alternating 
current into direct current at voltages up to 10.000, From Bulletin de l'Asso- 
ciation Suis.se des Electriciens, .\pr. 1018. 



Contract Clauses. Power Factor Clauses in Contracta, Will Brown. Elec. World, 
vol. 72, no. 25, Dec. 21, 1918, pp. 1164-1105. Commercial problems involved; 
opinions from widely scattered central stations regarding necessity of considerat- 
ing power factor; typical clauses of two types of contract which base charges 
on average power factor. 

I'jLECTROLYsis Protection. Drainage if Necessary va. Negative Feeder Electrolysis 
Protection, D. W. Roper. Elec. Ry. Jl., vol. 52, no. 23, Dec. 7, 1918, pp. 
1003;-1007, 12 figs. Comparison of plans used in St. Louis and Chicago for 
eliminating damage to underground structures from power compnay viewpoint. 
^Abstract of paper before Am. Inst. Elec. Engrs., St. Louis.) 

Fires in Oil Switches. R. Frt^re Process of Extinguishing Fires in High-Tension 
Oil Switches (L'extinction des feux d'huile dans les cellules d'interrupteurs à 
haute tension par les procédés R. Frère), Ch. Benjamin. Génie Civil, vol. 73, 
no. 19, Nov. 9, 1918, pp. 361-363, 10 figs. Fundamental principle of process 
consists in reducing oxygen in atmosphere by a large quantity of inert gas 
such as nitrogen. 

International Electrotechnic Commission. International Electrotcchnic Commis- 
sion (La Commission Electrotécnica Internacional), German Niebuhr. Boletin 
de la Asociadion Argentina de Electro-Técnicos, vol. 4, no. 8, Aug. 1918, pp. 
783-788. Its origin, development and work. (To be continued.) 

Lightning Arresters. Substitution of Copper for Platiniun in Lightning Rods 
on Account of Present Shortage of Platinum (L'emploi du platine et du cuivre 
sur les paratonnerres et la crise du platine), E. Lignorelles. Génie Civil, vol. 73, 
no. 18, Nov. 2, 1918, pp. 351-353. States that aluminum, copper and iron are 
satisfactory for lightning rods; gives suggestions as to proper installation. 

Storing Direct-Current Aluminum Arresters for the Winter, F. T. Forster. 
Gen. Elec. Rev., vol. 21, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 820-821. Ill effects of leaving 
plates standing in electrolyte when arrester is out of service; method of preparing 
arresters for storage. 

CIVIL ENGINEERING 

BRIDGES 

Abch Bridge. The Rock Island Builds Two Rainbow Arch Bridges. Ry. Age, 
vol. 65, no. 23, Dec. 6, 1918, pp. 1003-1005, 4 figs. Limited-weight concret* 
structure with shallow floor. 

Erection. Erection Experiences at the SciotoviUe Bridge, Clyde B. Pyle, Eng. 
News-Rec, vol. 81. no. 26, Dec. 26, 1918, pp. 1182-1186, 6 figs. Machines 
used found efficient; adjustment of bridge easy ; deflections agreed with computed 
values; last of three articles on field work. 

Pontoon Bridge. The Sardah (India) Pontoon Bridge. Ry. Engr., vol. 39. no. 467. 
Dec. 1918, pp. 221-222, figi. Principles of construction, method of use and 
structural details of 420-f t. 7-pontoon bridge. From report of Technical Section 
of Railway Branch, PupHc Works Department, Government of India. 

Railway Bridges. General Specification for Steel Railway Bridges. Jl. Eng. 
Inst. Can., vol. 1. no. 8, Dec. lUlS, pp, 367-385, 3 figs. Final draft as approved 
by meeting of committee of the Institute. 

Reinforced-Concrete Flat Slab Railway Bridges, A. B. Cohen. Ry. 
Gaz., vol. 29, no. 20, Nov. 15, 1918. pp. 528-530, 2 figs. Advantages of this 
type and details of Lackawanna terminal at Buffalo, N. Y. Paper before joint 
section of Am. Concrete Inst, and Ajn. Soc. for Testing Materials. 

Stress Measurements on Niagara Gorge Railway Bridge. Charles Evans 
Fowler. Eng. News-Rec, vol. 81. no. 26. Dec. 26. 1918. pp. 1172-1175, 6 figs. 
Permissible leading studied by strain gage; dead-load condition of arch deter- 
mined by forcing crown apart and measuring release of stress. 

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION 

Barracks. Temporary Barracks at Rosedale Heightf. Contract Rec, vol. 32, 
no. 52, Dec. 25, 1918. pp. 1019-1022,'6 figs. Disposition and finish of 24 build- 
ings rapidly completed for Toronto demobilization depot. 

Gypsum Houses. Houses of Gypsum Have Many Advantages. Contract Rec, 
vol. 32. no. 51, Dec. IS. 1918, pp. 1006-1007, 1 fig. Mode of constructing 
walls of gypsum blocks cast from gypsum mortar. 

Hospitals. Details of Hospital Construction, N. V. Perry. Modern Hospital, 
vol. 11, no. 0, Dec 1918, pp. 4G9-471, 5 figa. Remarks on general requirements, 
adaptable equipments for ward lighting, suitable arrangement of heating 
system, and special features demanded in floor construction. Paper before 
convention of Am. Hospital Assn. 

Mills. The Reconstructed Plant of the Quarker Oats Company at Peterboro, Ont. 
Contract Rec, vol. 32, no. 47, Nov. 20, 1918, pp. 918-921, 6 figs. Work done 
in clearing site in plant destroyed by fire; layout of new buildings. 

Ornamentation. Structural Ornamentation. Vol. 70, no. 6, Dec. 1918. pp. 506-507. 
Study in face brick, fancy brick, architectural terra cotta and decorative tile 
as factors in the clayworking industry. 



Metal Worker, vol. 90. no. 26, 
Dec. 27, 1918, pp. 703-705, 9 figs. Plain and ornamental slating; single and 



Roofing. English Slate and Tile Roofing Methods. 
27. 1918, pp. 703-705, 9 figs. Plain anc 
double-nailing methods; hints on making repairs-. 

School. Test of Chicago and Cook County School for Boys. Meyer J. Sturm. Heat. 
& Vent. Mag., vol. 15. no. 12. Dec. 1918, pp. 41-44. 5 figa. Description of 
building and its equipment. 

Slabs and Culverts. Practice in the Design of Concrete Floor Slabs and Flat Top 
Culverts, Geo. H. Tinker. Bui. Am. Ry. Eng. Assn., vol. 20. no. 210, Oct. 191s. 
pp. 3-19. Summary of rephes from bridge engineers connected with various 
railroads to questionnaire in regard to their practice concerning long- 
itudinal, transverse and vertical distribution of axle loads and impact allowance 
in designing culverts and slabs; a short analysis of the salient points also pre- 
sented. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



147 



TxuDER FRAMiN-a, Steel IN. Ilow to Usc Steel in Timber Framing, Ernest IrvinR 
Freese. Building Ago. vol. 41, no. 1, Jan. 1919, pp. 13-15, 9 figs. Practicol 
methoda of aupporting long-span floors and bearing partitions upon structural- 
steel Rirdcrs. 

CEMENT AND CONCRETE 

Cold- Weather Concrete. Some Temperature Hecords of Cold Weather Concrete, 
L. J. Townc. Stone & Webster Jl., vol 23, no. 6, Dec. 1918, pp. 414-417, 3 figs. 
Tests made to secure data on amount of protection necessary to prevent concrete 
from freezing before setting can take place. On account of heat generated as 
result of chemical actions incident to setting concrete does not follow daily 
variations in air temperatures. 

Compression Tests. Some Compression Teats of Portland Cement Mortars and 
Concrete Containing Various Percentages of Silt, Arthur C. Alvarez and James 
K. Shields. Univ. of Cal. Publications in Eng., vol. 2, no. 3, Nov. 19, 1918. 
pp. 119-130, 1 fig. Concludes that at age of 2S days the compressive ftrength 
of 1 :2 :4 concrete stored in water increases with increase in percentage of silt 
for amounts up to 14 per cent by weight of sand, and that of mortars varying 
in proportion between 1:1 and 1 :4 is reduced on an average by about 4.5 percent 
with 10 per cent silt. 

Oil. Oil and Concrete. Rv. Engr., vol. 39, nos. 402 and 406, July and Nov. 191S. 
pp. 135-137 and 207-210. Results of laboratory tests on different specimen-, 
and under varied conditions; L. Waller Page's experiments on water-proofing 
concrete; W. Lawrence Gadd's conclusions from his investigation of Page'.s 
results; accounts of other experimenters. (To be continued.) 

Poles. Hollow Concrete Poles Made by New Method. Rv. Age, vol, 65, no. 25, 
Dec. 20, 1918. pp. 1127-1128, 3 figs. Important savings in weight over solid 
construction are effected by certrifugal process. 

Study of the Construction of Latticed Girder Poles for Electrical Lines 
CContributo alio studio delle palificazioni per condutture elettriche), Ettore lo 
Cigno. L'Elettrotecnica, vol. 5, no. 29, Oct. 15, 1918, pp. 402-407, 7 figs. Analy- 
tical investigation of stresses in latticed girder poles of square base with formulx 
and graphs for examination of relative significance of mechanical coefficients. 

Setting Process. The Setting Process in Lime Mortars and Portland Cements, 
Cecil H. Desch. Contract Rec. vol. 32. no. 47. Nov. 20, 1918, pp. 922-923. 
Review of researches undertaken and hypotheses advanced. Paper before 
Faraday Soc. 

Waterproofed Floors. Waterproofed Floors for Railway Crossings Over Streets, 
H. T. Welty. Eng. News-Rec, vol. 81, no. 24, Dec. 12, 1918. pp. lOSl-1086, 
9 figs. Grade-eros&ing work makes severe demands; troughing unsatisfactory, 
concrete slab floor; various mehtods of sealing concrete to girders. 

See also CIVIL ENGINEERING, Building and Construction (Slabs and 
Culverts): Earthwork, Rock Excavation, etc, Dams). 

EARTHWORK, ROCK EXCAVATION, ETC. 

Dams. Progress on Concrete Dam at Paris, Ont. Contract Rec, vol. 32, no. 49, 
Dec. 4, 1918, pp. 955-956, 2 figs. Method of bracing framework. 

Construction Features of a Multiple Arch Dam, L. R. Jorgenfen. Jl. Elec, 
vol. 41, no. 11, Dec. 1, 1918, pp. 506-508, 3 figs. Com iders details of construction 
methods with reference to an actual case. 

A Veritable Niagara Created in the South — Mammoth Hydro-Electric 
Development in East Tennessee, Stuart Towe. Mfrs. Rec, vol. 75, no. 1, Jan. 
2, 1919, pp. 143-145. 3 figs. Brief description of dam 225 ft. high. 725 ft. long 
at top and 350 ft. at base, 175 ft. thick at base and 12 ft. at top. For a 90,00(>-hp. 
hydjo-electric development. 

New Concrete Dam and Bridge Over Lynn River at Port Dover. Contract 
Rec. vol. 32, no. 52, Dec. 25, 1918, pp. 1031-1033, 6 fig?. Excavation work; 
specifications for aggregate. 

The Lake Eleanor Dam, Rudolph W. Van Norden. Jl. Elec, vol. 41, no. 12, 
Dec. 15, 1918, pp. 551-553, 4 figs. Plans, essential features and details of 
construction. Dam contains 11,000 cu. yd. of concrete. 

HARBORS 

Floating Docks. Construction and Trials of .30,0d0-Ton Black Sea Floating Dock. 
Engineering, vol. 106. no. 2759, Nov. 15, 1918. pp. 551-552, 3 figs. Drawings 
with principal dimensions and description. 

San Francisco Harbor. Harbor Improvements at San Francisco, Charles W. 
Geiger. Int. Mar. Eng., vol. 24, no. 1, Jan. 1919, pp. 31-35, 7 figs. Extensive 
enlargement of piers; large bulkhead warehouses; railroad connection with piers; 
developments in Islais Creek section. 

See also ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, Po:ver Applications {Harbors). 

MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION 

Road Materials. Standard Forms for Tests, Reports, and Method of Sampling 
for Road Materials. Better Roads & Streets, vol. 8, no. 8, Aug. 1918, pp. 
300-306, 2 figs. From Bui. 555, issued by office of Public Roads and Rural Eng. 

Stttcco. Review of Stucco Testa by Bureau of Standards, J. C. Pearson. Cement & 
Eng. News, vol. 30, no. 12, Dec. 191S, pp. 36-37. From paper at annual 
meeting of Am. Concrete Inst. 

MECHANICS 

Arches. Calculation of Built-in Arches Under tlie Action of Continuous External 
Loads (Calcul des arcs encastrés sollicités par des charges extérieures continues), 
P. Ernest Flamard, Génie Civil, vol. 73. no. 11, Sept. 14, 1918, pp. 207-209, 
4 figs. Mathematical study of problem with reference to work of deformation. 



Beams. Beam Deflections Under Distributed or Concentrated leading, J. B. 
Kommera. Eng. News-Kec, vol. 82, no. 1, Jan. 2, 1919. pp. 44-46, 10 figs. 
New algebraic method proposed for cases usually solved by graphical calculation 
gives accurate results. 

Bending Moments in Grillage Beams, R. Fleming. Eng. & Contracting, 
vol. 50, no. 20, Dec. 25, 1918, pp. 585-586, 1 fig. Outcome of recent review of 
calculations for proportioning grillage beams in foundations. 

Lines of Influence for a Vierendcel Ream (Lignes d'influence pour une poutre 
Vîerendeel), G. Magnel. Génie Civil, vol. 73, no. 18, Nov. 2. 1918. pp. 344-347. 
5 figs. Mathematical investigation of bending moments and other mechanical 
factors in rein forced-concrete beam. 

ROADS AND PAVEMENTS 

Boulev.vrds. Boulevards of San Francisco, California, Charles W. Geiger. Good 
Roads, vol. 17, no. 1, Jan. 4. 1919, pp. 1-3, 5 figs. Notes on history and con- 
struction of scenic drives in and near city. 

Concrete Pavements. Concrete Pavement Subjected to Severe Test, George 
C. Swan. Concrete Highway Mag.,vol. 2, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 246-247, 3 figs. 
Dammage at crossing where locomotive was thrown off track and dragged itself 
40 ft. over concrete surface. 

Construction. Construction Methods Employed in Building Lincoln Highway 
Cut-Off Across the Desert at Gold Hill, Utah, R. E. Dillree. Mun. & County 
Eng., vol. 55, no. 6. Dec. 1918, pp. 195-197, 12 figs. Building roadway with 
grade above level of desert under conditions which necessitated using hay to 
keep heavy equipment from bogging down. 

Disintegration of Roads. The Road: Its Paramount Importance as Viewed 
by a Briton, J. H. A. MacDonald. Mun. & County Eng., vol. 55, no. 6. Dec. 
1918, pp. 218-221. Concludes necessity of building good roads from analysis 
of London traffic statistics and considers problem of road disintegration and that 
of paying for roads. From chambers' Jl. 

Hard Surface Pavements. The Prevention of Longitudinal Cracks in Hard Sur- 
faced Pavements, Wm. C. Perkins. Contract Rec, vol. 32, no. 49, Dec. 4. 1918, 
pp. 972-973. Suggests use of tile in artificial foundation. 

Macadam Roads. The Maintenance of Macadam Roadways, R. C. Heath. Contract 
Rec, vol. 32, no. 52, Dec. 25, 1918, pp. 1033-1034. Preventing wear and 
raveling; carpet treatment; economic importance of road maintenance. Paper 
before Ky. Highway Engrs. Assn. 

Snow Removal. Organization. Methoda and Equipment Employed in Removing 
Snow from Main Roads in Pennsylvania, George H. Biles. Mun. & County 
Eng., vol. 55, no. 6, Dec. 1918, pp. 216-218. Addrers before Highway Traflîc 
Assn. of N. Y. State. 

Snow Removal on Trunk Line Highways, Charles J. Bennett. Mun. &. 
County Eng., vol. 55, no. 6, Dec. 1918, pp. 214-215, 3 figs. Address before 
Highway Traflic Assn. of N. Y. State. 

State Highways. State Highway Work in 1919. Good Roads, vol. 17, no. 1, Jan. 
4, 1919, pp. 4-6. Report of available funds and plans for work in 31 states. 

War, Roads During. Construction and Maintenance of Roads During War. 
Better Roads & Streets, vol. 8, no. 8, Aug. 1918, pp. 299 and 3.24. Policy issued 
by Council of Nat. Defence. 

See also CIVIL ENGINEERING, Materials of Construction (Road 
Materials). 

SANITARY ENGINEERING 

Sewage Disposal. Sewage Disposal from an Operator's Standpoint, William K. F. 
Durrant. Can. Engr., vol. 35, no. 24, Dec. 12, 1918, pp. 512-513. Commenta 
on each of features of plant consisting of detritus pit and screen chamber, pump 
house, plain sedimentation tanks, bacteria beds, disinfecting chambers and 
humuapond. .abstracted from Western Min. News. 

The Private Sewerage Question, D. H. Wyatt. Clay Worker, vol. 70, 
no. 6, Dec. 1918. pp. 500-501. Analysis of results produced by leaky building 
drains and ?ewers. Vitrified pipe advocated as well constituted to withstand 
chemical action. 

The Aqua Privy. Indian Eng. Vol. 64, no. 14. Oct. 5. 1918. pp. 192-103, 
3 figs. Special feature is that nightsoil goes straight into fmall septic tank under 
seat, where it undergoes septic treatment. 

Concrete Septic Tanks and Subsoil Disposal Fields for Country Homes, 
John H. Perry, Domestic Eng., vol. 85. no. 10, Dec. 7. 1918, pp.-363-365 and 391, 
5 figs. Design and construction of such systems. 

Sanitary Conveniences and Comforts for Country Homes. Clay- Worker, 
vol. 70, no. 6. Dec. 191H, pp. 501-503. 3 figs. Illustrates a manner in which 
ordinary sewer pipe and drain tile may be used. 

Sewage-Pumping Station. Design and Operation of Automatic Sewage Pximping 
Station at West Haven, Conn., Clyde Potts. Mun. & County Eng,, vol. 55, 
no. 6, Dec. 1918, pp. 199-200, 2 figs. Draining sewage to common point for 
treatment. 

WATER SUPPLY 

Freezing. How to Prevent Freezing of Riser Pipe? to Elevated Water Supply Tanks. 
Mun. tfe County Eng., vol. 55. no. 6, Dec. 1918, pp. 213-214. Four means: 
(1) providing method for artificially heating water; (2) conserving heat in water 
by providing sufficient insulation; (3) maintaining temperature of water above 
freezing point by pumping and withdrawal of water; (4) adding chemicals to 
lower freezing point. From Water Tower. 

Purification. Four Years' Operating Results of Minneapolis Water Purification 
Plant. Contract Rec. vol. 32, no. 47. Nov. 20. 1918, pp. 926-927. Filtration 
data of plant ha^ ing capacity of 96.000,000 gal. 

Algal Growths and Chlorine Treatment of London Water.s, A. C. Houston. 
Contract Rec. vol. 32, no. 47, Nov. 20. 1918, pp. 929-930, Report of Director 
of Water Examination. 

Water Treatment at Council Grove, Kansas. Louis L. Tribua. Can. Engr. 
vol. 35, no. 25, Dec 19, 1918, pp. 536-538, 4 figs. Result.s obtained uude 
highly varying conditions of turbidity at plant in operation for three year: 
Paper before Am. Waterworks Assn. 



148 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Reservoir Capacity. Determination of the Available Wat«r Supply in the Haut- 
Cher Basin (Contribution h la détermination du régime hydraulique du Cher) 
P. Morin. Revue Générale do rElectricité. vol. 4. no. 21, Nov. 23. 1918. pp. 
80Ô-S06, 1 fin. Account of obaervations made to determine capacity of reservoirs 
which would insure continuous delivery. 

Stream Pollution. Control of Stream Pollution, Earle B. Phelps. Can. Engr., 
vol. 35, no. 24, Dec. 12, 1918, pp. 515-518. Considers use of streams for waste 
fUsposal, effect of stream pollution, self-puriBcation of streams, chemical methods 
of sewage treatment, biological treatment of sewage^ and purification of water. 
From J. E. Aldred Lecture on Eng. Practice. 

Relation of Main Drainage to River and Harbor Front Improvements in 
Various .\meric'an Cities, Morris Knowles and John M. Rice. Mun. & County 
Kng.. vol. 5.3, no. (j, Dec. 1918, pp. 201-205. Special reference to methods 
adopted for eliminating nuisance cau.Hcd by discharge of raw sewage at Baltimore, 
New Bedfonl, Mass., Cleveland, Toronto, Syracuse, N. Y., Washington, 
Cincinnati, Waterbury, Conn., and Harrisburg, Pa. 

WATERWAYS 

Canal Tbapfic. The Potentialities of Our Inland Water Routes, Robert G. Skerrott, 
Rudder, vol. 34, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 565-570, 11 figs. Economic and com- 
mercial aspects of developing possible canal traflic. 

Flumes. Lindsay-Stra thro ore Irrigation Flume, Stephen E. Kieffcr. Can. Engr., 
vol. 35, no. 25, Dec. 19, 1918, pp. 525-527, 5 figs. Self-.supporting, high-level 
flume with 2-in walls built on in.'ide forms at rate of 130 lin. ft. per S-hr. day; 
nearly $1,500,000 expended in improvements to 15,500 acres in Cal. 

Groy.ves. Groynes as Applied to Water Control and Silt Exclusion. Indian Eng. 
vol. G4, nos. 14, 15 and 16, Oct. 5, 12 and 19, 1918. pp. 194-195, 205-20S and 
222-223, 16 figs. Experiments with silt bags from the results of which writer 
concludes that when a canal is added to a Bell Bund system, flow behiiig 
groyne is inroduced, but head still exists in pockets so that arrangement retains 
power of checking and diverting silt. 



Zi.N'c CoNCENTR.4TiON'. Concentration of Leatl-Zinc-Silvcr Ore at the Zine Cor- 
poration's Mine, George C. Klug. Min. Mag., vol. 19, no. 5, Nov. 191S, pp. 
243-245, 1 fig. Method? employed at Broken Hill. Gravity concentration by 
jigging and tabling for production of high-grade lead concentrate; treatment of 
zincy tailing by flotation methods (De Bavay. and Delprat); Seale-ShelLihcar 
method of cascading as modified by Lyster andHebbard for selectively separating 
galena from mill pulp. 

Zinc Tailings. Treatment of .\ccumulated Tailing as Practised by the Zine Cor- 
poration, George C. Klug. Min. Mag., vol. 19, no. 6, Dec. 1918, pp. 298-300. 
1 fig. Plant recovering zinc, silver and lead by mineral-separation proce?» of 
removal in collective float an'I subsequent separation of a lead concentrate from 
collective float by tabling methods. 

MINES AND MINING 

Field Tests. Field Teats for the Common Meta'.a in Minerals, George R. Fansett. 
Univ. of Ariz. liul., bul. 93, Min. Technology Series no. 21, Nov. 1918, 20 pp. 
Compiled for Ariz. State Bvir. of Mines and intended as text for lectures on 
Prospector's Mineralogy. 

Fire Protection. Smotliering Mine Fires (Note sur I'embouage des feux de mine), 
M. Cabane. Bulletin et compter rendus mensuels de la Société de l'Industrie 
Minérale, series 5, vol. 14, 3d issue 19 IS, pp. 67-77, 6 figs. Principal feature? 
of system developed at Commcntry Collieries; arrangement at Decazeville mines 
deigned to deliver dust under pressure; materials used to form dust. 

S.VFETV. Miners' Safety and Health Almanac for 1919, R. C. William?. Department 
of Interior, Bur. of .Mines, Mimers' Circular 24; 48 pp., 7 figs. Responsibility 
of miners concerning their own safety and that of others; pure drinking water 
for mining camps; prevention of accidents and promotion of sanitation; miners' 
anemia; disposal of hunan excreta in rural districts; sewage disposal in mines; 
mine-reicuo cars of Bureau of Mines. Other articles dealing with health con- 
ditions and tending to impart information to miners are included in bulletin. 



Navigable Rivers. The Study of Currents in Navigable Rivers (T/étude des 
courants dans les rivières navigables). P. Dupont. Génie Civil, vol. 73. 
no. 17, Oct. 26, 1918, pp. 327-329. Recommends study of currents by 
engineers in order not to differ so often with mariners in regard to construction 
of improvements. 

Calculations in Regard to Improvement of Rivers (Calculs concernant les 
améliorations de ri\nères), Alf. Bijis. Génie Civil, vol. 73, no. 19, Nov. 19, 
1918, pp. 371-373, 1 fig. Concludes from examination and comparison of for- 
mube generally use, that in calculations it is advisable to deduce the coefficient 
of velocity from observations on long sections of 10 to 20 km. and to gage water 
at all possible levels. 

Sediment in Rivers. Sediment in River Waters. J. S. Ryan. Tran. Inst. Marino 
Engrs-, vol. 30, no. 238, Oct. 1918. pp. 217-218, 2 figs. Experience with 
propeller and shaft due to working amid water mingled with sand. 

St. John River. St. John River Affords Big Opportunities. Frank S. Small. Can. 
Engr., vol. 35, no. 23, Dec. 5, 1918, pp. 489-495, 3 figs. Topographical features; 
reclamation of waste land by drainage; utilization of water powers; site proposed 
for tideless harbor. 

St. Lawrence River. Canada's Heritage in the St. Lawrence River, Arthur V, 
White. _ Can.Engr..vol.35,no.24,Dec. 12, 1918.pp.507-5I0,2figs. Indicates 
power sites on river and refers to canalization of river as a unit. Address before 
Elec. Club of Toronto. 

Canada's Heritage in the St. LawTence River, Arthur V. WTiite. Elec. 
World, vol. 72, no. 26, Dec. 28, 1918, pp. 1216-1217, 1 fig. Estimated low-water 
power aggregates 2,000.000 h.p.. of which greater part is wholly within territorial 
area of Dominion and capable of development. From address before Elec. 
Club of Toronto, Nov. 12, 1918. 

MINING ENGINEERING 

COAL AND COKE 

California. Tesla Coal Mine, J. W. Beckraan. Jl. Elec, vol. 41, no. 12, Dec. 15, 
1918, p. 559. Indicates possibilities of a lignite mine in California. 

Colliery Output. South Staffordshire and Warwickshire Institute of Mining 
Engineerr. Presidential address, William Charlton. Trans. Instn. Min. 
Engrs., vol. 56, part I, Nov. 1918. pp. 13-26. Considers question of output in 
collieries under t\vo aspects: 1. immediate and pressing need for United Kingdom 
to produce utmost possible quantity of coal; 2, standpoint of output per unit 
of person employed, and its bearing on prosperity of coal industry, and those 
other industries whose ultimate economic position is affected by use and cost of 
fuel. 

What One Coal Mine Has Done. Stone & Webster Jl., vol. 23. no. 5, 
Nov. 1918, pp. .304-356. Mine in question hoisted 32,514 tons in one week. 

GEOLOGY 

Lake Michigan District. Explanation of the Abandoned Beaches About the South 
End of Lake Michigan, G. Frederick Wright. Bul. Geol. Soc. -\ssn., vol. 29. 
no. 2, June 1918, pp. 23.V244, 3 figs. Peat deposits; series of moraines; supposctl 
changes of level; glacial and clay deposits underneath Chicago: provisional 
estimates of glacial time afforded in this area. Presented in abstract before 
the Soc. 

MAJOR INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS 

TcNGsTEN. Chief Materials Needed in the Electrical Industry; Tungsten (Dc quelques 
matières premières nécessaires à l'industrie électrique; le tungstène). D. 
Pector. Re\-ue Générale de l'Electricité, vol. 4, no. 4, July 27, 1918, pp. 121-125. 
Metallurgj-, uses and ore deposits. Bibliography of documents. 



Sampling. S-ampling, F. W. Bunyan. Min. & Sci. Press, vol. 117. no. 25, Dec. 21, 
1918, pp. 827-832, 2 figs. Emphasizes importance of sampling in analytical 
work and illustrates with examples value of systematic procedure in performing it. 

Stopinq Methods. Mining Methods of United Verde Extension Mining Co., Charles 
A. Mitke. Bul. Am. Inst. Min. Engrs., no. 145, Jan. 1919. pp. 9-22, 3 figs. 
Considerations which influenced selection and planning of adaptable stoping 
method. Ore deposit considered as replacement of volcanic schist. Minerali- 
zation believed to have taken place after intrusions of diorite and quartz porphyry 
had folded and faulted schist. 

Ventilation. Cooling and Drving the .\ir in Deep Mines, Sydney F. Walker. Iron & 
Coal Trade£ Rev., vol. 47, no. 2645, Nov. S, 1918, p. 518. Writer believes coal 
may be mined successfully at depths from 5000 to 6000 ft. by treating each 
individual mine, each pair of shafts and the workings connecting them, in same 
manner as modern cold stores are treated. Gives recommendations and referr 
to actual installations. 

Welf.\Re Work. Welfare Work in the Mining Work in the Mining Industry, H. 
Lipson Hancock. Chem. Eng. & Min. Rev., vol. 10, no. 121, Oct. 5, 1918, 
pp. 6-13, 18 figs. Betterment work being done by South .\ustr.'ilian company. 

MINOR INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS 

Arsenic. Arsenic and Its Occurrences in South Queensland (1), H. I. Jensen. 
Queensland Government Min. Jl., vol. 19, no. 221, Oct. 15, 1918, pp. 455-458. 
Notes on arsenic as a source of trouble in metal extraction and on its origin 
and extraction. 

OIL AND G.\S 

Gas Pressure. Record of Gas-Pressure from a Borehole, Charles J. Fairbrother. 
Trans. Instn. Min. Engrs., vol. 56, part 1, Nov. 1918, pp. 6-8, 2 fig?, and (dis- 
cussion) pp. 8-10. Photographs showing gas blowing out of borehole while clear 
of rods, and borehole with rods in and water being blown in all directions by force 
of gas. 

Gas Storage. Natural-Gas Storage, L. S. Panyity. Bul. Am. Min. Engrs , no. 145, 
Jan. 1919, pp. 23-25, 2 figs. Scheme to regulate pressure by connecting exhausted 
well to high-pressure gas line. 

Petroleum Hydrology. Petroleum Hydrologv .\pplied to Mid-Continent Field, 
Roy O. Neal. Bul. Am. Inst. Min. Engrs., no. 145. Jan. 1919. pp. 1-8. Method 
of distinguishing between waters that encroach upon oil-bearing beds from 
sources in stratum and waters that reach oil sands from planes above. 

PRECIOUS MINERALS 

Gold. Two Instances of Mobility of Gold in Solid State, Edward Keller. Bul. Am. 
Inst. Min. Engrs., no. 145, Jan. 1919, pp. 33-42, 1 fig. Assay results of gold 
movementon surface of auriferous copper when latter is subjected to oxidation. 

RARE MINERALS 

New Minerals. Review of New Mineral Species (Revue des espèces minérales 
nouvelles), P. Gaubert. Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, vol 
41. no. 4-5-6, Apr.-June 1918, pp. 93-9G and 117-130. General notes on 
appearance, occurrence and constitution of 29 minerals discovered in recent 
years. Reference made in each case to publication whîre first account of 
substance appeared. 

S^e also INDUSTRIAL TECHXOLOGL, Yttrium. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



149 



METALLURGY 

lîLAST FURNACES 

Developmknt in li)lS. lUlS Blast Furnace Development Reviewed, F. H. Wilcox. 
Blast Furnace, vol. 7, no. 1. Jan. 1919, pp. '^0-31. Analysis indicates tendency 
ha? been toward largo hearths, steei) and low boshes, high înwall batters and 
moderate thickness of lining. 

G ASES. Remarks on the Composition of Blast-Furnace Gases and Volumetric Methods 
of Moasurinp the Has Produced and the Air Blown In (Remar'iiie.s relatives i\ la 
composition do-» g;u <lc haut fourneavi et méthodes volumetriqucs pour Ic calcul 
du gaz produit et du vent •^ouffli:;'). J. Seigle. Bulletin et Comptes rendus mensuel? 
de la Société:' de l'Industrie Minérale, soriea 5, vol 14, 3d issue 191S, pp. 113-131, 
1 fig. Metliods of moajuring gases by weight (Gruner and Ledcbnr) ; volumetric 
methods based on combination of carbon or on combination of oxygen; examples 
of applications; comparison of theoretical refults and practical analyses. 

Manganese. How to Save Manganese and Coke. Iron Trade Rev., vol. 63, no. 21, 
Dec. 12, 191H, pp. 1347-1348. Table of operating data of 12 blast furnaces 
producing fcrromangancse and spicgelcisen and 40 per cent of output of man- 
ganese alloys in U. S. Conclusion reached that large savings can be efïected by 
using low-ash cokes. 

Research. Study of Blast Furnaces, Based on the Researches Undertaken by 
Francis Mulet (Etude sur les hauts fourneaux d'après les travaux de Francis 
Mulet\ E. Damour. Bulletin et Comptes rendus mens:Uels de la Société de 
l'Industrie Mim'-ralc, .series 5, vol. 14. 3d issue 1918, pp. 5-47, 1 fig. Economical 
operation of furnaces; analysis of charge and of gaseoug products; heat required 
by chemical reactions; influence of temperature of blast on coke economy; 
utilization of gases; variation in coke consumption with output. 

See also MFXHAXICAL ENGINEERING, Futls and Firing \BIast- 
furnace Gas), 

COPPER 

Brass, Cartridge. A Comparison of Grain-Size Measurements and Brincll Hardness 
of Cartridge Brass, W. H. Bassett and C. H. Davis. Bui. Am. Inst. Min. Engr?., 
no. 145. Jan. 1019, pp. 57-7S, 16 fige. It was found that grain sizes of brasses 
annealed at low temperatures are greatly affected by previous grain size and 
reduction by rolling, consequently hardncj^s of cartridge brass may be better 
determined by Brinell-hardness measurement than from grain size. 

Bronzes. The Constitution of the Tin Bronzes, Samuel L. Hoyt. Bui. Am. Inst. 
Min. Engrs., no. 144, Dec. 191S, pp. 1721-1727, 1, figs. Explains upper heat 
effect over a + Grange. 

Chloridtzino Roasting. Chloridizing-Roasting of Burnt Pyrites on the Ramen- 
Beskow System, Peter Klason. Min. Mag., vol. 10. no. G, Dec. 1918, pp. 301- 
313, 4 fige. Suggests improvement of Longmaid-Hendersop process for extracting 
copper from pyrites that have been burnt by alkali manufacturers. 

Copper-Aluminum Alloys. Constitution and Hardness of Copper- .■\luminum 
Alloys Having High Percentage of Copper (Constitution et dureté des alliages 
cuivre-aluminium riches en cuivre). La Métallurgie, year 50, no. 45, Nov. G, 
1918, pp. 1631-1633, 1 fig. Effect of temperature of hardening on hardners of 
alloys containing 9 to 16 per cent, aluminum. (Continuation of serial.) 

FLOTATION 

Ruth Flotation Machine. Ruth Flotation Machine, Arthur J. Hoskin. Queensland 
Government Min. Jl., vol. 19, no. 222, Nov. 15, 1918, pp. 500-501, 3 figs. 
Machine for concentrating minerals by oil flotation; designed on principle that 
best attachment of minerals to bubbles takes place when there is least amount 
of relative motion. 

STEEL AND IRON 

Basic Steel. Formula for Strength of Basic Steel, Andrew Mc William. Iron 
Age, vol. 102, no. 25, Dec. 19, 1918, pp. 1503-1511, 3 figs. Calculations made 
from composition; influencing principal elements; application to basic steel. 
JPaper before Iron & Steel Inst., London, Sapt. 191S. 

Cast Iron. The Mixing and Melting of Cast Iron, J. F. Mullan. Can. Foundryman, 
vol. 9, no. 12, Dec. 1918, p. 301. Review of opinions expressed by several 
experts leads writer to assert that success of foundry depends more on proper 
management of furnace than on any other branch of the trade. 

Electric Steel. Making Electric Steel for Roller Bearings, Edward K. Hammond 
Machy., vol. 25, no. 4, Dec. 1918, pp. 318-326, 20 figs. Methods of operating 
Héroult electric furnaces, forging ingots, rolling billets and col-drawing steel into 
solid bars and seamless tubing. 

Ferro-Alloïs. The Ferro-Alloys, J. W. Richards. Gen. Elec. Rev., vol. 21, no. 
11, Nov. 1918, pp. 751-755. Composition of these alloys, method of manufac- 
ture, and properties imparted to steel by addition of each of the molten metals. 
Also Metal Trades, vol. 9, no. 12. Dec. 1918, pp. 4S8-4S9, 2 figs. Properties 
of ferromolybdenum, ferro-vanadium, ferrotitanium and ferroboron. Paper 
read at Nat. Exposition of Chera. Indus. 

The Manufacture of Ferro-Alloys, Robert M. Keeney. Automotive Eng., 
vol. 3, no. 10, Dec. 1918, pp. 464-468. Ores and furnaces used and methods 
followed to produce ferrochrome, ferromanganese. ferromolybdenum, ferrotung- 
sten, ferrovanadium and ferrouranium; uses of these metals. 

The Manufacture of Ferro-Alloys in the Electric Furnace, E. S. Bartell. 
Min. Jl-, vol. 123, no. 4346, Dec. 7, 1918, p. 70S. Comparative efficiency of 
large and small furnaces used in manufacture of ferromanganese. Discussion 
of Am. Inst. Min. Engrs. paper by Robert M. Keeney. 



Record of an Old Fcrro-Silicon Furnace, I. Peterman. Blast Furnace, 
vol. 6, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 492-493. Historical account of plant built in 
1792, now a part of Warner Iron Co. 

FoRQED Steel. Influence of Forging and Rolling on the Properties of Steel (Le 
corroyage de l'acier. Son influence sur les propriétés du metal), George.- Charpy. 
Revue de Métallurgie, year 15, no. 5, Sept.-Oct. 1918, pp. 427-448, 9 figs. 
Experiments condticted by engineering staff of large works; records of defor- 
mations by forging of straight lines drawn originally on surface of bar and examin- 
ation of section of hollow threaded cylinder lillod with liquid metal of same com- 
position and rolled after solidifying undc-r pressure of 1200 tons from 530 mm. in 
diameter to 265 mm. 

.Mktallurgy in 1918. Phases of Iron and Steel Metallurgy in 191S, John Howe 
Hall. Iron Age, vol. 103. no. 1. Jan. 2, 1919, pp. 27-28. Remedies for ingot 
defects; strides in steel-casting industry; manganese problem; alloy-steel helmets. 

Open-Hearth Furnaces, Principles of Open-Hearth Furnace Design, Chas. H. F. 
Bagley. Blast Furnace, vol. 6, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 505-507, 3 figs. Calcu- 
lations relating to pressure in furnace, port ends, ratio of air to gas passages. 
Flue and valve diagrams. Paper before British Iron & Steel Inst. (Concluded.) 
Plate and Structural Mills at Fairfield, Ala. Iron Age, vol. 103, no. 1, 
Jan. 2, 1919, pp. 47-49. 3 figs. New plant of Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad 
Co., to serve Mobile shipyard; producing gteel by triplexing at Enslcy open- 
hearth works. 

Oxygen in Steel. Determination of Oxygen in Steel. Iron Age, vol. 102, no. 26, 
Dec. 26, 1918, pp. 1573, 2 figs. Objections to Ledebur method apparently 
overcome: detaiU of modifications; intere«:ting comparative analyses. 

The Heterogeneity of Steel (L'hétérogénéité de l'acier), H. le Chatelier and 
B. Bogitch. Génie Civil, vol. 73. no. 18. Nov. 2, 1918, pp. 350-351, 6 figs. 
Concludes, from experiments with Stead's reagent, that microscopic hetero- 
geneity of steel is due to oxygen in solid solution in metal. 

Russian Iron Works. Pre- War Russian Iron and Steel Plants. Iron Ago, vol. 102, 
no. 25, Dec. 19. 1918, pp. 1501-1507, 11 figs. Output and c:iuipment of leading 
works; prospects after war. 

Structure of Steel. Inspecting the Structure of Metals, J. J. Mclntyrc. Am. 
Drop Forger, vol. 4, no. 11, Nov. 19H, pp. 443-444. 2 figs. Shows manner of 
taking structural photographs of metal or similar opaque objects with ordinary 
camera. 

Development of Grain Boundaries in Heat-Treated Alloy Steels, R. S. 
Archer. Bui. Am. Inst. Min. Engrs,, no. 145, Jan. 1919, pp. 51-55, 12 figs. 
Specimen is etched in 4 per cent solution of picric acid in ethyl alcohol from 
5 to 25 min., then carbonaceous smudge is rubbed off on moist broadcloth or 
kersey. 

See also MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, Heat Treating {Malleable 
Iron): Machinery, Metal- IVor king (.Strel, High-Speed); ELECTRICAL ENGI- 
NEERING. Furnaces (St^-el Furnaces) 

AERONAUTICS 

AEROSTATICS 

Ascending and Landing. Military Aerostatics, H. K. Black. Aerial Age, vol. 8, 
no. 16, Dec. 30, 191S, p. 811. Precaution in ascending and in landing. (.Con- 
tinuation of serial.) 

Balloons. Manufacture of War Balloons in U. S., Allen Sinsheimer. Automotive 
Indus., vol. 39, no. 22, Nov. 23, 1918, pp. 925-927, 6 figs. Adaptation of French 
Caquot type. 

Free Ballooning. Military Aerostatics, H. K. Black. Aerial Age, vol. 8, no. 14, 
Dec. 16, 1918, p. 705, 1 fig. Training in free ballooning. iContinuation of 
serial.) 

Kites. Meteorological Kites (Cerfs-volants météorologiqiie.s), L-P. Frantzen. 
Aérophile. year 26, nos. 19 and 20, Oct. 1-15, 1918. pp. 298-299, 3 figs. Parti- 
culars of German design of " Diamant " type. 

AIRCRAFT PRODUCTION 

Navy Plant. Our Navy Winged Destroyers, Austin C. Lescarboura. Sci. Am., 
vo. 119, no. 21. Dec. 14. 1918, pp. 480-481 and 486-487, 8 figs. Work done by 
Navy in establishing Government-owned aircraft plant for supplying giant 
seaplanes. 

Rigging. From a Rigger's Note-Book. FHght, vol. 10, no. 47, Nov. 21, 191S, pp. 

1313-1315, S figs. General procedure of rigging. Case of a B. E. 2c is taken up 

in detail. 
U. S. Air Service. Report of the Director of Military Aeronautics. Aerial Age, 

vol. 8, no. 14, Dec. 16. 1918. pp. 720-722. Story of development of personnel, 

training and organizing phases of present Air Service. 

APPLICATIONS 

.Aeroplane Business. The Future of the Airplane Business, C. F. Kettering. Jl. 
Soc. Automotive Engr?., vol. 3, no. 6. Dec. 1918, pp. 358-362 and pp. 362-3G3 
(discussion), 2 figs. Present difficulties in civilian use of airplanes as built at 
present; types of military airplanes. Presidential address before Detroit Sec- 
tion of Society. 

American View. Future of the Aircraft Industry, Harry Bowers Mingle, Aviation, 
vol. 5, no. 9, Dec 1, 1918. pp. 560-562, 3 figs. Enumerates possible uses of air- 
plane in scientific, civil and sporting fields. 

British Civil Transport. Civil Aerial Transport. Flight, vol- 10, no. 48. Nov. 28, 
1918, pp. 1350-1351. Outline of report of Civil Aerial Transport Committee 
regarding steps to be taken to develop aviation for civil and commercial purposes 
and utilizing trained personnel for that purpose. From London Times. 



150 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



CoNTnoL or Aihcraft. The Two Futures for FliRht, H. Mnssac Buist. Fliftlit, 
vol. 10, nos. 48 and 49, Nov. 28 and Dec. 5, 1918. pp. i:i5-2-VirA and i:i70-n7:i. 
Argues against eatablishment of bureaucracy in connection with development of 
aviation alike for military, public and private purposes, and for absolutely 
free scope for development and application by individuals or conipanica. 

DtîTCH View op Future. Flying Machines and Air Communication and Navigation 
in the Near Future (.Vliegmachines, bestuurbaro liichtschepcn en het luchtyerkeer 
in de naaste toekomstV Ph. Kaptevn. De Ingénieur, year '.VA, no. 43, (Jcrt. 
20. 1918. pp. 827-845, 41 figs. 

Itauan View of Commercial Aviation. Commercial Aviation, Gianni Caproni. 
AeroQOUtics. vol. 15, no. 264, Nov. G. 1918, pp. 428-4:i0, 3 figs. From Uivista 
dei Tranaporti Aerei. 

AUXILIARY SERVICE 

Trucks. Building Trucks for the Aviation Service, M. E. Hoag. Am. Macb., vol. 
49, no. 23, Dee. 12, 1918. pp. 1089-1092, 13 figs. Description of construction 
and afsemply of some special parts. Second article.) 

ENGINES 

Austro-Daimler. The 200 H. P. Austro-Daimler Aero Engine. Flight, vol. 10, 
no. 46, Nov. 14, 191S. pp. 12SS-1293, 7 figs. Ignition; carburetor and induction 
ayatem; petrol tanks; air pump; water pump; water cooling system; calibration 
and endurance test report; metallurgical test report; general data; general 
analysis by weights. Issued by Technical Department, Aircraft Production. 
Mimstry of Munitions. Also Automobile Engr., vol. 8, nos. 120 and 121. Nov. 
and Dec. 1918, pp. 316-319, 350-357, 28 figs. 

Design. The Design of Airplane Engines, III, John Wallace. Automotive Engr., 
vol. 3, no. 10. Dec. 1918, pp.458-460. Mean effective pressure; power; construc- 
tion of a theoretical diagram; modifying diagram to include practical conditions 
of ignition; comparison of results. Continuation of serial.) 

Hispano-Sdiza. The Hispano-Suiza Aircraft Engine, Donald McLeod Lay. Jl. 
Soc. Automotive Engrs., vol. 3, no. 6, Dec. 1918. pp. 367-372. 9 figs. Historical 
review^ of design and development; mechanical features; circulating water and 
gasoline systems; production problems. 

Four Hispano. Suiza Models. Automotive Indus., vol. 39. no. 22, Nov. 28, 
1918, pp. 914-915 and 946, 2 figs. Details of models A, I. E. and H, built in U. S. 

The Hispano-Suiza Airplane Engine. Aviation, vol. 5, no. 9, Dec. 1, 1918, 
pp. 549-553, 4 figs. History of development and detailed description of latest 
type. 

Liberty. Details of the Liberty Engine, J. Edward Schipper. Automotive Indus., 
vol. 38 , no. 24, Dec. 12, 1918, pp. 991-995. 12 figs. Mechanical des- 
cription illustrated with sectional drawings. 

Electric?! System of the Libertv Engine, J. Edward Schipper. Automotive 
Indus., vol. 39, no. 26. Dec. 26, 1918. pp. 10S9-1092, 14 figs. Special type of 
interrupter comprising three breakers in parallel. Storage battery designed to 
permit of upside-down flying. 

The Liberty Motor, Douglas Wardrop. Aerial Age, vol. S, nos. 14 and 15, 
Dec. 16 and 23, 1918. pp. 706-717, 762-765, 39 figs. Dec. 16; Extensive descrip- 
tion of machine and outline of its development. Dec. 23: Oiling system; 
electric ignition; voltage regulator; duplex Zenith carburetor. 

Starter. The Liberty Starter. Aerial Age. vol. 8. no. 16, Dec. 30. 1918, p.81G, 3 figs. 
Elevation and sections of 4-cylinder radial 2-cycle air motor. As starter it has 
a 9 to 1 gear reduction on final drive to motor. 

. HISTORY 

Official U. S. History. Official History of Aircraft Production. Automotive 
Indus., vol. 39, no. 23, Dec. 5, 1918. pp. 968-969 and 987-990. Objects, prob- 
lems, production, and results of air program. 

MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION 

Spruce. Development of the Aircraft Spruce Industry. Lawrence E. Hodges- 
Automotive Indus., vol. 39. nos. 25 and 26, Dec. 19 and 26, 1918. pp. 1037-1040 
and 1100-1101, 8 figs. Organization of Spruce Production Division. Figures 
of monthly cut; problem of by-products disposal. 

See also MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, Corrosion {Aircraft Parts). 

METEOROLOGY 

Aerooraphic Records. Uniformity in Aerographic Record?, Alexander McAdie. 
Sci.Am.Supp-, vol. 87, no. 2244, Jan. 4. 1919, pp. 15-16. Discusses desirability 
of universal scientiâc units. Special reference is made to meteorological work. 

MODELS 

Ford- Motored Aeroplane. Elementary Aeronautics and Model Notes, John F. 
McMahon. Aerial Age, vol 8, no. 14, Dec. 16, 1918, p. 727, 16 figf. Conftruc- 
tion of a Ford-motored airplane. 

Model Construction. Model Aeroplane Building as a Step to Aeronautic Engin- 
eering. Aerial Age, vol. 8. nos 11. 12. 15 and 16. Nov. 25, Dec. 2. 23 and 30. 191S. 
pp. 5S1. 627. 7S1 and 826. 16 figs. Table of resistance and weight of spruce 
struts. Table of plates of different aspect ratios at angles from 5 to 60 deg. 
showing A'y. A'x and ratio of lift to drift at the different angles. Bracing 
fuselage. Construction of seat, gas tank and rudder bar. 

PL-\NES 

BF.na. The Austrian Berg Single-Seater. Flight, vol. 10. no. 46, Nov. 14, 1918. 
pp. 1285-1287. 9 figs. Wing section; attachment of struts to fuselage and 
longerons; details of internal bracing ailerons. ^Concluded.): 



llo.MBER';. The Gotha Bomber, with Notes on Giant .\eropIane3. Flight, vol. 10, nos. 
46. 47. 4H and 49, Nov. 14. 21, 28 and Dec. 5, 1918. pp. 1280-1282, 1318-1322, 
1340-1347 and 1375-1378, 84 fig.^i. Nov. 14: Principal dimensions; construction; 
struts; ailerons; propeller accommodation; enpennagc; fuselage. Nov. 21: 
Undercarriage; engine mounting; engines; controls; petrol system; armament; 
bombs; wirelest; Instruments; fabric and dope. Nov. 2S: Particulars of four 
engined giant. Dec. 5; Principal items of interest in five-cngined giant brought 
down by allied forces. Is.sviod by Technical Department, Aircraft Pro<luction, 
Ministry of Munitions. Also Engineer, vol. 126, no. 3281, Nov. 15, 191H, pp. 
4HM21. S figs.; Aeronautics, vol. 15, no. 266, Nov. 20, 1918, pp. 47^-486, 79 figa. 

De Haviland 4. The De Haviland 4, with Liberty " 12 " Engine. Aerial Age, vol. 8, 
no. 17, Jan. 6, 1918. pp. 860-861, 5 figs. General dimensions and weights. 

Design. The Probable Trend of Aeroplane Design, R. F. Mann. Sci. Am. Supp., 
^ J vol. 87. no. 2244, Jan. 4. 1919, p. II, 1 fig: Review of present ptagein development 

and changes likely to be introduced by reason of applications of airplanes to 

various purposes. From Flight. 

The Trend of German Aeroplane Design. Flight, vol. 10. no. 49. Dec, 5, 

1918. pp. 1383-1385. Comparison with British machine of principal features of 

capturM German aeroplanes. Also in Aeronautics, vol. 15, no. 268, Dec. 4, 

1918. pp. 518-520. 

Gallacdet. The Gallaudet D-4 Light Bomber Seaplane. Aerial Age, vol. 8, no. 
16. Dec. 30. 1918, pp. 817 and 831. 3 figs. General specifications. Machine 
is a biplane and is fitted with one 400-hp. Liberty " Twelve " engine 

Hannoveraner. The German Airplane Hannoveraner, C. L. II. (Avion allemand 
Hannoveraner C. L. II). Aérophile, year 26, nos. 19 and 20. Oct. 1-15. 1918. 
pp. 289-296. 10 figs. Comprehensive description of light biplane fitted with 
200-h.p. Opel motor. 

Jcnker. The Junker Armored Biplane. Flight, vol. 10, no. 48, Nov. 28, 1918, pp. 
1356-1357. 2 figs. Main characteristics of all-metal aeroplane. 

L-W-F. The I.-W-F Model G-2 Fighting Airplane. Glenn D. Mitchell. Aviation. 
vol. 5, no. 9, Dec. 1, 1918, pp. 554-558, 7 figs. General features and dimensions 
of an all-American design. 

Martin. The Martin K-IU Single Seater. Aerial Age, vol. 8, no. 15. Dec. 23. 1918, 
pp. 759-761, 7 figs. Particulars of biplane specially designed as altitude fighter 
and equipped with oxygen tanks and provision for electrically heating piilot'a 
clothing. 

N. C. 1, U. S. Navy. Our Giant Aircraft. Sci. Am., vol. 120, no. 1, Jan. 4, 1919. 
pp. 7 and 18. General design of N. C. 1 equipped with three 12-cylinder Liberty 
engines driving three four-bladed tractor screws; wing spread. 126 ft. 

RuMPLER. Rumpler Two-Seater Biplane. Automotive Indus., vol. 39, no. 23, 
Dec. 5, 1918. pp. 962-965, 14 figs. Technical description of model German 
reconnaissance machine. Issued by British Aircraft Department. 

PROPELLERS 

Metal. The Metal Airscrew, \nadimir Olhovsky- Aerial Age, vol. 8, no. 12. Dec. 2, 
1918. pp. 622-623, 2 figs. Results of experiments on wooden and metal pro- 
pellers; factors entering in design of hollow metal propeller. 

Patterns. Propeller Patterns, Joseph A. Shelly. Machy, vol. 25, no. 5, Jan. 1919, 
pp. 434-438, S figs. Describes method of laying out propeller patterns, assembling 
different section s and working blades to required form. (Second article.) 

Research. Experimental Research on Air Propellers, II, William F. Durand. 
Automotive Eng., vol. 3, no. 10, Dec. 1918. pp. 47S-4S0, 2 figs. Results of 
work done by Nat. Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Torque dynamo- 
meter; revolution counter; air-speed meter; tests and calibrations of apparatus; 
uniformity of velocity over cross-section of air stream; relation between 
depression within experiment room and air-stream velocity. (To be con- 
cluded.) 



MARINE ENGINEERING 

AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT 



Bakge. Standard Concrete Barge for Use on the New York State Barge Canal. 
Engineering, vol. lOG, no. 2759, Nov. 13, 1918, pp. 554-556, 6 figa. Drawings 
showing details of construction. 

B.KRK, .\uxlLl.iRY. Auxiliary Bark — The France, George Douglas. Rudder, vol. 
.34, no. 12, Dec. 1918. pp. 590-592, 5 figs. Sail plan, deck arrangement and design 
features of five-masted bark, 418.8 ft. long, fitted with two Schneider heavy-oi) 
engines. 

FisHiNO Cruiser. An Outdoor Motored Cruiser — Complete Plans and Building 
Instructions, William Atkin. Motor Boat. vol. 15, no. 23, 6 figs. Model is 
adaptation of flat-bottomed work boats used by clanuners of Lower New York 
Bay. 

Life Boats. Two Lifeboats in Place of One. Rudder, vol. 34, no. 12, Dec. 1918, 
pp. 588-590. 7 figs. Design providing partial collapse of one so it can be stowed 
under the other. 

Pboducer-Gas Power Liohter. Design and Construction of Producer Gas Power 
Lighter, Frederick S. Nock. Int. Mar. Eng., vol. 24, no. 1, Jan. 1919, pp. 36-37, 
3 figs. Special central control for engine and hoisting apparatus; double rudder 
installation; compact engine-room planning. 

ToWBOAT. Plans and Specifications of New Wood Tow Boats. Int. Mar. Eng., 
vol. 23, no. 12. Dec 1918. pp. 673-674, 2 figs. Built for hard service; compound 
engine of 750 hp.; Scotch boiler with three Morison furnaces. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



151 



SALVAGE 

SalviDg of tho SS. Frunk A. T. Wheeler. Tran. Inst. Marine 
Ençrs-, vol. 30, no. 2;î.s, Oct. 1018, pp. 21S-220. 3 figs. Step?» taken to prevent 
falling over of vessel struck by torpedo on her port side in No. 5 hole, holes being 
blown in her 'tween deck and starboard side; watertight bulkhead at after end 
of engine room leaked badly and eventually flooded engine room. 

SHIPS 

Boilers. Sediment in Marine Boilers, Its Bearing on Furnace Collapse. W. R. Austin. 
Trans. Inst. Murine Kngrs., vol. 30, no. 238, Oct. 191S, pp. 189-19(3, 1 fig. and 
(discussion), pp. 196-209. Occa?ionp where risk arises and suggestions to elim- 
inate it: Backing strains from unequal expansion and their prevention by 
keeping uniform temperaturo in furnaces; dangers arising from circulation 
of sediment caused by rolling of ship; possibilities of creating critical situation 
while cleaning a fire at sea ; means of avoiding accident while lying under banked 
fires. 

Concrete Ship. What the Year Has Taught About the Concrete Ship. Eng. New;-- 
Rec., vol. 82, no. 1, Jan. 1, 1919, pp. 14-15. Much learned regarding design and 
construction; future depends on abiHty to build in cost competition with ateel; 
structurally, ship is auccese. 

Concrete Ships and Barges {.Los buques i barcos menorea de concreto). 
Boletin de la Sociedad de Fomente Fabril, year 35. no. 9, Sept. 1918, pp. 614-619 
History of development of process from 1849 to present time. 

Shear in Concrete Ships Critical Point in Design, A. C. Janni. Eng. 
News-Rec, vol. 81, no. 24. Dec. 12, 1918. pp. 1089-1091. 1 fig. According 
to accepted theory, usual thin shell monolithic with frame gives rise to dangerous 
conditions. 

Design. V-Bottom or Round Bilge — Which? George F. Crouch. Motor Boat, 
vol. 15, no. 23, Dec. 10, 1918, pp. 30-34, 3 figs. Advantages of each shape; 
diagrams ahowing relations between lenght aand speed and giWng approximate 
form to use for different speeds. 

Beat Fore-and-.\ft Position of Parallel Middle Body in Single Screw 
Cargo Ship, William McEntee. Int. Mar. Eng., vol. 24, no. 1, Jan. 1919, 
pp. 18-23, 8 figs. Effect of variation of position of parallel middle body on shaft 
horsepower, propulsion coefficient and propeller revolutions. Paper before 
Soc. of Naval Architects and Marine Eng., Philadelphia, Nov. 1918. 

Electric Transmission. Electric Propulsion of Vessels (La propulsion électrique 
des navires). A. Foillard. Génie Civil, vol. 73. no. 17, Oct. 26, 1918, pp. 321-327, 
13 figs. Machinery used and characteristic curves of motors in the vessels 
Wulsty Castle and Mjôlner. 

Ldbrication. Uniform and Constant Forced-Feed Lubrication of the Steamchesta, 
Cylinders and Other Parts of Steam Engines. Ry. Engr., vol. 39, no. 466, 
Nov. 1918, pp. 203-209. S figs. Describes " Intensifore " Gorton type developed 
from exhaustive experiments with various mechanical and hydrostatic lubricators 
by engineering staff of Great Central Ry. 

Power Plant. Marine Power Units, J. G. Callan. Wis. Engr., vol. 23. no. 2. Nov. 
1918, pp. 42-47. General characteristics of steam turbines and Diesel engines. 
Reasonableness of adoption of geared unit. 

Standards. Adopt British Ship Steel Standards. Iron Trade Rev., vol. 63, no. 22, 
Nov. 28, 1918, pp. 1245-1246. Decisions of American Steel manufacturers at 
conference in Philadelphia. 

Standardization of Ship Steel. Steel & Metal Digest, vol. 8, no. 12, Dec. 
1918, pp. 690-691. Recommendation of mills to Emergency Fleet Corporation. 

Structural Steel Standardization Cargo Vessels, Henry R. Sutphen. Int. 
Mar. Eng., vol. 23. no. 12. Dec. 1918, pp. 695-698. 1 fig. How quantity pro- 
duction was met; use of structural steel expedient; layout of yard. 

Submarines. The Surrender of the Submarines. Min. J!., vol. 123, no. 4345, Nov. 
30, 1918, pp. 688-691, 5 figs. General features of construction of the different 
types, their propulsive machinery and other engineering details. 

S« also MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Internal-Combustion Engines 
lyinton Marine Engine). 

YARDS 

Concrete Vessels. Build Boats in Dry Docks at New Yards in Detroit. Eng. 
News-Rec, vol. 82, no. 1. Jan. 2, 1919, pp. 21-24, 9 figs. Concrete barges under 
construction on concrete floors inside dikes which will be flooded for launching; 
lighters carry construction machinery alongside dry docks 

Reinforced Concrete Shipbuilding in Dorsetshire. Engineer, vol. 126, no. 
3281. Nov. 15, 1918, pp. 408-410, 10 figs. Drawings with descritpion of some 
concrete ships. 

Building a Government 3500-Ton Concrete Ship. Eng. News-Rec, 
vol. 81, no. 24, Dec. 12, 1918, pp. 1058-1085. 16 figs. Fougner yard has concrete 
ways; reinforcement tacked to outside forms and finish put on with cement 
gun; air hammers on forms compact concrete. 

Control of Construction. Control of the Construction of a 5000-Ton Deadweight 
Fabricated Steel Ship, " Fabricat<jr." Int. Mar. Eng., vol. 23, no. 12, and vol. 
24, no. 1, Dec. 1918, and Jan. 1919, pp. 691-694 and pp. 29-30, 6 figs. Dec. 1918: 
Special schedule for ordering and installation of machinery and equipment; 
correlation between order and purchasing departments. (Fourth article.) 
Jan. 1919 Forms for following up movement and arrival of steel parts; railway 
shipments of plates and sheets traced. (.Fifth article.) 

Costs and Estimates. Shipbuilding Costs and Estimates. James M. Robertson. 
Int. Mar- Eng.. vol. 23, n 12. Dec. 1918, pp. 671-672. Careful reading of 
specifications necessary; system a requisite; list of items; how to deal with indi- 
vidual items. (Second article.) 

CRANES. Pre-Assembly System and Efficient Erection Cranes Speed Up Shipbuilding 
atEcorse, Eng. News-Rec, vol. 81, no. 21, De3. 12, 191S, pp. 1076-1081, 8 figs. 

Pr&*a83embling extending rapidly in Lake Yards; reduces erection labor on huUs. 



Design. Berth Construction and Side-Launching Practice in Great Lakes Shipyards. 
Eng. News-Rcc, vol. 82, no. 1, Jan. 2, 1919. pp. 7-13, 25 figs. Berth structure 
simple; timber and concrete foundations for support of ships; concrete launching- 
way stringers at one yard; keel blocks and cradles variously arranged; trip shores 
to release ships. 

Ship-Design and Quantity-Production Methods of Newark Hay Yard. 
Eng. Newa-Rec. vol. 81, no. 25. Dec. 19, 1918. pp. 1122-1125. 4 figs. Project 
for factory-style shipbuilding based on enlisting new labor supply and using 
commercial steel; methods dictated by delay in ship orders; bridge shops fabricate 
straight parts. 

Equipment. Fabricating Shop and Berth Equipment at Sun Shipyard. Eng. 
News-Rec, vol. 82, no. 1, Jan. 1, 1919, pp. 57-61, 9 figs. Assembly bay of shop 
delivers finished material to shipbuilding cranes; multiple punches and roller 
tables; reinforced-concrete berths served by bridge cranes. 

Fabricated Ship. Fabricated-Ship Construction in One Year's Experience. Eng. 
News-Rec, vol. 82, no. 1, Jan. 2, 1919. pp. 16-17. New System now tested by 
large-scale working has proved adaptable and free from inherent difficulties or 
elements of excess cost. 

Ford Eagles. Building the Ford Submarine-Chaser " Eagle." Int. Mar. Eng., 
vol. 24, no. 1, Jan. 1919, pp. 23-27, 7 figs. Simplicity of hull construction; 
safety devices on imusual launching platform; routing aids production. 

Ford Methods in Ship Manufacture, Fred E. Rogers. Ind. Management, 
vol. 57. no. 1, Jan. 1919, pp. 1-6, 12 figs. Description of boat with features 
of plan of manufacture. (First article.) 

Building the Ford Submarine Chaser "Eagle." Int. Mar. Eng. vol. 23. 
no. 12, Dec. 1918. pp. 702-705, 4 figs. Straight^line design; two parts of system; 
hurried development of process. 

Hog Island. Hog Island, the Greatest Shipyard in the World, W. H. Blood. Jr. 
Int. Mar. Eng., vol. 23, no. 12, Dec. 1918. pp. 678-690. 20 figs. Review of con- 
ditions that preceded planning of yard; adopting tj'peanddcsign of boat; troubles 
encountered and overcome. Before Soc of Naval Architects and Marine Engrs., 
Philadelphia, Nov. 1918. 

Illumination. A Method of Ship Way Illumination, F. D. Weber. Jl. Elec, vol. 41, 
no. 11, Dec. 1, 1918, p 503. Outlines method followed by western company. 

Laying Out. Laying Down and Taking Off, Charles Desmond. Rudder, vol. 34, 
no. 12, Dec. 1918. pp. 584-587. 5 figs. How to lay out shape of transom stern 
inclinedaft with rounded after face and intended to be made of pieces of material 
bent to shape. (Continuation of serial.) 

New Yards. Large Addition to Plant of the Tidewater Shipbuilders, Ltd., Cap de la 
Madeleine, P. Q. Contract Rec, vol. 32. no. 51. Dec. IS, 1918, pp. 1001-1004, 
6 figs. Extensions necessitated to build four 5100-ton steel cargo boats. 

Shipbuilding at the Pensacola Yards, John M. Sweeney. Int. Mar. Eng., 
vol. 24, no. 1, Jan. 1919, pp. 12-16, 8 figs. Well-constructed plant for 9000-ton 
fabricated steel ship; use of permanent scaffolding; powerful plate-bending 
machine. 

Routing of Materials. Routing of Fabricated Ship Material at Bristol. Eng, 
News-Rec, vol. 82, no. 1, Jan. 2, 1919, pp. 25-30, 9 figs. Hull construction 
operated on basis of shop- to-s tor age-to-ship system requires accurate timing of 
material supply, shop work, and assembly; routing handled by production 
department. 

Welding. The Steel Ship and Oxy-Acetylene Welding, J. F. Springer. Can. Machy., 
vol, 20, no. 25, Dec. 19, 191S, pp. 701-703. Observations on behavior of metal 
under welding flame and precautions to be taken. Writer believes tensile 
strength of material at and near weld is much less that that of the plates. Of the 
restorative measures available, he considers reheating method the most convenient 
and effective. 

Welding Designs for Shipyard Lse, E. G. Rigby. Marine Rev., vol. 49, no. 
1, Jan. 1919, pp. 22-29, 22 figs. Practical examples of electric welding in deck, 
tank and bulkhead structures; how it is applied to armor plate. 

Electric Welding in Ship Construction, H. Jasper Cox. Int. Mar. Eng., 
vol 24, no. 1, Jan. 1919, pp. 42-16, 7 figs. Methods of welding and apparatus 
described; inspection and testing welds; speed and cost of welding; Lloyd's 
experiments. Paper before Soc. of Naval Architects and Mar. Eng.. Philadel- 
phia. Nov. 1918. 

The Steel Ship and Oxy-Acetylene Welding, J. F. Springer. Int. Mar. 
Eng., vol. 23. no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 699-701. Autogenous welding decreases 
strength of steel; behavior under heat; restorative measures. 

The First Electrically Welded Boat, John Liston. Geb. Elec. Rev., vol. 21, 
no. 12, Dec 1918. pp. 844-848, 10 figs. Process followed in welding 42-ft. boat 
of 11-ft. beam said to have been plying Lake Erie for two years when the 275-ton 
English-built, rivetless welded barge was launched in June 1918. 

Electric Welding for Shipbuilding. Elect., vol. 81, no. 2114. Nov. 22, 1918, 
pp. 619-620. From address by W. S. Abell, Chief Ship Surveyor of Lloyd's 
Register, before North-East Coast Inst, of Engrs. and Shipbuilders, Tyneside, 
Nov. 1918. 

U.S. Warship Kept on the Job by Oxy-Acetylene Torch. Jl.Acetylen. 
Welding, vol. 20, no. 6. Dec. 1918, pp. 290 and 292. Repair of boiler with oxy 
acetylene outfit. 

Electric Welding for' Shipbuilding, W. S. Abell. Nautical Gaz., vol. 94, 
no. 24, Dec. 14, 1918, pp. 346-347. Past progress; strength of joints; possibility 
of industn,'. Paper before British Northeast Coast Instn. Engrs. & Shipbuilders. 

The Adequacy of Welding in Constructing Hulls of Ships. H. M. Hobart. 
Gen. Elec. Rev., vol. 21, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 840-845. Investigations of 
Welding Research Sub-Committee of Emergency Fleet Corporation in regard 
to relative merits of different systems and equipmente. 

Spot Welding and Some of Its Applications to Ship Construction, H. A. 
Winne. Gen. Elec Rev., vol. 21. no. 12, Decl91S, pp. 923-927, 6 figs. Advan- 
tages of spot welding over riveting with respect to strength, time, and labor; 
limitations of spot welder; application of spot welding to construction of ladders 
and gratings and to plugging of misplaced holes. 



152 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



Klectric Welding in Niivy Yards, II. G. Knox. Gen. Kloe. Rev., vol. 21, 
no. 12. Dec 1918, pp. 849-8Ô0. 20 figs. VVorii conducted in each type of shop 
in a navy yard; recommendations of weldinR equipment desiratde in each shop: 
data on npeed and cost of welding ship f^trnctures; comparative copldata of weld- 
ing ba.sed on records from steam railroads. 

The Electric Arc Used in Steamship Overhauling. Can. Maehy., vol. 20, 
no. 24, Dec. 12. 1018, pp. 075-070, 2 figs. Kxamples of use.- of Westinghouse are 
welder in repairing marine boiler and furnace while under steam 

Are Welding in Shipyard, W. L. lloberta. Gen. Elcc. Uev., vol. 21, no. 12, 
Dec. 1918. pp. 800-801. 13 fig.**. Simplification of anglesmith's work by use of 
are welding in production of staples; probability of abandoning .staples in favor 
of directly are-welding parts; application of electric arc to conatruclion of water, 
oil, a V* ir tanks, stacks, condensers, and other similar appliances, 

Wooden* Vesslls. Building Wooden Vessels on the I'aeific. Int Mar. ICng., vol. 21. 
no. 1, .Ian. 1919. pp. K-ll s ligs. Hecord of accompHshment; Hough and Ferris 
typea give way to 50UU ton vessels; wood vessels coming into tlieir own again. 

VARIA 

Kmkuoency Fleet CoRPonATiON. Organization of the U. S. Shipping Board Emer- 
gency Fleet Corporation Charles Picz. Jl. Am. Soe. Meeh. Engrs , vol. 41. 
no. 1, Jan. 1919, pp. 32-35, 2 figs. Kelationihip and function;^ of Board and 
construction and operation divisions of Fleet Corporation. 

N.v\ AL ENGiNEauiNC IN Wab. The Achievements of Naval Engineering in the War, 
William L. Cathcart. Jl. Am. Soe. Mech. Engrs., vol. 41, no. 1, Jan. 1919, 
pp. 18-25, IS figs. Organizations and principal activities of Bureau of Steam 
Engineering; electric drive for battleships; repair of German merchant ships by 
oxy-acetylene welding. Delivered at annual meeting of the Society. 

U. S. Shipbuilding in 1918. Shipbuilding in the United States in 1918. Int. Mar. 
Eng., vol. 24, no. 1, Jan. 1919, pp. 5-7. Three million tons of merchant ship 
completed in first eleven months; rate of production rapidly increasing. 

ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT 

ACCOUNTING 

Expense Distkiiji:tio.v. Efficiency and Democracy, H. L. Gantt. Jl Am. Soe. 
Mech. Engrs., vol. 41. no. 1. Jan. 1919, p. 43. Suggestions in regard to 
accounting system.^. Stress is laid on erroneous process of charging work with 
expense of idle machines. 

EDUCATION 

Apprentices. The Training of Engineering Appreutiees, T. H. Fenner. Can. 
Machy.. vol. 20, no. 23, Dec. 5, 1918, pp. 041-643, 4 figs. Analyzes necessary 
standird of education and suggests course of training 

Canada, l-abor. Apprenticeship and Technical Education. Can. Engr., vol. 3,=j, 
no. 24, Dec. 12, 1918, p. 511. Report of committee to Ottawa Conference of 
Assn. of Can, Building and Construction Industries. 

CuirpLED WoUKERs. How to Deal with Crippled Workers, T. Norman Dean. Am 
Mach., vol. 49, no. 25. Dec. 19, 1918, pp. 1115-1116. Suggestions from de- 
ductions from scientific experience to relieve 2,122.000 industrial cripples in 
United State.». 

Physical Reconstruction of Crippled Men, Constance Drexel. Blast Fur- 
nace, vol. 0, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 508-509. Plan of U. S. Government for 
reliabilitation and vocational training; schools established giving courses in 
oxy-acetylene welding, etc. 

Re-Kd\icated Soldiers in the Machine Trade. Katherine Freeman. Can. 
Machy., vol. 20, no. 25, Dec. 1918, pp. 091-692, 2 figs. Instances in which 
vocational reeducation, together with artificial limbe, have made injured soldiers 
earn more than in pre-war days. 

Indviatrial Surveys for Physical Readjustment, A. B. Segur. Indu?. 
Management, vol. .57, no. 1, Jan. 1919, pp. 63-65, 2 figs. Method of investigating 
possibilities of employing disabled persons in industry, developed by Red Cross 
Institute for the Blind; results shown for few operations in a meat-packing house. 

Engineers. The Engineer in Foreign Service. I.. S. Rowe. Jl. Am. Soe. Mech. 
Engra-, vol. 41, no. 1, Jan. 1919, pp. 31-32. Plea to broaden training of engineer 
in order that he may acquire a greater breadth of view which will permit his 
adaptability to international service. 

English Lanoïiage. Edvication^in English Language Promotes Efficiency, Sarah 
Elkus. Nat. Efficiency Quarterly, vol. 1, no. 3, Nov. 1918, pp. 140-149. 
Cooperation of Board of Education in promoting English classes in factories; 
-English as a safety-first metLcd. 

S. A. T. C. Students' Array Training Corps. Alexander S. Langsdorf. Proc. St. 
Louis Ry. Club, vol. 23, no. 7. Nov. 22, 1918, pp. 115-127 and (discussion). 
jip. 127-129. Educational plan as developed by War Department after series of 
experiments. Special reference made to features and arrangements of Govern- 
ment contracts with Washington University. 

Intensive Training. C. R. Dooley. Jl. Am. Soe. Mech. Enbrs., vol. 41, 
no. 1, Jan. 1919, pp. 37-3S. Program ?ot up by Committee on Education and 
Special Training- It consisted of U) military training, (2) sorting and training 
according to abdity, (3) trade fundamentals and combinations, and (4) develoi>- 
ment of originality and initiative. 

Shipyards. Industrial Training in War Time E. E. MacNary. Gen. Elec. Rav., 
vol 21, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 871-875, 4 figs. Procedure followetl and accom- 
plishments performed by Emergency Fleet Corporation. Article deals with 
teaching of eighteen ïlifïerent trades. 

Training 350.000 Men for the Shipyards, J. Will Parry. Eng. News-Rcc, 
vol 82, no. 1, Jan. 1, 1919, pp. 53-56, 1 fig. How Fleet Corporation met 
problem. 

Training Workers in Shipyards, R. V. Riekford. Int. Mar. Eng., vol. 24, 
no. 1, Jan. 1919, pp. 38-42, 12 figs. Short cut over old apprentice system; 
work progresses from simple to difhcult operations; rivet records show results. 



Trade Journals. Technical Journal Best Aid to Education, S. Balmfirth, Can. 
Foundryman, vol. 9, no. 12, Dec. 191S, pp. 307-303. After analyzing advan- 
tages and disadvantages of various -■'ourois oi technical education writer concludea 
that technical journal.-», bv reason of their ready availability and simplicity of 
style, are best help for self-instruction. Also in Can. Machy., vol. 20, no. 23 , 
Dec. 5, 1918, pp. 655 and 657. 

Traini.vo Factory. Lens Grinding in a Training Factory, Erik Oberg. Machy., 
vol. 25, no. 4. Dec. 1918, pp. 330-332, 3 figs. Means for meeting war emergencies 

devised by U. S. Government. 

Vocational Schools. Need for vocational Scliools in Mining Co:n'nunities. J. C. 
Wright. Bpl. Am. Inst. Min. Engrs., no. 115. Jan. 1919, pp. 91-9». Kinds of 
vocational schools which may be organize! under the terms of tlie Federal 
Vocational Education Act. 

Welders. The Training of IOectri(; Welders. H. A. Horner. Gtm. Elec. Rev., vol .21, 
no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 87(i-8Sl, 9 figs. Uevelopme;it of ingenuity and mani- 
pulating skill necessitated by welding operators said to be principalaim of course 
siven by instructors of Emergency Fleet Corporation. 

Women. Service for Women in the Gisholt Shop, J. V. Hunter. Am. Mach., vol. 50, 

no. 1. Jan. 2, 1919, pp. 6-10, 17 fi:î3. Methods used in training women workers 
in a Wisconsin shop. 

Preliminary Training for Women Workers, Fred. H. Colvin. Am. Mach., 
vol.49, no. 24. Dec. 12. 1918, pp. 1067-1070, 9 figs. Account of methods em- 
ploycil in school of Packard Motor Car Co. 

Motor Company's Shop Training for Women, F. L. Prentiss. Iron Age, 
vol. 102, no. 24. Dec. 12, 191H, pp. 1453-1155. 1 fig. Intensive work at Lincoln 
plant done in threshold school; women employees are protected by enforcement 
of rigid rule?. 

Work Schools. New Developments in Industrial Organization. Modern Methods 
of Port Sunlight (111.), W. G. Cass. Cassier's Eng. Monthly, vol. 54, no. 5, 
No. 1918, pp. 248-256. Work schools at Port Sunlight works. 

FACTORY MANAGEMENT 

Employment Managers. Aids to Employment Managers and Interviewers on 
Shipyard Occupations with Description of Such Occupations. Special Bui. 
U. S. Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation, 1918. 147 pp. List of 
fundamental trades and occupations with moet commonly accepted names 
used as standard. Specifications describe occupation from shipyard standpoint. 
Duties of the Employment Manager, Charles W. Moon. Machy.. vol. 25, 
no. 5, Jan. 1919, pp. 443-447, 9 figfc. Fundamental principles involved and 
methods used successfully by R. K. Le Blond Machine Tool Co. 

Employment Managers Graduate at the University of California, A. T. 
Parsons. Metal Trades, vol. 9, no. 11, Nov. 1918. pp. 450-152. Historical 
account of development of industrial activity involved in occupation of employ- 
ment manager.9. 

Handbook on Employment Management in the Shipyard. Organizing 
the Employment Department^. U- S. Shipping Board Emergency Fleet 
Corporation 1918, 17 pp. Methods and processes of handling employment 
problems which have been found successful in some of largest shipyards and 
corporations in U. S. 

The Employment Manager a New Factor in the Industrial Relationship, 
Edward P. Jones. Wis. Engr., vol. 23, no. 2. Nov. 1918, pp. 48-53. Considera- 
tions on necessity for and meaning of formanizing labor as developed in new 
profession. Also in Metal Trades, vol. 9, no. 12, Dec. 1918, pp. 50D-501. 

Employment Methods. Installing Employment Methods. William Alfred Sawyer. 
Indus. Management, vol. 57, no. 1. Jan. 1919. pp. 7-11, 16 figs. Record of first 
year's work of employment and health department of American Pulley Co. 

Interviewing and Selecting, Mark M. Jones. Indus. Management, vol. 57, 
no. 1, Jan. 1919, pp. 66-07. From addre.s3 before Am. Assn. of Public Employ- 
ment Officers. 

Environment. Influence of Environment on Production, Lewis J. Brew. Am. 
Drop Forger, vol. 4, no. 11, Nov. 1918, pp. 428-429. Suggestions in layout and 
details of forge plant. 

Equipment. Equipment for Diversified Production, A. B. Shuart. Am. Drop 
Forger, vol. 4, no. 11, Nov. 1918. pp. 429-430. Features of forge-plant design 
contributing to eliminate manual labor to large extent. 

Ford Shipbuilding Methods. Ford Methods in Ship Manufacture — I, Fred E. 
Rogers. Indus. Management, vol. 57, no. 1, Jan. 1919, pp. 1-6, 12 figs. Basic 
features that made possible the production of Eagle submarine cliascrs. tTo be 
continued.) 

Foundry. Organizing a Foundry to Obtain Top Production, Paul R. Ramp, Foundry, 
vol. 47, no. 317, Jan. 1919, pp. 8-13, 5 figa. Systematic method of following up 
workof foremen in each department essential. From paper before Am. Foundry- 
men's Assn., Milwaukee. 

Inter-Depart-mental Communications. Shooting the Shop Orders to Their 
Targets, Robert I. Clegg. Iron Age, vol. 103, no. 1. Jan. 2, 1919, pp. 53-55, 
4 figs. Simple scheme of Geometric Tool Co. to rush instructions to departments 
the instant they are required. 

l.<)( ALizATiON OF INDUSTRY. The IjOcalization of Industry, Malcolm Keir. Sci. 
Monthly, vol. 8, no. 1, Jan. 1919. pp. 32-48. ..Localization traceable as response 
to resources either in raw materials and power, or in imskillcd labor; chance and 
monopoly as contributing factors: requirements of factories utilizing waste 
products; dependence of localized industries on skilled labor; influence of 
localization in formation of labor unions; deterrent features of localization. 

Material Handling. Saving Tool Materials in Winchester Shop, W. E. Freeland. 
Iron Age, vol. 102. no. 26. Dec. 26. 1918. pp. 1.574-1575, 2 figs. Work of central 
material planning division. Files are kept on steel basis. Tenth article 
dealing with methods at Winchester plant. 



JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



153 




PitODUCTiON CoNTKOL. Graphic Production Control— V The Control of Equipment 
and Lubor, C E. Knoeppcl. Indus. Management, vol. 57, no. 1, Jan. 1910, 
pp. 5G, 01. 22 Rga. Features of uoutrol said to improve efliciency of workmen, 
do awav with idleness of equipment and improve faulty shop practice. (.To be 
conchidcd.) 

Public-Utility Plants. Practical Measures for Securing Greatest Economy in 
Pviblic Utility Plant Operation. Charles Brossman. Mun. & County Eng.. 
vol. 55, no. (i. Dec. 19 IS. pp. 20fî-20S. Proper use of recording and indicating 
instnuncnts; bonus system; examples of plant neglect. 

I'lnicHAsiNC. Principles of Purchasing and Storing, Dwight T. Farnham, Indus. 
Manag